Skip to main content

Full text of "Collections of the Georgia Historical Society"

See other formats



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 




or THE 

Georgia Historical Society. 

Vol.. VI. 

The Letters of Hox, James Habersham, 

Published bt The Georgia Historical, Society. 

savannah, ga. : 

The Savannah Morning News Print. 



This volume contains the letters of James Habersham, 
which for more than one hundred years have been preserved 
in manuscript form by the Habersham family and b}^ the 
Georgia Historical Society, and which have not heretofore 
been published. They pertain to a variety of subjects of in- 
terest in the early settlement of Georgia, and for this reason 
the Georgia Historical Society presents them to the public in 
printed form as a contribution to the history of our state. 

By special resolution of the Society the Committee on 
Printing and Publishing was charged with the preparation 
and publication of the work. The edition is limited to five 
hundred volumes, sixty-six of which are bound in Levant 
Morocco and consecutively numbered for the exclusive use 
of the members of the Georgia Historical Society. One 
hundred volumes are bound in cloth for the use of the li- 
brary of the Society, and for distribution among other his- 
torical societies of the country, and three hundred and thirty- 
four volumes are bound in paper covers for the future uses of 
the Society. 

It was customary in those early days, as now, for business 
men to keep copies of their important letters by laboriously 
transcribing them into a letter book. The original copies of the 
letters herewith presented were preserved in the Habersham 
family till about the middle of the last century when they were 
lost, and no trace of them has yet been found. Several years 
before this time, however, when Bishop Stevens was preparing 
his Histor}' of Georgia he had these letters recopied by per- 
mission of Mr. William Neyle Habersham, who had possession 
of them at that time. These recopied letters, together with a 
number of other manuscripts loaned by the Georgia Historical 
Society to Bishop Stevens came into the possession of the Society 
soon after the death of that author, and they are the ones 
herewith presented. The appearance of this recopied manu- 
script indicates that considerable care was taken to preserve 
accuracy in the work, and there is good reason to believe that 
no serious mistakes were made. 

4- Introduction. 

It has been thought best to present these letters as nearly 
as possible in their original form, retaining even all the er- 
rors in spelling, punctuation and capitalization, for these er- 
rors possCvSS a historic value that would be lost in their cor- 

The period covered by the letters is from 1756 to 1775, 
which includes some of the most stirring events in our state's 
history. While these letters of James Habersham are all that 
have been preserved in the archives of the Georgia Historical 
Society, it is evident that they are not all that were written by 
him during this time. Some of them possess but little histor- 
ical value, but their style and spirit serve to show the charac- 
ter of the man and of the times. 

To aid the general reader as well as the historian in his 
inv^estigations, notes have been added wherever thej'^ have been 
deemed necessarj^ to explain certain references in the bod)' of 
the letters and to co-ordinate them in a proper manner with 
the history of the times. 

The thanks of the Society are due to Prof. Joseph T. Derry 
of Atlanta, to Supt. Lawton B. Evans of Augusta, and to 
Prof. U. B. Phillips of the University of Wisconsin for exam- 
ining the manuscript and for valuable notes and suggestions 
adopted in the publication. 

U. H. McLAWS, 
Committee on Printing and Publishing. 



James Habersham, whose letters are herewith presented, 
was one of the most prominent men in Georgia's early his- 
tory, and in order that the general reader may understand 
more fully the import of these letters a brief sketch of his 
life is here given. 

He was born at Beverly, Yorkshire, England, in January, 
1 712. '^■' In company with his friend, the Rev. George White- 
field, he left England for Georgia in December, 1737, and 
according to his letter dated May 15, 1771, he arrived in 
Georgia on May 8, 1738. Soon after his arrival he opened 
a school for orphans and destitute children, and co-operated 
with Whitefield in establishing and maintaining the orphan 
house of Bethesda, an institution dear to the hearts of Doth 
throughout their lives. 

When Whitefield returned to England in 1741 he left 
Habersham in charge of the Orphan House, and under his 
wise management it flourished greatly. He selected the site 
for the new Orphan House at Bethesda, and on November 
3, 1741, he moved his orphans to their new home. 

In 1744 he resigned his position at Bethesda, and entered 
into a copartnership with Col. Francis Harris to carry on 
a general mercantile business in Savannah. The house of 
Harris and Habersham was the first commercial enterprise 
established in Georgia, and to it much of Savannah's pros- 
perity and importance was due. Extensive trade relations 
were established with the principal cities of the North, with 
the West Indies, and with London, and through it was trans- 
acted a large import and export business. 

In 1750 James Habersham was appointed in conjunction 
with Mr. Pickering Robinson commissioner to advance the 
culture of silk in the Colony, and his letters upon this sub- 
ject show how deeply interested he was in this new industry. 

* The date here Kiven is probably in the old style of reckoning time. The change to 
New Style was made in 1752, when not only was the correction of eleven davs added to the 
calendar, but the beginning of the year was changed from March 25th to .lantiary 1st. Ac- 
cording to the New Style, therefore, he was probably born in January, 1713. This seems to 
be contirmed by a statement in one of his letters to John Nutt. Esq.. dated July 31, 1772. 
where he says, "for next Janry I think I shall hiive reached si.Tty." The date of his birth 
on his tomb is January, 1712, and his age is there given as 63 years. 

James Habersham. 

In 1754 he was appointed by the King Secretary of the 
Province, and one of the Councilors, and in 1767 he was 
made President of the Upper House of the General Assembly. 

When Governor Wright left Georgia July 10, 1771, on a 
leave of absence to England, James Habersham, by virtue 
of his position as President of the King's Council, assumed 
the duties of Governor, and for nineteen months he dis- 
charged these duties with dignity, ability and fidelity. The 
cares and responsibilities of the office, however, during these 
stormy times were not congenial to his calm and peaceful 
nature. The rising tide of the Revolution filled his heart 
with sadness and apprehension. In common with many of the 
older men of the time he remained loyal to his King, but at 
the same time he sympathized deeply with the Patriots in 
many of their grievances. 

To the cares of his office were added those of his own pri- 
vate afifairs, as well as those of Governor Wright and Mr. 
Knox, the Provincial Agent living in London. James Hab- 
ersham was a successful man of affairs, and of considerable 
fortune. He owned several farms ; among them was Beverly, 
his country seat, about nine miles southwest of Savannah, 
and Silk Hope, on the Little Ogeechee, about seven miles 
from the city. At one time he owned 198 slaves. (See letter 
dated Feb. 4, 1774). Governor Wright had eleven planta- 
tions in Georgia, and at one time he owned 523 slaves. (See 
note to letter dated Dec. 10, 1770). William Knox, the Pro- 
vincial Agent in London, and a warm personal friend of 
Habersham, was a large rice planter also. The supervisory 
care of all this vast interest for his friends added no little to 
the weight of his responsibilities. When, therefore, Governor 
Wright returned to Georgia in February, 1773, Plabersham 
gladly turned over to him again the reins of government. 

By this time his health was much impaired by frequent 
attacks of gout from which at times he suffered greatly. He 
planned to visit England for the benefit of his health, and to 
renew his old acquaintances. These plans, however, were 
frustrated by a threatened Indian uprising in Georgia, and 
he was destined never again to see his native land. 

In the summer of 1775 he visited New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, with the hope that the change of climate would bene- 
fit him, but he soon grew worse, and at that place he peace- 
fully passed away on the 28th day of August, 1775. Two 
of his sons were with him at the time of his death, his wife 
having died several years before. His body was taken to 
New York and interred in a vault of Trinity Church, pre- 
paratory to its removal to Georgia. On Nov. T4th his body 

James HabersJiam. 

was landed in Savannah and deposited in the family vault 
in the old Colonial Cemetery where it now remains. 

James Habersham was married on December 26, 1740, 
to Mary Bolton at Ecthesda, his friend Whitefield perform- 
ing the ceremon3^ Ten children were born of this marriage, 
three of whom, James, Joseph and John survived their 
father. James Habersham, Jr., was a prominent merchant 
of Savannah. He had poor health, and from his quiet and 
polite manner he was called "the gentleman of the family." 
Joseph, the second son, and John, the youngest, were edu- 
cated in part at Princeton. Both warmly espoused the Pa- 
triot cause, and became prominent in the Revolution and 
distinguished in state and national affairs afterwards. 

Of the character of James Habersham, Col. C. C. Jones 
truly saj's. he was "one of the sweetest, purest, most useful 
and noblest characters of the long line of Colonial worthies." 
He was deeply religious, and profoundly interested in the 
spiritual welfare of his fellow man. In all of his correspond- 
ence there is not an unworthy line. His letters breathe a spirit 
of christian faith and feeling that permeated his whole life. 

He was in no sense a politician. Though loyal to his King 
he did not approve of the unjust acts of England against 
America, and he deeply deplored those conditions which 
finally broke into revolution. 

When we consider the loyalty of James Habersham to the 
mother countr}' and his affection for Georgia as well, in con- 
nection v/ith those dramatic events which swept nearly all 
the people of the Province, among them his own sons, into 
the whirlpool of the revolution, we cannot but feel that his 
death was fortunate for him. In his letter of April 7, 1775, 
he saj^s : "I would not chuse to live here longer than we 
are in a state of proper subordination to, and under the pro- 
tection of Great Britain, altho' I cannot altogether approve 
of the steps she has lately taken." He saw with prophetic 
vision the coming storm, but Death kindly drew the cur- 
tain and closed his eyes forever to the bloody fulfillment of 
his prophecy. 

The Letters of Hon. James Habersham, 

To Mr. William Shipley Secretary to the Society for the 
encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce in 
Craigs Court Charing Cross London- 
Savannah in Georgia 20th May 1756- 

We received your letter of the 24th June last, wherein you 
acquaint us, that the Society for the encouragement of Arts 
Manufactures and Commerce had given the following Prem- 
iums to encourage the propagation of White Mulberry Trees 
in this Province Namely, To the person who shall plant, and 
properly fence the greatest number on his own plantation 
before the ist March 1756- £10- To the second greatest 
number £5- To the third greatest number £y which claims 
were to be determined by us- Accordingly we made the 
worthy Societies proposals as public as possible throughout 
the province, and allowed to the last Tuesday in March for 
persons to bring in their claims, and least some persons de- 
serving might either through accident or want of information 
omit to lay in their claims, we prolonged the time to this 
date, and have on the most mature consideration adjudged 
the premium of Ten pounds to Sir Patrick Houston Bart. 
The second premium of Five pounds to INIr Benedict Bour- 
quin- half the third premium being Thirty Shillings To ^Nfr 
Theobald Keifer- the other half being Thirty Shillings We 
could not determine whether Mr Bourquin or Keifer had 
the preference to the third premium, and therefore we 
thought it most equitable to divide it between them, in which 
we hope we shall meet with the Societies approbation- 

We shall draw on Benjamin Martyn Esqr for the amount 
of the premiums, and enclose him the receipts from the re- 
spective persons who are to receive them- 

As Mr Attolenghe has wrote to said Benjamin Martyn 
Esqr fully on the subject of the Silk Culture in this prov- 

Joseph Attolenghe (written also Ottolensrhe) was the manager of the Kiiature in Savan- 
nah, and styled himself "SuiJorintondent of Silk Culture in Georgia." In 1772 the silk in- 
dustry at Savannah was wholly suspended, but in consideration of the long and faithful 
services of Mr. Attolenghe he was complimented with a pension of £li;0. 

lo The Letters of 

ince, wherein our sentiments on that head, as well as to what 
the Society may think proper to do therein for the future, are 
fully expressed, we beg leave to refer you to him. 

In the name of the inhabitants of this province we return 
the Society thanks for their generous bounty, and we are 
also obliged to them for the honor they have done us, and 
shall at all times be ready to do everything in our power to 
promote their laudable undertaking. We are Sir 

With great respect your most Obt Servts 

S'o- c\ ^ James Habersham 
'^^ \ Joseph Attolenghe- 

Willm Knox Esq. Savannah in Georgia, 6th April 1763 

Per John & Elizabeth 
1st. Copy per Mr. Hume Sir: 

2nd. Copy per do. By this Conveyance of the 

John & Elizabeth Captain Sunberry who still remains Wind- 
bound We wrote you fully the contents whereof we refer you 
to, and Confirm touching the Governor and Council of Caro- 
lina's intention of granting the Lands to the Southward of 
the River Alatamaha, and in consequence whereof we have 
now to acquaint you that agreeable thereto He has Issued 
Warrants the last Land Day to the amount of four hundred 
Thousand acres, among which are many Tracts of 10 and 
twelve Thousand each. And a number of the Gentlemen have 
this Day past Thunderbolt with Surveyors to execute those 

This letter and the two following ones refer to one of the very numerous disputes over 
the territory along the border between the British and Spanish settlements. The region 
between the Altamaha and the St John's rivers was claimed by both Spain and Great 
Britain, and the boundary line was never laid off until EUicott's survey in 1802, following a 
treaty between Spain and the United states. 

The original grant made to the Carolina proprietors extended southward nominally to 
Florida, but under the Carolina charter no actual settlement was made below the Savan- 
nah river. In 1732 the district south of the Altamaha was considered not worth settling, 
and it was omitted from the grant to the Georgia trustees: hut after the introduction of 
indigo culture into South Carolina in 1745. swampy coast lands rose in esteem. 

In ]7t)3 there seems to have been a typical epidemic of land speculation in South Caro- 
lina: Some one discovered that South Carolina still possessed its chartered claim to the 
lands south of Georgia, and scores of men hastened to apply for and receive extensive 
grants of land in that district. But as soon as the grantees visited their grants, which 
looked so fair on paper, they found them to be mostly bogs or pine barrens, and to be liable 
to disturbance from Spanish and Indian claimants and nearly all of the Carolinians re- 
turned home in as great haste as they had set forth. In the meantime, heeding there- 
monstrance which the Georgia assembly presented, the British government when framing 
the instructions for James Wright as governor in 170,3, extended Georgia's jurisdiction to 
the St. Mary's river. The (Jeorgla assembly agreed to recognize as valid only those Caro- 
lina grants which were actually occupied and cultivated, and most of the grants were al- 
lowed to lapse. The often recurring Indian depredations caused the population in the 
district in question to be exceedingly thin as late as 1790. 

As a memento of this incident in 17(iS, there are preserved in the Secretary of State's 
office in Atlanta, three volumes of grants issued by South Carolina to lands in its pretend- 
ed dominion south of the Altamaha. U. B. P. 

See also note to letter dated April 4, 1765. 

Hon. James Habersham . 


Warrants; As the future Prosperity and even Existence of 
this Infant Province in a great measure depends on the set- 
ting aside any Grants or Titles that may be given by the Gov- 
ernor of that Province, We most earnestly desire that you 
exert your utmost influence and endeavors to frustrate this 
pernicious, unwa (Illegible) and precipitate measure and you 
may (Illegible) that this Province will chearfully and (Illegi- 
ble) reimburse any expences you may (Illegible) thereof. 

We herewith transmit (Illegible) 
ordinance appointing you Age 

you'l also receive a Letter to his Excellency the Governor 
which we suppose relates to this Business 
We are with Respect 

Your mo hble Servts. 

Savannah in Georgia, the 19th April 1763. 
William Knox Esq. 
Mr. Hume 
1st Copy per. With this you will receive Copys of our Let- 
ters to you of the i8th and 26th ulto. and the 8th Instant, 

also Copys of the Resolutions of Both Houses of 

Assembly, the one of the 2d and the other of the 28th ulto, 
and a Copy of the ordinance appointing you Agent for other 

year to commence from the ist. day of next month, 

the originals of which were forwarded by the John & Eliza- 
beth Capt. Sundberry, who sailed about 10 days agoe from 
this Port for London. 

You have doubtless been informed, that upon Report 
of the Governor and Council of So. Carolina intending to 
issue Warrants to survey Lands to the southward of the 
River Alatamaha, Mr. Grey Elliott went to Charles Town to 
know the certainty thereof, and if He found the Report true, 
He was furnished with our Governors Protestation and Ca- 
veat in Behalf of this Province against any Warrants being 
issued to survey those Lands, or Grants passing for them, 
till His Majesty's Pleasure was known, and was directed to 
serve the Governor of that Province with the same, and also 
cause it to be entered in the Secretary's Ofifice. But the Gov- 
ernor refused to receive it, and ordered the Secretary not to 
record it, and we are Told, He treated our worthy Governor 
as well as the Bearer in a very disrespectfull and contemptu- 

12 The Letters of 

ous manner. We can now therefore only expect Redress 
from our Most gracious Soverign, and we repeat our Re- 
quest, that you will exert your utmost Efforts to put a stop 
to a Proceeding so (illegible) and injurious to this province, 
and, however it may (illegible) the private Advantage of a 
few, we cannot comprehend it 

one good purpose to the Public in General you will 
fully authorized to retain Council, and any Expence 
be at to represent, sollicit and prosecute 

with viguor and spirit, you may depend 

and chearfully reimbursed. 

but you were possessed of every Argument 

your representations on this 
Capt. Massey's Independent Company stationed in a Fort 
on the North Bank of the River Alatamaha and that the Set- 
tlements afterwards made further Southward were done by 
Him, and the Inhabitants thereon willingly Subject to the 
Jurisdiction of an established Court of Record at Frederica, 
fully authorized to try all Causes, whether of a Civil or Crim- 
inal Nature.- We mention this to shew, that before the 
Settlement of this Province, neither the Crown nor the Gov- 
ernment of So. Carolina had actual Possession of one foot 
of Land to the South of the River Alatamaha ; and we shall 
only add on this head, that if the Governor of Carolina is 
now authorized by the Charter to the Proprietors to grant 
any Lands to the Southward of that River, the same Charter 
impowers him to Grant St. Augustine Pensecoola and Mo- 
bille, as they are all to the Northward of the Lattitude of 29- 
There have a great Number of People from Carolina 
passed by both by Land and Water with Surveyors, and even 
Armed, since Tuesday the 5th Instant, and we are informed 
that on the said Da}^ Warrants were issued by the Governor 
of that Province to survey upwards of 340,000 Acres of Land 
to the Southward, and it's confidently reported in Charles- 
Town, that as much, if not a great deal more will be ordered 
by the first Tuesday in Next Month, that we dont expect they 
will stop at St. John's River, that they will (illegible) any 
Land unsurveyed fit to make a vSettlement this Side of it- 

Upon the whole we depend on your most Zealous at- 
tention to represent this business, and from the Justice and 
Merit of Our Complaint, we doubt not of a favorable issue, 
and we are very respectfully 

Your most Obedient Servt. 

Hon. James Habersham. ij 

Savannah in Georgia 24th. Novem. 1763 
William Knox Esq. 
Per Snow Au£^usta 

We in Due Course rec'd your three favrs. of the 9th 
& 20th. May and the ist. of July last.- We with you appre- 
hend that any Application for Ordnance or Stores will be 
fruitless until the general Military establishment propos'd 
takes place ; at which time we think it would be proper to 
apply for a number of Swivels of as large a bore as can be 
got, which in case of any future rupture with the Indians may 
be very useful in the Outports. If the Garrison at Frederica 
is kept up, some 12 or even 18 pounders will be wanted ; more 
especially as the Bastions of the Fort and Curtines have late- 
ly been substantially repaired with Brick Work, and the 
whole put in good order and few Guns are fit for Service. 
This Fort Mounted/ at least there are embrazures for/ 20 
Guns besides a battery to defend the Channel below of twelve, 
12 pounders now removed to Cockspur, a few Hand 6 pound- 
ers would also be wanting, together with round and double 
headed shot for the several Calibres, and all impliments for 
Actual Service. We must leave to you to specify the Number, 
perhaps you may partly Guess what we may have a (illegible) 
to obtain. 

We entirely approve of the Steps you have taken with 
respect to the pretensions of Carolina to the Lands South of 
the Alatamaha altho' we must observe that the footing you 
put those Lands upon in yours of the ist July as "only be- 
coming his Majesty's property by virtue of the late Treaty 
and in consequence since the ratification thereof," may be 
attended with as fatal consequences as if the Carolina Grants 
were to be confirmed, this however you could not be apprised 
of, you (illegible) know then that many Spaniards have 
Grants for the Islands of Cumberland and Amelia in particu- 
lar from the King of Spain of an old date, and perhaps for 
many other Lands on this side St. Juans in consequence of 
the 20th. Article of the late Treaty which allows them to sell 
their property to British Subjects. We undoubtedly know 
tliat these two Islands have been sold and perhaps large 
Tracts of other Lands may be the case then to be considered 
is, whether or not those Lands being look'd upon in the light 
you mention, it may not give a right to the purchasors to 
hold them by virtue of those Spanish titles, and their purchase 
under the Treaty, this you will please fully to consider, and 
we must beg you will act accordingly. 

14 The Letters of 

We cannot learn that Mr. Boone has signed more 

than the Grants of which you have enclosed a List 

taken from the Auditors General's Office, it is however re- 
ported that he intends to perfect all the Grants, for what 
warrants have been issued, amounting it is supposed to near 
400,000 Acres. We cannot learn that any Warrants have 
been issued since July, at which time Mr. Boone is said to 
have received his Majesty's Instructions dated in December 
1761 relating to disputed Lands, the Letter you mention de- 
livering to Capt. Ball we dont hear the receipt of acknowl- 
edged, at least it is said that He denies the receiving any pro- 
hibitory orders.- 

It certainly was well judged not to set up any Actual 
right of this Province to those Lands, which the Bounds par- 
ticularized in his Majesty's Commission doubtless leave us 
no pretence to, on the other hand that of Carolina must be 
exploded, both by their surrender of their Charter, and that 
of Cox's prior to theirs which you mention ; at least perhaps 
thr'o partiality to Ourselves we think so.- 

We must now propose a matter to you in which we 
suppose the Grants of Caroline to be confirmed, in that case 
we would have you get the opinion of the Attorney & Solici- 
tor General, whether the terms of the Grants considered, we 
might not frame a Provincial Law, obliging the holders to 
conform thereunto, or in case of non-residence to Oblige 
them to be of use to the Province either by an Extraordinary 
Taxation or some other method — this we beg if necessary 
you'I do. 

We found so many obstacles raised in the Public Offices in 
Carolina that we cannot furnish you with an attested Copy 
of a Grant, at least by this conveyance, they own as the usual 

Grants in that Province do, with these words " Acres 

of Land lying & being to the Southward of the River Alata- 
maha". The Treaty with the Indians we cannot get. We 
apprehend you were misinformed with respect to Carolina's 
renouncing its pretensions to the Lands on this side Savan- 
nah River, which we hear was only a kind of temporary or 
rather Boundary Line, beyond which the white People agreed 
not to settle, altho' they erected a Fort on the North Side of 
the Alatamaha, a few miles below Darien and kept a garri- 
son there, until this Colony was settled, and that Fort was 
the most Southern Actual possession ever held by South 
Carolina; this Treaty cannot be found here, perhaps on a 
diligent search it may at the Plantation Office.- 

Hon. James Habersham. 15 

As this matter now stands both here and at home we 
cannot pretend to give you any particular directions how to 
Act in behalf of the People of Georgia, only must leave to 
your prudence to manage their Interests, and whatever neces- 
sary Charges may accrue in Consequence of your attention 
thereunto will be duly made good to you ; and We most sin- 
cerely wish and hope that the Efiforts you have already made, 
and the Judicious measures, we have not the least doubt you 
will hereafter pursue, may be attended with the desired suc- 
cess. - 

We almost forgot to take notice of Mr. Grover's 
dissmission, an event we are not at all surprised at. 

We are 
Your most hble Servants. 

London Mr Wm Knox 

Savannah in Georgia the 9th of March 1764 — 
Dr Sir. 

I dont write, because I am indebted to you a letter as 
I think the Ballance on that account is in my Favour — My 
last to you was dated the 20th Janry pr Capt Quince from 
this Port, when I acquainted you with yr concerns here, 
which remain in Statu quo, except that Mr Martin has paid 
me £70 in part of yr last yrs rent, and when I can spare your 
money and get Bills I will remit it to you. This wall be 
handed to you by a worthy Lady, whose Company and Pres- 
ence must make you, because she does every one that is 
favour'd with it, happy and in order to give you an oppor- 
tunity of seeing her often, I will charge you with a Commis- 
sion, in the Execution of which you will be under the agree- 
able necessity of consulting her, without being deemed an 
Intruder, and I hope I shall receive yr thanks in yr next for 
this Piece of Friendship. But ad rem you must understand 
that the Governor, Mr Harris, and myself are desirous if it 
can conveniently be done, to cloth our Negroes a little better 
than common, and we suppose we may do that, and save the 
trouble of getting their cloths made here, by having them 
made up in London. You have two letters enclosed, which I 
have sent open for your Perusal which when you have read 

H. A H.. Harris and Habersham, for many years the chief commercial house of Savan- 
nah, established in 1744. 

To this house (Georgia is indebted for the establishment of her earliest relations not 
only with Philadelphia. New Tork and Boston, but with London. They were the first 
merchants enaaged in exporting and importing, and to their business enterprise much of 
the comrcereial success of Savannah was due. 

i6 The Letters of 

please to put a wafer in them, and cause them to be deHver- 
ed. You will see that H&H wrote to Mr Nickleson & Co 
for a little Iron ware for the sole use of our respective Plan- 
tations, and also to Mr Harris for our Negroe Cloths ; as we 
suppose He can supply us as well and as cheap as any other 
Person in London, but if not, you may engage where our 
Intentions will be best executed, and Mr Nickleson and Co 
will be answerable for them. If Mr Harris can do them, He 
will charge them to H & H, whereby we shall save a Com- 
mission of 2* pCt, besides perhaps putting something in his 
way. We want 120 mens Jackets and Breeches and 80 wo- 
mens gowns or habits of which at least Yi for middle sized 
or fourth for the larger, the remaining fourth for the smaller 
size :nen & women- You know that 5 yds of Plains usually 
makes a mans jacket & Breeches or a womans gown, and the 
cost of the best bought here with making is about 10 S and 
for this sum I suppose they may be had in London of Cloth 
at least stronger and more durable and consequently warmer 
and more comfortable- You see we dont purpose any saving 
or rather that is not our motive tho' the more saved the bet- 
ter, as the charges landed here will at least come at 10 or 12 
pCt Mr Mc Gillivray has imported Sailor Pea Jacket and I 
believe Breeches made of the same Cloth for his Men and the 
former cost in London 7s and the latter 3-6 but this cloth 
must be too heavy and clumsy for womens wear. However 
something of the kind may answer for men. If I remember, 
I think the west Country Barge Men have their Jackets 
made of a very strong, cheap cloth, I believe called Foul 
Weather and the Color being Drab or something like it I 
should think wou'd suit our dusty Barns as well as their dusty 
flour sacks. LTpon the whole there is no directing from this 
Distance. In London you may have anything the Nation may 
furnish, and we must leave the choice of the Cloth, both for 
the men and women to you and the worthy Bearer, whose 
Judgement in this matter, let me tell you I should prefer to 
yours, for tho' I have called you a planter, I am free to say, 
you are but a learner. However it is necessary, and I know 
you will think it an honour to take the trouble of trotting the 
Streets of her Hands, and let me add, that if you execute the 
Commission well, you may probably expect to be amply re- 
compensed by being employed again. Perhaps you may do 
well to give a Pot of Porter extraordinary pr suit to have 
them sewe'd strong. You will please also to get them as 
soon as possible as they should be here in August or at 

» Illegible— probably 2. 

Hon. James Habersham. ly 

farthest in all September, when the Nights and mornings be- 
gin to be cold, and you know we have somtimes some very 
sharp days the beginning of October, when the Negroes un- 
less fresh supplyed, are usually in rags. But I have said 
enough on this subject, and you will learn better, what is 
passing here from the Bearer, than I can relate, which con- 
cludes my Dr Sir 

Yr afifate Frd and Servant 

P S — I had forgotten to mention that a young lady who will 
accompany this hopes to have a finger in the pye and expects 
at least to be consulted about the choice of the Buttons, 
which will not be disagreeable to you. If I receive no contrary 
orders, I shall endeavor to procure a bill, when the Siliv is 
drawn for, for at least £260 to send you- I find Mr Beskuake 
bought Mr Mc Gillivray Cloths of Mr Jesser who I think 
lives near Billings gate, and were charged as Under. 
Mens Jackets. 7s 
Boys Ditto 5/ 
Mens Breeches 3/6 

Boys Ditto 2/3 But I suppose what were called Boys for 
lads from 15-17 which will agreeably do for some small men. 
Since writing the foregoing, I am told, what are called Short 
Gowns or wrappers with petticoats are best for women, but 
in this the Bearer will direct you. I know not how much you 
will be indebted to us for making you so much wiser, than 
perhaps you wou'd otherwise ever have been, had not this in- 
cident fallen in yr way- 

P S. to a letter to Mr Wm Knox in London, from Savannah 
in Georgia the 2d July 1764- 

I could fill a sheet about the small Pox woud Time allow. 
We had a full Board to day being the first Tuesday in the 
Month, and I took an opportunity to mention yr having heard 
that yr Agency was considered by some as a job, and also 
hinted some of yr remarks on that head when every Person 
present declared, that they thought you had acquitted your- 
self properly and more than deserved yr Salary, disclaiming 
at the same Time their ever having considered yr appoint- 
ment as a job- I suppose you intended, I should make some 
such use of what vou wrote me. 

J. H. 

i8 The Letters of 

William Knox Esq. Savannah 13th March 1764 

& Epreuve M. War 


Since Our last of the 24th November 
we are favored with yours of the i6th Nov. It is with con- 
cern we find that the Boundary of this Province is confined 
to St. Mary's, the method by which it was effected, consid- 
ering the behaviour of those concerned, is no ways surpris- 
ing to us- 

The Cession of New Orleans and the Lands West of 
the River Mississippi to Spain yields us great satisfaction, 
as we the hopefull indeed pretty well assured the Spaniards 
will prove more advantageous and less turbelent Neighbors, 
than we should have found the French to be.- 

We herewith Inclose you a Copy of the Resolutions 
of both Houses, with respect to the several matters required 
of you as Agent of this Province to Solicit in England, and 
which will doubtless be sufficient ground for whatever appli- 
cation you may find it necessary to make, but one very ur- 
gent matter mentioned in those resolutions is of too interest- 
ing moment to us, to pass over without a further notice, we 
mean the danger we think this Province is in should an In- 
dian war ensue. The several Matters of dispute with the 
Creek Indians subsequent to the Treaty at Augusta in Oc- 
tober last you are doubtless apprised of, it is therefore need- 
less for us to repeat them. 

The necessity of the Superintendent for the Southern Dis- 
trict in his Majesty's name requiring satisfaction for the late 
Murders appeared in too strong a light to be neglected and 
we are told a Message was accordingly sent insinuating that 
satisfaction was expected but as yet the Answer has been 
loose and equivocal rather seeming to incline to put it on the 
old footing of sorrow for what is past and hoping it would 
not happen for the future, than to do us Justice for their un- 
provoked Murders agreeable to an express article in the late 
treaty ; This we say seems to be the case, alth'o as yet no 
general talk from the nation is come down, but suppose that 
when it does, it should be in the same strain, nothing can 
then be done, but to declare War, or stop the Trade without 

"Aecordine to the terms of the treaty of Paris in 170H. France gave up to England all 
her possessions in North America east of the Mississippi except the city of New Orleans. 
At the same time France ceded to her ally, Spain, New Orleans and, all her possessions west 
of the Mississippi as an indemnification for the losses which Spain had siitTered during the 
war. In exchange for the captured Havana, Spain ceded to England her possessions of 
East and West Florida. It was at this time that England extended the limits of the Colo- 
ny of Georgia to the Mississippi River on the west and on the south to latitude .Sl° and the 
St. Mary's River." Deuky's Hist. U. S. 

Ho7i. James Habersham. ig 

such a declaration, the first you are sensible we are very un- 
able to bear, and on the latter should a War on these parts 
ensue, we should be equally perplexed. The state of the 
Colony should those unhappy Events be the consequence 
is too well known to you, for us to enlarge on the Subject ; 
We must therefore most earnestly entreat you to leave no 
step unpursued that can tend to make our very critical situ- 
ation properly known, and to procure such assistance as will 
eflfectually shield us from this and any future danger. 
If we may give our opinion, we think the least expensive and 
least dangerous method to humble these Savages for their 
repeated Insults would be to stop all trade and communi- 
cation with them under the severest Penalty's in which Vir- 
ginia, North & South Carolina and the two new Colony's 
must join without reserve, and that perhaps wou'd be best 
done by an express order from England, otherwise it would 
answer no purpose, but before that. Our Frontiers, now 
absolutely naked and exposed, should be guarded and de- 
fended, and if the Cherokees, Chickesaws and Chactaws 
could be induced to annoy the Creeks at the same time, and 
it's supposed they might, they would soon comply with our 
just and reasonable demands. We have too long experienced, 
that no Treaty's will bind them, and that only fear and In- 
terest prevail, and while they can go on to murder and con- 
sequently plunder the Inhabitants with Impunity, they are 
encouraged to reiterate their Villanys, as well as from their 
Thirst of Shedding blood, as from the spoil they obtain ; and 
in this state of uncertainty, it cannot be supposed, that this or 
the two new southern Colony's can arrive at any degree of 
Stability, or be so settled as to protect themselves, but must 
rather remain an expence, than advantage to the Mother 
Country. - 

We have wrote you so fully on the subject of the Lands 
South of the Alatamaha, that it leaves us no room to say any- 
thing further on that head, any more than on that of procur- 
ing Ordinance & Stores. We find that of late many persons 
by virtue of old Grants in the time of the Lords Proprietors 
of So. Carolina pretend a right to several Tracts of Land 
in this Province, many years since settled and improved, this 
matter may with great propriety, when Alderman Bakers 
Lands (word illegible) under your attention, be then adverted 
to, we hope you will not (word illegible) it. 

We remain Sir 

Your ms. hble Servts. 

20 The Letters of 

London Messrs Deberdt and Barkit 

Savannah in Georgia the 31st March 1764 * 

I was lately at the Northward to visit two of my 
Sons at New Jersey College, where I very unexpectedly had 
the very agreeable Pleasure of meeting our mutual and my 
very dear old Friend the Revd Mr. Whitefield, of vv^hom, you 
have doubtless frequent accounts from your Correspondents 
in those parts. By my last accoimts, I find, he left New York 
about the middle of January to proceed to Boston, where I 
doubt not the same divine Blessing will attend his Adminis- 
trations, as it did apparently at Philadelphia, Jersey and New 
York — such attentive and numerous Congregations I never 
saw. God grant that his usefull and valuable Life may be 
preserved. His afifairs here are as well as one could expect, 
but his Presence is doubtless wanted, however I dont expect 
him 'till the Fall of the year, when the weather will be more 
suitable to his present languid state, as a cold climate seems 
to brace up his decayed Nerves, 

To Wm Knox In London 
Savannah in Georgia the 31st March I764t 
Dr Sir 

I cant well slip this opportunity of writing to you the' 
I have very little to say, unless I may have Cause to chide 
you, as I think it is near 9 months since your last letter, that 
has come to my Hands, was dated I will not say that you 
are so much taken up with great men, that you forget us 
little Folks in Georgia, but I may perhaps truly say, that 
your little Friends as sincerely wish your welfare as do your 
great ones. Mr Martin has compleated iioo for your last 
years rent, and as a Bill on London has fallen into my way, 
I now enclose you Mr Zouberbuhlers first Bill dated the 13th 
Instant payl to Mc Gillivray for Edwd Pearson Esqr in Lon- 
don for Fifty Pounds Sterling with a letter of Advice. You 
will long before this reaches you be happy in the Company 
of Mrs Wright&c, to whom I will do myself the pleasure of 

•The two sons here referred to were Joseph and John. For further reference to the ed- 
ucation of his sons at this school see letters to Wm. Knox. dated May 7. 17(i8. and to Henry 
Iiaurens. Esq., Fpb. 23. 1768. Both of these sons afterward became prominent men in the 
affairs of Georgia and the United States. See BroGRAPHiCAr, Sketche.s by Jones. 

tWilliam Knox was for a Ions time the Provincial Agent of Georgia living in England. 
He had large agricultural interests in Georgia which were supervised by James Habersham, 
his warm personal friend. Knox made himself very unpopular in Georgia by his advocacy 
of the Stamp Act, and for this reason he was for a time discontinued as Agent for the 
Province. From the letter dated Dec. 1, 1770. it appears that there was a temporary breach 
in the friendship between Habersham and Knox, but this seems to have been of short du- 

Hon. James Habershavi. 

dropping a line, If I can think of any thing to say- I hope this 
will find you very active, in providing our Negroe Clothing 
as I can almost say, in regard to mine in particular, that you 
will thereby be engaged in Clothing the naked- I need not 
inform you that our Indian affairs still remain in a very un- 
certain and ticklish situation, be every thing else is well and 
is growing better- I have only to add, that if I dont soon 
hear from you I shall probably grow a little Cross, and my 
Letters will be still shorter, however I am now in a tolerable 
good Humour, and do assure vou, that I am sincerely, Dr 

Your Affectionate Friend and Servant. 

P. S. I was obliged to give £54 our Currency for the enclosed 
Bill, but what I may hereafter send you this year, I shall, I 
have no doubt, obtain from the Silk Bills, and consequently 
at Par- I thought a little Cash might possibly be acceptable 
especially now, and therefore I did not chuse to let the en- 
dorsed Bill pass by my Hands. 

To Mrs Wright in London 

Savannah in Georgia the 31st March 1764. 
Madam. If my very hearty wishes avail, I expect you are not 
now far from your desired Port, and that you will very soon 
have a happy meeting with your Children and Friends, to 
whom, please to make my sincere respects acceptable, and 
especially to Miss Sarah, who I hope will not be so much 
taken up with her new Acquaintance as to forget her old 
Friends, in this end of the Earth, I dont say any thing about 
the gloves- I need not acquaint you, because you are inform- 
ed from a better Hand, that Master Charles and Miss Char- 
lotte are in perfect Health, and I understand the latter very 
often talks of you, but without discovering the least uneasi- 
ness I do myself the pleasure of visiting the Governor very 
often, and next week we propose going for a few days to re- 
gale ourselves with viewing the fertile swamps and delight- 
ful Pine groves on the Banks of the great Ogeechee River- 
I must own their seems to be a Vacuum in your House ; and 
I can truly sympathize with the Governor in his present tho' 
temporary State of Widowhood. Thus much for myself, but 
I dont recollect that there has been any alteration in Births, 

"Governor Wright married, in 1740, Sarah, only daughter and heiress of Captain Maid- 
man, of the Army. This lady was drowned on her voyage to England in 1763." 

White's Historical Collections of Ga., p. 196. 
See letter dated Oct. 10, 1764. 

22 The Letters of 

Deaths, or Marriages here since you left us.- Mr Knox hav- 
ing lived on the Fat of Land in England, perhaps may have 
grown a little lazy, and you will therefore be pleased to give 
him a Jogg about providing our Negroe Clothing. 

I beg the favour of you to present my sincere compliments 
to Mrs Elliott, and acquaint her, that I am very sorry, I did 
not take my leave of her, as it really slipped my Memory, 
before she went on Board, that she was going with you. I 
shall make no apology for, troubling you with my Reveries 
because I write in obedience to your Commands. We hear 
nothing disagreeable from the Indian Country, and are as 
happy as we can be without you was present, and permit me 
to assure you that I am very truly 

Your most obedient humble Serv. 

New York, Mr Willet Taylor. 

Savannah in Georgia the 2d April 1764 
I arrived here the 29th December last, after 
a very stormy and rather tedious Passage of 18 days, where 
I found my afifairs in as good a Situation, as I could well 
expect — 

I am now to return my Friend and your dear Spouse 
Ten Thousand Thanks for her many civilities to me and my 
Sons, and I sincerely wish her, and you, and yours every desir- 
able Blessings and if ever in my Power, I hope I shall mani- 
fest how much I value both your Friendships- I shall be glad 
to hear that little Willett is well, and I heartily wish, He may 
be preserved to you, as I well know how painful it is to part 
withe these pledges of Mutual Love. In deed as to domestic 
afflictions of this kind. I think few Persons have experienced 
so many of them, and so frequently, as I have done, especi- 
ally within the last 2 or 3 years — However I deserve it all- 
God is just in all his Dealings, and tho' things seem to be 
distributed in this world with an unequal Hand, yet we may 
rest assured, that every Thing is dealt out to us by Weight 
and Measure by unerring Providence, and that nothing can 
or docs befall us, but what is right- This consideration alone 
has supported me under a Variety of these kinds of afflic- 
tions- Since I arrived here, I have lost by Death 6 fine able 
Negroes besides a lusty girl and also a man just before I em- 
barked, and I suppose, I cannot replace them for Four Plun- 

This letter illustrates the domestic tenderness and sympathy of James Habersham, as 
well as his deep piety and religious feeling. 

Hon. James Habersham. 2j 

dred Pounds Sterling— Oronoko's wife dyed last Night, and 
the poor fellow is inconsolable, and as she was a favourite 
of my dear deceased wife and nursed two of my Daughters, 
I must own the sight of her has afifected me more than all 
the negroes I have ever lost ; by bringing to my remembrance 
those dear Innocents and their now happy Mother, that I 
have really been obliged to lay down my pen several times 
to give Vent to those Feelings only known to a tender Hus- 
band, and Parent.- But I must have done with this subject 
and I dare not, I do not Complain- I have enough and to 
spare, and a great deal more than I deserve- You will please 
to excuse this Digression, as its some alleviation to the Mind 
to acquaint a Friend with its Joys or Griefs- You will please 
to make my best Respect acceptable to Mr Bogart and his 
whole Family, as well as to Mr Byvanck and his Family, and 
all my Friends, tho' not named, to whom I am greatly in- 
debted for their many Civilities, when with you- It is not 
impossible but I may see you and them again next Fall, es- 
pecially if I shoud want Health, which has been the Case for 
a few Summers past. I shoud have wrote to you before now. 
If I could have procured a Bill sooner, and that is the true 
Reason, as I hate to make Excuses in Money Matters. I am 
verv truly 

Dr Sir 
Your most hble Servt 
P. S. Please to present my hearty 
respects to Miss Nancy Dey.- 

To Benjamin Franklin Esq in Philadelphia. 

Savannah in Georgia the 14th Jtily 1764 
Last Fall I made my two Sons at New Jersey 
College a Visit and at the same time embraced the oppor- 
tunity of paying my respects to my Friends in Philadelphia, 
among whom I waited on Mrs Franklin, but was deprived 
the Pleasure of seeing you, as she informed me, you were 
on your way from Boston, and had met with an unlucky ac- 
cident, which I hope you are perfectly recovered from- My 
Brother in Law Mr Robert Bolton is the Bearer of this-. He 
goes to visit his Native Place and his relations, after being 

Franklin, although acting as Agent for several of the Provinces in England, and living 
there a greater portion of the time from 175i' to 1775, vras still Postmaster General in 

See note to letter dated May 19. 1768. 

Robert Bolton was the first postmaster oi Savannah, being appointed in 1764 by Benja- 
min Baron. Esq.. Postmaster General of the Southern District of America. 

24^ The Letters of 

settled here near 20 years- He has some thoughts of setting 
up a Post between this and Charlestown, which, if he can 
meet with suitable Encouragement, must be of public Utility- 
To this End, He tells me. He has been advised by our worthy 
Governor to get an appointment from the Post Master Gen- 
eral, and as I suppose it may be in your Power to constitute 
him Post Master of this Province, your doing it would lay 
me, and him under great obligations. I am sensible, I have 
no Pretensions to ask this Favour from the slender Acquaint- 
ance I have with you, but I will venture to say from many 
years experience, that if you should be pleased to confer any 
Trust in Mr Bolton, you will find him an Honest, prudent 
and punctual man- He has lately buried an excellent wife, 
and is left with seven fine Children, whom he has hitherto 
supported and brought up reputably, and as his trade has 
lately slackened, any additional means of getting a little 
money must greatly assist him— I need say nothing of his 
family connections in Pennsylvania, as they must be better 
known to you than to me. You will be please to excuse the 
Freedom, I have taken and if in my power, I shall be pleased 
with an opportunity of shewing that I am with great Truth, 

Your most obed hble Servant 

James Habersham. 
Please to make my respects acceptable to Mrs Franklin. 

Charles Garth Esqr 

Savannah in Georgia 27th July 1764 

Your much Esteemed Letter of the 3d 
december ulto we had the honor to receive and is now before 
us, intimating your Appointment to be Agent on behalf of the 
publick, as well as for receiving all Moneys that shall be is- 
sued for this his Majesty's Province and carrying on the 
necessary Correspondence for the same. 

We are obliged to you for this kind notification of 
your said Appointment & return you our thanks for the 
Tenders of Service you are pleased to make us of expediting 
such Aflfairs as We may recomend to you consistent with his 

Charles Garth was the Provincial Agent for Carolina, and for a time acted also as 
Agent for Georgia in place of William Knox, who hart given great offense to Georgia by his 
position on the Stamp Act. Mr. (iarth, however, did not continue as Agent for Georgia 
long, as the conflicting interests of Georgia and Carolina soon brought aboutachange. See 
letters of Dec. 4, 1765, and Sept. 5, 1767. 

Ho7i. James Habershavi. 2§ 

Majesty's service, We hope and confide that this loyal prov- 
ince of Georgia will never have anything at heart but what 
is truly So and for the Advantage of us Inhabitants in general. 
We are pleased to find that you Entertain for our 
Agent. Wm. Knox the same experience of his Zeal and Abil- 
itys to serve this province as we have always Experienced 
of Him and as we know him to be worthy of a greater Trust 
than those we have in our power to repose in him shall not 
enlarge further upon that head only to reiterate our Ac- 
knowledgements for your kind ofifer of acting in Conjunc- 
tion with that Gentln in all such Matters as shall come 
recommended from us, which we shall with great pleasure 
avail ourselves of whenever the occasion may require it. 
We are Respectfully 

Your most Obedt hum Servants 

William Knox Esq 

Savannah in Georgia 27th July 1764 

We have duly received your sundry Letters 
of the 9th February, ist March, 2d and 19th April last, en- 
closing Copys of your several Memorials and two Acts of 
parliament respecting the Colonys and especially this prov- 
ince - We are very sensible of your Abilitys and Zeal to 
serve us, and return you our very hearty thanks for the At- 
tention you have given to our Affairs- We likewise desire 
you will make our gratefull Acknowledgements acceptable 
to the worthy Members of the Honourable House of Com- 
mons, who have assisted us the last Session of parliament, 
esoecially to Sir William Meredith and Mr Cust- We shall 
soon take the several Matters you recommend to us under 
Consideration and you may accordingly expect to hear from 
us bv Captain Rains- In the mean time, we are. 
Your most obedient Servants, 

P. S. We are at present afflicted with the 
small pox in this Town, and as many of the Committee 
with their Familys have retired into the Country, 
it is difficult to get a sufficient Number of the 
Committee to meet. 

26 The Letters of 

London. Mr Ralph Clay. 
Savannah in Georgia the 26th Sept 1764* 
Dear Brother 

I beg leave to trouble you to receive the enclosed 
Bill on our late Governor Mr Ellis for Twenty Pounds Ster- 
ling, and when paid, please to pay the cash to my Sister Bag- 
with or to her order- The enclosed letter informs, her, that 
you will pay her £20 which you will please to forward the 
first opportunity— I understand Mr Ellis now lodges in Grays 
Inn, however I follow the first directions. He gave me. and of 
Mr Usher you will certainly be informed, where to find him— 
As our good Friend Mr Russell has wrote to you Son, that 
He proposes retiring from Commercial Business. I have 
mentioned my eldest Sons joining him, which He appears 
pleased with, and accordingly I have wrote for my Son to 
return to Georgia and expect him in 4 or 5 weeks. This con- 
nection will be very pleasing to me, being a very natural one, 
and will show a proper family regard— I am not under the 
least apprehensions of their not doing well, and if please God 
to spare my life, they shall have all my Interest, Experience, 
and Advice. My Nephews Wife and Son are well and I hope 
your whole family are so, to whom please to make my best 
regards Acceptable which concludes me Dr Brother 

Your affectionate Brother and Servt 

.T. H. 

London William Russell Esqr 

Savannah in Georgia th loth October 1764 
Dr Sir. 

My last letters to you were dated the 4th and 14th 
July last and were forwarded by Capt Scott from this Port, 
who I hope is safely arrived with you— My Nephew acquaints 
me that He has received your letter by Capt Combes dated 
in June, and that you continue in the same mind to decline 
Commercial Business. I suppose the ist January next-If 
my letters by Scott reach you, you will find I have proposed 
my eldest Son James to join Mr Clay, who is much pleased 
with it, and accordingly, I have positively wrote for him to 
return to Georgia, I expect him the latter end of this, or the 
beginning of next Month- He is very tall, is rather sedate 

*Ralph Clay married Klizabeth. a sister of James Habersham. Joseijh Clay, elsewhere 
referred to, was the only son of this marriage. .Joseph Clay was associated in business with 
James Habersham. .Ir.. and later with Joseph Habersham— Joseph Clay was Deputy Pay- 
master-General in Georuia. with rank of Colonel during the Revolution. His son Joseph 
was a prominent lawyer, and for several years was United States Judge for the District of 

Hon. James Habersham. 27 

and appears manly, and I have no doubt will behave prop- 
erly, especially as He will have a good example in Mr Clay, 
whose Industry is highly commendable, and his Abilities for 
Trade unquestionable, and besides, I will endeavour to throw 
in all my Influence and Care. I can make no doubt that his 
very advantageous Connection will be as agreeable to you, 
as it is to me- I have agreed for Bricks to build a range of 
Stores of 60 feet long on my Corner Lott, and 'till that is 
done I suppose, you will allow them the use of yours under 
proper Considerations 

The Small Pox has almost gone through this town, 
and upon the whole has not proved very mortal- I suppose 
upwards of 40 white Persons have dyed, of whom at least 
20 were Children- What number of blacks have been taken 
off by this Infectious Disorder, I know not, but your poor 
Cato is one of them, and your Negro with Mr Gallache I be- 
lieve is not quite out of danger, tho' there is now great Hopes 
of his doing Well- I thank God, it has not yet appeared in 
my Plantations, and as the weather is daily growing temper- 
ate and Cool, I hope the Infection will be checked, and the 
Province soon cleared of it- I think the Inhabitants of this 
Province are in general in a thriving situation, and we seem 
to be in no more apprehension of Danger from the Savages, 
than you are in London. They are very sensible of the Ad- 
vantage we posess over them by the Settlement of the two 
Florida Colonys, and behave very civil, and I now begin to, 
think the Time is come, when we shall no more be harrassed 
and alarmed by them. But our present Tranquility is greatly 
alloyed by the (I fear) Loss of our Worthy Governors Lady 
and two Daughters— What a stroke is this to the poor Gen- 
tleman? There are few such good wives, tender Mothers 
and affectionate Friends remaining! But we must not re- 
pine, least we charge God foolishly- You wou'd be surprised 
and pleased to see how magnanimous the Governor behaves- 
He appears to have a Friendship for and a Confidence in me, 
and therefore I have of late been as much with him as pos- 
sible and I really feel so much with and for him, that I al- 
most forget I have any Concerns of my own to attend to- If 
it should be necessary, that you remain longer in England, 
than you could wish, can I be of any service to you here? If 
you think so I persuade myself you will without reserve 
Command, Dr Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and Servant. 

P. S. I sympathize with our Friend 

Knox very heartily — Your wife and Nanny are well. God 
bless and restore you to your health and to your Friends- I 
expect Mr Whitefield here in a Month. 

28 The Letters of 

William Knox Esqr 

London Savannah in Georgia 4 " April 1765 

(Pr Captn Stark) 

Copy per John Gaily ) 

\ We have the pleasure of ac- 

Capt Hulme ) 
quainting you, that the General Asembly have passed an 
Ordinance Reappointing you Agent for transacting the Af- 
fairs of this province in Great Britain, a Copy of which, we 
have herewith enclosed you, as well as of an Act for the bet- 
ter strengthening and setting of this province etc, which you 
will observe has been framed purposely to compell such per- 
sons, who have obtained his Majesty's Grants witnessed by 
the Governor of South Carolina for Lands to the Southward 
of the River Alatamaha immediately to settle the same, but 
is passed with a clause suspending the Execution thereof, 
until the Royal approbation be known, which, by a Resolu- 
tion of both Houses, we are particularly enjoined to recom- 
mend to you in the strongest manner to use your utmost 
Endeavours to obtain- As you are so well acquainted, wdth 
the situation of those lands, it is almost needless to point out 
to you the very great Injury, that must arise to this province 
from the best and most convenient of them being engrossed 
by non Residents and lying unimproved, and we think, it 
must appear to every one on perusal of the Act, that great 
Care has been taken not to lay these Carolina Grantees un- 
der any other Conditions of Improvement, than what every 
Grantee in the province is oblieed to comply with- It is now 
two years Since Warrants were issued by the Governor of 
that province to lay out those lands, notwithstanding, we are 
well assured, no part of them have been really settled or cul- 
tivated, and the Surveys (if they may be called so) were made 
with so much precipitation, that but few lines were ascer- 
tained, by which means the vacant lands without the limits 
of these Grants cannot be known, nor consequently be run 
out by our Surveyers, wath any degree of certainty, which 
may make a resurvey of them absolutely necessary, as well 
to prevent innumerable disputes, which must otherwise in- 
evitably ensue, as to ascertain the quantity of land within 
these supposed surveys, for we are well informed, that many 
of the Surveyers employed therein carried with them Stakes 
notched and crossed, and upon their coming to any piece of 
land on the River they liked, they put down one of them for 

See note to letter of April 16, 17(53. 

Hon. James Habersham. 29 

a Corner, and then rowed a supposed distance for the Front, 
and stuck down another, whereby a much larger quantity of 
land may be, and is doubtless contained within those Corners, 
than is expressed in the Grants, and thereby His Majesty 
is defrauded in his Quit Rents, and the Province in its taxes- 
We need not remark, because it must appear at first View, 
how much the province is weakened by those valuable lands 
being taken up by non Residents, and that their not being 
cultivated lays the Inhabitants under an unequal and un- 
equitable Burthen to support the necessary Expenses of gov- 
ernment, and as the Legislature have this Matter much at 
Heart, we must again recommend your using every Means 
to obtain the Royal Approbation to this Act, which may in 
a great Measure remedy the Grievance we at present labour 
under, and prevent his Majesty's gracious Intentions in an- 
nexing those Lands to this province from being frustrated, 
and if needfull you will retain the Attorney or Solicitor Gen- 
eral or any other Council, you may be advised to, and any 
Expence you may be at in accomplishing this desirable pur- 
pose, will be duly reimbursed you- We are, Sir 

Your most Obedient, humble Servants 
James Habersham 
P. S. 

This Letter is wrote on a Supposition," 
that the Grants witnessed by the Governor 
of South Carolina will not be 
disannulled- We have several Matters 
under Consideration, recommended to us 
by both Houses, which you will receive 
by the next conveyance, of which there 
will soon be several- 

N Jones 

Jams Edwd Powell 
Lewis Johnson 
William Ewen 
-John Milledge 
W. Jones 
Lewis Johnson 
Pat. Houstoun 
J. Attolenghe 

Henry Laurens Esqr 

Savannah in Georgia 
In Charlestown ) the 5th April 1765 


I received your favour of the 15th 
February last by Messreurs Rossel and Gervais, and am 
much obliged to you for giving me an Opportunity of shew- 
ing those Gentlemen any Civility, as well on account of your 
recommendations, as for the good Qualities they appear to 

Henry Laurens was a wealthy merchant of Charleston. S. C. He was consplcuons in 
his opposition to British aegressibn. and played a prominent part in international affairs 
during the Revolution. He was born in 1724 and died in 1792. 

JO The Letters of 

possess- I have lately had a Line from Mr Lachlan Mack- 
intosh, to whom I wrote by them, and understand, they were 
at Frederica waiting for a Passage to Augustine I expect 
to see them on their return, and if they have any Views of 
making any Settlement in this Colony (as I have learnt from 
Mr George Mackintosh (Lachlans Brother) they have, you 
may depend on every Service in my Power- I offered them 
what Cash, they might want, but they only took Fifty Pounds, 
for which they gave me two Receipts to yoil to serve as one, 
of which you have one enclosed- I expect to send you in a 
few days a Draft on Charlestown, but the Sum I cannot at 
present ascertain, and if you approve of this Method, which 
I think the best and quickest to remit you. T shall probably 
be able to do it in this and next month Yesterday I saw one 
Mr Edwin (a German) who tells me, you would be here in 
about three Weeks- I shall be extremely glad to see you, 
and if you will do me the favour to accept of a Bed and such 
Accomodations as my House affords, I shall esteem it a fa- 
vour and permit me to add, that I expect you will oblige me 
in this request- I shall write you again in a few days, and 
am, with real regard, Sir 

Your most Obedt hbl Servt 

William Knox Esq. London 
(pr Ship Jno Gaily, Thos Hulme) 

Copy pr Savannah in Georgia 15th April 1765 


We are instructed by a resolu- 
tion of both Houses of Assembly, to direct you to make proper 
Application for Redress of such parts of "the Act, passed the 
last Session of parHament, Intituled, "An Act for granting 
certain Duties in the British Colonies and plantations in 
America &c" as particularly affect the Trade of this prov- 
ince, and to instruct you on that Head, and direct you to act 
(so far) in concert with any Agent or Agents of the northern 

In Consequence of this Reso- 
lution, we have taken the said Act into Consideration, and 
tho' there are several clauses therein, that must concern the 
welfare of this province, tho' perhaps not in so great a de- 
gree as some of the Northern Colonys, yet the Incumbrance 
laid on the Exportation of all kinds of Lumber (our most 
natural produce) and all other non Enumerated Commodi- 
ties, so essentially injured us, that we shall at present confine 

Hon. James Habersham. ji 

our Remarks on the Act to that Branch of Commerce only- 
You are not insensible of the very great Benefit the Expor- 
tation of Lumber, Horses, Live stock &c has been to this 
young Colony, having principally been the Means, whereby 
most of the Inhabitants have acquired the little property 
they possess ; that as but few Vessels have been owned here, 
the Trade has been principally carried on by transient per- 
sons, who have sent or brought Vessels here with small Car- 
goes, sometimes a few Negroes and sometimes Cash to pur- 
chase a load of Lumber &c for the West Indies, and meeting 
with no unnecessary obstruction, this, 'till hitherto, growing 
commerce promised the greatest advantage to us- But by 
this Act no lumber &c can be laden on board any Vessel, 
until Bond be given with one Surety, besides the Master of 
the Vessel, in double the value of the goods, with Condition, 
to land the same in great Britain, or some port in America, 
Africa or Asia, and to return a Certificate of the same, be- 
ing so landed, within the respective Terms limitted, which 
Bond is to continue in force for one year after the Comple- 
tion of the Voyage, and then, (if no Fraud appears) not to 
be delivered up, but by four or more of the Commissioners 
of his Majesty's Customs ; besides which the said Master 
with one Surety is also required to enter into another Bond 
in the penalty of one thousand pounds for a Vessel less than 
loo Ton, and if of a greater Burthen Two Thousand pounds, 
with Condition, in case any Molasses or Syrups being the 
produce of any of the plantations, not under the dominion of 
his Majesty, shall be laden on board, the Master or other 
person having Charge of such Vessel shall carry the same, 
without Fraud or willfull Dimunition to some port in Great 
Britain or the British Colonys, and immediately on his ar- 
rival make a just and true Report of all the Goods so laden- 
There are Embarrasments, we are persuaded, no Merchant 
will lay himself under for a transient person. He may never 
see again- A Cargoe of Lumber is not very valuable, and 
if loaded on Commission, it will seldom amount to more, than 
from £5 to iy"io, and in most cases much less, a Considera- 
tion no way adequate to the risque of becoming Security in 
double the value of the Cargoe, for if the Master of the Ves- 
sel should take the trouble of returning a Certificate, and 
many of them are not to be depended upon, even to do that, 
it mav miscarry, and thereby subject the Security to great 
trouble. Vexation and Expence, but in regard to the Bond 
for duly reporting forreign Commodities, no person in his 
senses would subject himself to so great a penalty for a 

32 The Letters of 

Transaction, He has not the least direction or concern in, 
or has any prospect of Advantage by, and that for a stranger, 
perhaps of Httle or no property, who may not have honesty 
enough to regard his Security, when He may think it is In- 
terest to defraud his Majesty of his Customs- These Obser- 
vation, you will see, principally regard transient Traders, who 
have at least carried ofif four fifths of our Lumber, which 
beneficial Branch of Commerce, we fear, will in future be- 
come very inconsiderable, as the obligations required to be 
entered into cannot, for such persons, be complyed with on 
any rational or commercial Nature, and, we are apprehen- 
sive, must in its consequence almost amount to a prohibi- 
tion- We are sensible, that where Vessels are laden in the 
ports where owned, and no clandestine Trade is intended, 
the owner cannot be under any Hardship to enter into the 
Securitys required, because He has (illegible) irection of the 
Voyage, and can, if He pleases, make true Entrys, and for 
this Reason, as Vessels trading to the West Indies are prin- 
cipally owned by persons residing in the northern Colonys 
it may not be so unavoidable a Hardship to them, as it is to 
us, and perhaps South and North Carolina, where this Trade 
is chiefly carried on by transient persons- We need not add, 
on this Head, as what we have advanced is within your 
knowledge, and must sufficiently convince you that this valu- 
able Business, under its present Restraints, must be in a 
manner lost to us, and therefore we cannot too earnestly 
recommend your giving the utmost Attention to obtain (if 
possible) redress. 

In regard to your joining the Northern Agents in any 
Matter, they may have in charge from their Constituents, we 
are only directed to acquaint you, that, so far, as you sup- 
pose we are interested in their applications, you will cooper- 
ate with them, and this is mentioned in Conseciuence of a let- 
ter v/rote by a Committee appointed by the general Assem- 
bly of Boston to the Speaker of the Commons House here, 
requesting the House to direct you to join their agents, and 
in respect to the stamp duty, which as far as appears to us, 
may be as equal as any, that could be generally imposed on 
the Colonys, yet, we must own, the manner of imposing it 
greatly alarms us, as we know not, where the precedent may 
end, and however it may be with any or all of the Northern 
provinces, the Expence absolutely required for the Support 
of out internal polity is rather more, than the present In- 
habitants can bear, and consequently they are in no Condi- 
tion to be loaded with new Burthens- We are persuaded of 

Ho7i. James Habersham. jj 

your unwearied and most serious Attention to promote our 
Interest, and have only to add, that we are. 

Your most obedient Servants 

James Habersham 
N Jones 
James Edwd Powell 

P. S. We have enclosed you Copys 

of the two Bonds entered into ^, t,t • 

for lading Lumber or other ^Tnf ^h^^'"" 

nonenumerated Commodities \ i iiP?, 

only, for if Rice or Naval :^^^- ^^^^ 

Stores are shipt, there is a ^' J^P^^ 

third, called a plantation, f:f.V,.^°"4^°"" 

Bond given- We shall write -T i -I^mi ^^" 

you again by the next ship, ^n Milledge 
which will sail in a week- 

William Knox Esqr 

London Savannah in Georgia 14th Alay 1765 

pr ship polly & Betsev Robt Brewton 


Enclosed are the Resolutions 
of both Houses of Assembly, directing us to apply to you in 
regard to the Claim said to be made by Sir William Baker, 
and others of 12000 Acres of land in this province- 

These Resolutions were 
taken in Consequence of a Petition from several Inhabitants 
of this province deeply interested in this Matter, a Copy of 
which you have also enclosed, and likewise a plat of the Lands 
included wdthin the said Claim, by which you will at one view 
See the very distressing Situation, not only of the Petitioners, 
but of a Number of other persons, who at present possess 
and occupy those Lands, should they not be confirmed in the 
quiet possession of them, for it appears that part of the Town 
lots of Vernonbourgh, Twenty whole and part of Twenty one 
Village Lots of the said Town, part of three A^illage lots of 
Highgate, Twenty eight whole and part of Nine Farm Lots 
of Savannah, also thirteen Tracts of Land granted to differ- 
ent persons from one to five hundred acres, and part of Nine 
others are included within the same- And for your further 
Government, we have also enclosed a Copy of the Report of 
the Lords of Trade to his Majesty on the Act passed here 

34- The Letters of 

in 1759 for confirming the Titles of the Inhabitants to their 
respective Lands, which for reasons therein mentioned, and 
particularly as it appeared to efifect this claim, met with the 
Royal Disallowance- The reasons offered by their Lord- 
ships against allowing the Act to operate are doubtless 
weighty and conclusive, but we cannot help remarking on 
what the Solicitor for the Claimants of the Barony has as- 
serted, "that they have constantly and uniformly given due 
Notice, and made repeated Entries of the Claims, as far as 
the defective and incomplete State of the Offices of Record 
in Georgia now admit, and therefore &c"- We have carefully 
searched into all the public Records of this province and can- 
not find the least Vestigia of any Claim being entered of this 
Barony by the Claimants or any person for them, and neither 
can we learn, that it's known to any of the very first settlers, 
or other Persons now living here, that any Claim was ever 
made of it, or, 'till within a few years past (which was after 
the principal part of the Lands were possessed) that such a 
Claim was even subsisting- If therefore this is the Case? 
and we must think it is, no Conclusion can be drawn from 
hence in support of this Claim ; on the other Hand, as the 
possessors of those Lands were ignorant of any such Claim, 
they must be cleared of any willfull Intention of encroaching 
upon them- We again repeat, that we cannot learn, that 
any person here, either in a public or private Capacity, knew 
anything of this Claim for at least Twenty years after the 
first settlement of the Colony, and it's a strong presumption 
that it must be so, as some of those Lands are nonpossessed 
by persons, or their descendants, who have been in authority 
near thirty years past, and, who, when the whole Country lay 
open to them, might and doubtless wou'd have seated them- 
selves as advantageously on lands not subject to any vexa- 
tious Incumbrance- To this we must add, that had the 
Claimants really entered their Claim here, when the Kings 
Government took place, and, when it could not but be sup- 
posed, that the defective and incomplete State of the Offices 
of Record in Georgia wou'd no longer subsist, all this dis- 
cussion of Right might have been avoided, for certain it is, 
that no Grants for one Acre within their Claim were signed 
before October 1755, more than a year after the arrival of 
Governor Reynolds ; and we are the more at a loss for their 
not entering their Claim, as public and repeated Notice was 
given not only in the So. Carolina Gazette, but in that of 
Whitehall "for all persons claiming to hold lands, within this 
province, to make such their Claims, within a certain Time 

Hon. James Habersham. J5 

therein mentioned"- Does this agree with their assurance 
to the Lords of Trade of repeated Entries of their Claim? 
The plat now sent you, describing the Lines of the Barony, 
was obtained from a Copy in a private Hand in So Carolina, 
and is not of Record in this province- You will doubtless 
see the Claimants plat exhibits in support of their Claim, and 
from a view of it, judge of the correctness of this- We must 
think it an extraordinary Hardship, not to say Injustice, that 
this Claim should lay dormant, till the present possessors 
of those lands had, at a great Expence, and with great la- 
bour, made them of some value ; but as the Petition so justly 
and fully sets this forth, we shall only say, that we are ex- 
tremely concerned for the Petitioners and others interested, 
many of whom, if not releived must be reduced, from a com- 
fortable subsistance, to want and poverty- The necessary 
steps to obtain this redress must be entirely left to you, per- 
haps by a respectfull Address to his Majesty, He may be in- 
duced, through a tender commisseration of the unhappy state 
of the concerned, to Settle this AfTair with the Claimants, 
either by a Grant of Land in some of the new Colonies, or 
by some other Method, so as to free them from their present 
Apprehensions, which we are inclined to hope may be effect- 
ed, as it appears by the latter part of the Report of the Lords 
of Trade, that the Claimants had given their Lordships Rea- 
son to believe, that they were willing to accommodate this 
Matter with the present posessors on such Terms as shall 
be thought just and reasonable- We shall only add, that 
our earnest desire, as well from Inclination as the duty we 
owe the province, is that you will please to exert yourself in 
bringing this Afifair to an agreeable issue- Indeed, we have 
not the least doubt of your doing everything in your power, 
that m.ay tend to the advantage of this province, as it is with 
pleasure we find, that every part of your Conduct, as Agent 
is a suflficient proof of the interesting part, you take in its 
Welfare- We are, with respect. 


Your most Obedient Servants 
James Habersham 
P. S. You will receive by this Convey- N Jones 
ance a Copy of our Last to you of the Jams Edwd Powell 
15th Ultimo pr Mrs Russell on board Alexr Wylly 
the John Galley Caotn Hulme John Milledge 

J Attolenghe 
Willm Ewen 
N. W. Jones 

^6 The Letters of 

To Mr Joseph Tuckwell ) Savannah in Georgia 

at Wallingford ) the i8th May 1765 

pr the Richard and Benjamin ) 
Capt Robinson 

I received your Letters of the 2d 
October and 4th November last, but too late supposing I 
could have got Freight to ship you Rice to arrive the begin- 
ning of February, and in regard to Indigo and Deer Skin, I 
have not been able to procure any that I would recommend- 
Both these Articles, especially the former, I am perhaps as 
well acquainted with as any here, as I lived some years with 
a dry Salter in London- Our clear Creek Leather is now 
rather esteemed better, than Cherokee, and I am told is pre- 
ferred in London, which I well know w^as not the Case 
Twenty years agoe, but it is ingrossed by the Merchants who 
supply the Indian Traders, in Payment, and as it generally 
turns out a tolerable remittance they do not chuse to sell 
here except it may be some ordinary Trash, which no Body 
that knows what they are about, will buy, and this is the true 
reason, that makes it extremely difficult for a Person out of 
Trade to get any Quantity of Leather, that would be worth 
shipping- Mr James Read to whom I have sold your House 
and Lott, had the heavy Misfortune of having his Barn and 
whole Crop of Rice except a very trifling part of it destroyed 
by Fire last January, a loss not less than £6 or 700 £ Sterling 
to him, which has disenabled him from paying me the whole 
of the Money due you and indeed I was too sensibly affected 
with his loss to press him in the Manner, I woud otherwise 
have done, and especially as I knew it was not in his Power 
to comply with my Demand, without distressing a numerous 
and worthy Family, however I have got about One Hundred 
Pounds, and have now enclosed you a good Bill of Exchange 
drawn by John Martin Brolzins the 29th Ult on Rev Thomas 
Broughton payable at 30 days sight to Messreurs Russell 
and Clay for Eighty-five Pounds sterling for which I gave 
£8 pr Ct Advance, that you will give Credit for £71-16-0- I 
obtained this Bill through favour and must acquaint you, that 
every Man in Trade here woud rather buy Bills at that Pre- 
mium to make their Payments in England, than to ship Pro- 
duce which has generally been done from hence for some 
years past at a much greater Disadvantage, than £8 pr Ct 
loss, however if you do not approve of this Method, what 
may further come into my Hands of yours, shall, if in my 
Power be sent vou direct- Its verv difficult to eet Freieht 

Hon. James Habersham. J7 

for Rice early after the new Crop comes in, as Ships, that 
have been usually loaded here have been chartered, and the 
Charterers do not chuse to let out Freight in early Ships, 
tho they sometimes will do it in Vessels, that arrive later in 
the Spring when the Markets become more glutted and dull, 
however a Conveyance may offer by a general Ship, or I may 
have Interest to get Freight in a chartered one, and if I can 
in either Case succeed, (I mean in an early going Vessel, for 
late ones too often turn out bad to the Shippers) I hope to 
send you some Rice, if not, I will endeavor to ship you some 
Leather or Indico, tho of the latter none can be got till the 
present Crop comes in- You dont mention if I shoud ship 
any of those Articles, to whom I must address in London- I 
expect Mr Read will complete his Payment after the present 
Crop, which will be in December or January next- You hint 
you cannot think, it can answer the Purchasers End to pay 
so large an Interest as £8 pr Ct, and therefore seem to draw 
an unfavorable Conclusion- A few years agoe our Legal In- 
terest was iio pr Ct, and it was also the same in So Carolina, 
but as the Country became more wealthy it was reduced by 
Law to i8 pr Ct in this Province, as well as in Carolina, 
which I am persuaded can be as well if not better paid by a 
Carefull Person either in the commercial or planting way 
here, than £5 pr Ct with you- I have within a few Days past 
sold a Tract of Land to as substantial a Man, as any among 
us, for two year Credit with legall Interest, and its probable, 
I may not get paid in three years, and was to take in Charge 
what Books and Papers I have of the late Mr Brownfields'- 
I have always disliked being charged with Letters of Attor- 
ney, and those I have acted under have been in a Manner 
forced upon me, and had I not been actuated by other views, 
than mercenary ones, I should never have been concerned 
in one, and thereby have escaped a great deal of Fatigue and 
no little anxiety and Inconvenience to myself, I think with 
you, the plainest way of expression, the best, and am Sir 

Your most hble Servt 
P. S. 

Perhaps you may suppose my declining to act further 
may be particular to you- In what I have signifyed to sev- 
eral others, I have been concerned for, as retirement and 
quietness must be desireable to any one of my years, especi- 
ally after a hurried residence in a hott and inervating Climate, 
and for this Purpose I have long quitted an advantageous 
commercial Business 

^8 The Letters of 

To William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

In London July the 17th 1765 

pr the Georgia Packet Capt Anderson ) 

Dr Sir 

I have now before me your 
favour of the 20th March last, which was delivered me by 
]\Ir Grahame/ whose short Stay here i have endeavored to 
make as agreeable to him, as possible, as well on his own ac- 
count, as He seems very deserving, as on your Recommen- 
dation and I must tell you, that He appeared so well pleased 
with us, as to wish it was his Lott to remain here- Mr Yonge 
has freely furnished him with every Document relative to his 
Of^ce, and Mr Elliott has (at my request) given him very am- 
ple Instructions in regard to the Receiver General's Office, 
who if not better acquainted with it, than the present Occu- 
pant is more capable of communcating his Ideas. I have 
reed of the Treasurer your Salary &c, and of Mess Martin & 
Roche your respective rents, and have put in for some Silk 
Bills for you, and when I get them, you shall have your Ac- 
count Current as usual- I have paid your Bond to Marg'ret 
Miller for £20 due last Oct with Inte.est- My Eldest Son 
James has been in trade with Mr Clay since ist Janry last, 
who I have already assisted with £4 and 500, and as soon as 
convenient, I intend to make it iiooo- This with my having 
built a small but convenient Habitation at Savannah, and the 
larger Purchase (£1400) I lately made of Negroes of Mr 
Grey Elliott has straitned me a little for the present- I think 
your Balance now in my Hands is about £267 of which I have 
paid the Commissary ±200 for Bills for you, and will it be 
inconvenient to leave the remaining £67 in my Hands for not 
more than a year? I woud Dy no means incommode you, and 
if you cannot conveniently comply with my request, I have 
so much confidence as to believe, you will say so and I will 
endeavor to fall on some means to send it to you, as soon 
as possible, after I know your mind- As I want no Proof 
of the Sincereity of your Friendship, I expect, if you im- 
mediately want your Money, that you only say so, without 
making any apology or Exolanation, for I woud not willingly 
put a Difficulty on any one, much less on my Friend- I have 
really by one Way or another paid upwards of £2000 on my 
own Account this year but as I nov/ intend to make no more 
Purchases/ at least, till I can do it with every Convenience, 
I hope in one year to make all my Matters perfectly easy- I 

Silk Hope was fiituatecl on the lyittle OKeechee river, about seven miles souttiwest of 

Hon. James Habersham. ^g 

have now Hands sufficient to make 700 Barrils Rice annually 
on my two Plantations without Hurry and too much driving, 
and if I continue in my present Sentiments, I dont think of 
buying more- This year I hope to send to Market between 
6 and 700 barrils Rice- But I have said too much about my 
Affairs- I hope before now Mrs Russell is safe in England, 
and sorry I am to hear that her worthy Husbands Disorder 
is like to continue without Remedy- I hope God will be his 
Support under the heavy Calamity, and prepare him for that 
Place, where Pain and Sorrow cannot enter- Pray tender 
him my best regards- You mistake the Case in regard to 
the College Lands, the Govr and Council on Mr Whitefields' 
Memorial prior to the Address of both Houses of Assembly 
to his Excellency, granted 2000 Acres of Land towards its 
Endowment- I expect Mr Whitefield will soon be in Eng- 
land, when a Charter will I hope, be obtained from the 
Crown, and the Plan of the College setled, and, in Conse- 
quence, a well qualified President and Tutors sent out- Be- 
tween you and L for so it must remain, I believe Lord D- 
too will be the Patron and probably the Principal Mover- If 
there should be Occasion, would not you interest your noble 
Friend in its behalf I have no doubt of your personal good 
Will and best Endeavours to promote it, which will not only 
be an acceptable Service to the Province in General but to 
the Legislature in particular who have its Accomplishment 
much at Heart- I cannot conceive, who shoud report with 
you, that I was dead, I thank God I have had no material 
Sickness, since you left the Province to ground such a Re- 
port, and am as likely to live a few years longer, and perhaps 
more so, than ever you saw me,- Since my dear little 
Woman's Death, I have almost wholly resided in this Town- 
Silk Hope, after that Event became and indeed is now rather 
disagreeable to me- I suppose I dont now sleep there more 
than once in 14 Days, and as I find the Rice Field pernicious 
to my Health, I must acknowledge, that I am become so lazy, 
that I scarcely go through it once in a Season, and yet, I 
suppose my Business is as well executed, as any Planters in 
the Province- However every thing with me in the planting 
Way is reduced into a kind of regular System- In short I 
am now a perfect Citizen of Savannah, and that has made 
me lay out 4 or 500 i in a neat and comfortable Habitation 
in it- The Governor and I are upon the most friendly and 
intimate Terms, and most of my vacant Hours are spent with 
him- I dont know, whether I acquainted you tliat M. G. El- 
liott has been advised b}' his Friend's to stay here (after He 

4^0 The Letters of 

had even sold all his House Furniture) and practice the Law; 
He has accordingly been admitted by the Court, and I verily 
believe will make it answer his wishes- He and I, Powell, 
Martin &c and indeed the whole Council, except our fickle 
Friend, are on the best Terms- Poor Martin who has been 
too much used to losses, had his valuable Jack Andrea 
drowned before this Town last Ni^"ht- Pie is now in my 
House trying to get a little Sleep, having been deprived last 
Night of that Comfortable Refreshment, from his Concern 
for his faithful Servant- I have seen your printed Letter- 
In perusing it I soon knew it to be yours, returned it to the 
Governor, and desired it might not get abroad, fully per- 
suaded, it woud not suit our present Meridian- I have it not 
by me, or might probably give you some Remarks on it- I 

Dr Sir 

Yours &c 

William Knox Esqr Georgia i8th July 1765 

(pr ship Geo. packet Geo Anderson) 


Your respected Letter of 
the 20th of March ulto, we duly received and is now before 
us giving us a detail of the further progress of the stamp 
duty Bill, and that you defer'd taking any step, or preparing 
any petition until you saw the petitions of the other Agents 
and the reception they met with from the House of Commons 
that the Agents thought proper to meet to consult upon the 
form of the petition they were to present and as a general 
petition was proposed, you prepared one, a Copy whereof 
we received with your aforesaid Letter and highly approve 
your avoiding any expressions that might tend to call in 
question the Authority of parliament or give Motives for an 
Objection t j your having a hearing, which we are of oppin- 
ion you would have obtained had the other Agents joined 
you therein and had that point been once gained you would 
have had a fair Opportunity of laying before the Honble 
House the real hardships it would be upon America, should 

This letter Is of special interest, as it reflects the feeling of the most conservative men 
of the Province towards the Stamp Act then pending in Parliament. The Stamp Act was 
passed this year and wnt into effect on Novemt)er 1. It was repealed the following year. 
Mr. Knox greatly offended the people of Georgia hy his advocacy of this Act, and for this 
reason he was for a time discontinued as Agent for the Province. James Habersham 
<leemed it a very unwise measure and sincerely desired its repeal. 

Hon. James Habersham. ^z 

such a Bill pass into a law much better than thro' the medi- 
ence of an elaborate Remonstrance. 

We are very sensibly concerned 
that the Bill has passed and most earnestly desire and recom- 
mend to you to watch every opportunity either jointly with 
the other Agents or seperately by yourself of Removing the 
grievance by petitioning for a repeal of the Act as we fear it 
may prove of fatal Consequence to some of the Colonys 
should, they go too great lengths in denying the Authority 
of parliament for we believe more may be gained by humbly 
and dutifuly remonstrating than by any other Method which 
we can make no doubt but your Conduct as it hitherto has 
done will verify ; We would not however have you from hence 
infer but that you should join with the other Colony Agents 
in any and every petition or Remonstrance that may be 
thought right to prefer provided the subject matter of them 
is not improperly expressed. 

We also desire you will again 
endeavour with the other Agents to get the Law imposing 
so high a duty upon Wine and Spirits Licences repealed or 
at least lowered, and as we have a thorough confidence in 
your integrity and ability knowing you will do everything 
in your power for the service of this infant province we shall 
not Enlarge further than to Reffer you to our former letters 
and assure you that we are with regard 

Your Obedt & very humb Servants 
Jas Habersham 
P. S. Enclosed we transmit you N Jones 
Copys of our last letter & the Jams Edwd Powell 

Resolutions of Council- Lewis Johnson 

N. W. Jones 
J Attolenghe 
Pat Houstoun 

To The Rev Mr George Whitefield) Savannah the 

in London 17th August 1765 

Rev and Dr Sir 

After many particulars respecting 
myself and Family, I added the following 

Whltefleld and Habersham were devoted friends. They came to Georgia together in 
the same ship in 1738, worlted together in the Orphan House at Bethesda, and in many ways 
aided the great philanthropist in his work. Whitefleld's death was a severe shock to 

4-2 The Letters oj 

I dont reccollect, whether I ac- 
quainted you that I have taken the sole Management of the 
settlement of your Nephew's Afifairs, and hope to bring them 
to a Conclusion about Xtmas next- I have already sold 
goods and got in debts to ascertain about 14s in the Pound, 
and think He will be able to pay 15s or I5s/6d and as I shall 
have it in my power to shew, by the most clear and authenic 
Accounts that He has honestly and without reserve or pre- 
varication given up all for the general Benefit of his Cred- 
itors, and without making any Conditions with them, I must 
suppose, that they will think themselves in Honor and Jus- 
tice bound to give him a general and full Acquittance- You 
know how he was circumstanced, when you was here. He 
has an ill assorted Parcel of Goods, was pressed for pay- 
ments, and consequently his Credit was bad, and as He was 
paying Interest, and must live, the longer he went on. He 
woud be more incapable of satisfying his Creditors I there- 
fore on Behalf of his Creditors advised him to give up all, 
and tho' some of the principal of them were at too great a 
distance to enter in to any Terms with them, they must on 
Examination, see. He acted for their general good by mak- 
ing an Assignment for their equal Benefit, which is done- I 
shall further observe, that if his Debts were all good, and 
his Jewelry and other Trumpery (by no means suitable for 
this place) had sold for the cost He woud have paid near, 
if not full 20s in the pound- I mention this to shew that He 
had not squandered away his Creditors Money, and I must 
say, because it is Truth, that very, very few unfortunate Men, 
can give so good and clear an Account, as your Nephew, to 
his Creditors- I have bought for Mrs Whitefield (your 
Neice) her Negroe Servant and Child, and some of their 
House Furniture, which I shall make over to Trustees to 
her and her heirs- This I am enabled to do by your Bounty 
of £50, which you will pay Mrs Beckman and as I am well 
intitled to some commission for my Trouble, (which has not 
been a little) which I suppose will be £35, I shall give her 
every farthing of it. I am now in my new House at Savan- 
nah, where I have tolerable Accomodations for you, and 
your Nephew lives in our Friend Harris's House. He has 
begun De Novo with a small Apartment of Goods, and as 
far as I can judge does tolerably well, I mean he may pay 
his House Rent, and maintain his family without running 
in Debt, which is the utmost I expect. The Governor has 
promised me the first Office for him, that may fall, and be 
worth his acceptance, for- Vvdiich you and I must be greatly 

Hon. James Habersham. ^j 

obliged to him. However he has not much in his power, but 
every Httle will help. I believe your Nephew will not take 
any material step without consulting me, and if it is in your 
power to give him some further pecuniary Assistance, I 
think you will bestow it properly, and I believe He will have 
no Objections at your doing it through my hands. By the 
step he has taken, his mind is freed from a thousand Anxie- 
ties, and perplexing Embarrassments that tortured him when 
you was here, and he is really a different Man, and as such, 
I honestly recommend him to your Countenance. By his 
Assignments to me he acknowledges himself indebted- 

( others) 

To Mr Beckman with Interest . . . .558. 5.4 

To Mr Justice 31. 11. 2 

To Mr Bush 20.16.2 

Mr Dixon will receive Mr Cox's dividends here, and I men- 
tion the above, because I suppose you look on yourself as in- 
terested for them. Mr Beckman's dividend will I suppose 
be about £420 so that after you have paid him £50 for your 
Nephew there will remain here about £370. Mr Justice's 
Dividend will be about £24, which I understand Andrew 
Hibben in Charlestown is empowered to receive and there 
will be coming to Mr Bush about £15. 12.0 besides i8s more 
that I have in my hands, in all £16.10.0. Now if you want 
to remit money here for your intended College, you woud 
greatly serve your friends Mr Beckman and Mr Bush to get 
their Drafts on me of the former for about £370, and of the 
latter for about £16.10. By this means you will at least save 
them £8 if not 10 pr Ct as Bills on London are not to be had 
here for less, and are usuallv difficult to be got. I dont mean 
that Mr Beckman should draw on me. for more than half 
at once, not only because I cannot possitively ascertain what 
his dividend may be, but at least one half of Mr Whitefield's 
goods have been sold on credit, in order to make the most 
of them and will not become due till X (Christmas) next, 
and as you know how business is too often done here, it may 
be two, four or six months after, before I get paid. On 
Second Thoughts I believe it will be most proper for Mr 
Beckman not to draw on me, but to give a letter of Attorney, 
to some person that is now or may be here. Suppose your 
intended President or my Nephew Joseph Clay) to receive 
his Dividend and give legal acquittances, and such Attorney 
may be directed about the disposal of his Money, and I sup- 
pose it would be equally necessary for Mr Bush to do the 
same, otherwise I know not how I can get legally discharged 

44^ The Letters of 

for the payments I may make. I dont recollect that I have 
any thing to add on this Head, only that yon will see by the 
foregoing that Capt Thompson's debt is precisely on the 
same footing with the other Creditors 

Yours & c 
P. S. 

I have not forgot your Maedeira Wine when I can get 
any thing worth sending. One of Mr Whitefield's Creditors, 
who I thought wou'd have been the hardest with him, told 
me a few days past that He had acted so just and fair, that 
He not only wou'd give him a full Discharge on receiving 
his Dividend, but should propose to his Creditors to make 
him some return to begin the World again, and as Mr Beck- 
mans debt should have had the preference (if any should be 
given) his fully authorizing a person to settle and finally ac- 
quit your Nephew^ will doubtless have a good Eflfect on the 
rest of his Creditors, which from his Christian and humane 
Character I have no doubt of his doing. His motive at first 
was evidently to secure your Nephew and I have no doubt 
of the same Motive continuing to operate to the last. 

Savannah 28th October 1765 
To William Knox Esqr- London 
Dr Sir, 

Our Assembly met the 22d Instant, and to- 
day I was informed, that an order was made requiring their 
committee to lay before the House, yours and the Commit- 
tees Correspondence- Your letter intitled, the Claims of the 
Colonies examined has given the greatest Umbrage, and I 
am afYraid has not left you a single person, who will open 
their mouths for you in the Assembly, and I think not one 
of your friends up Stairs can justify your making that pub- 
lication, tho' some of them have endeavored to ofYer the best 
reasons, that presented, to soften your taking that Measure- 
I am sure your particular friend here does not approve of it, 
and very heartily wishes it had never appeared- I have read 
with great attention Mr Campbells Pamphlet, called if I 
recollect, the late Regulations of the Colonies considered, 
and notwithstanding your great enconium of the perform- 
ance, especially where you say, that he hath so fully answer- 
ed the objection the Colonies make to an internal Tax being 
imposed, where they are not represented, that you need not 
add thereon, T cannot my Dear Friend see that either you 
or he have advanced one real argument in support of the 

Hon. James Habersham. ^5 

Assertion- It appears to me an insult on the most common 
understanding to talk of our being virtually represented, and 
I must own, I cannot fix any precise idea to the word vir - 
tual, when we are speaking of the indefeasible Birth Right 
of a Brittish American Subject- Surely our residing in a 
Country Climate, where our persons & property, are subject 
to a thousand casualties and inconveniences (unknown to 
our fellow subjects in great Britain, and ultimately for their 
benefit) should not deprive us of being tryed by a Jury, or 
subject us to a taxation by tw^o Legislative bodies; one of 
them we indeed chearfully submit to, because chosen by our- 
selves to represent us, and as they know our situation and 
circumstances, they are consequently best qualified to im- 
pose any necessary burdens upon us, but the others cannot 
(I speak with submission) surely think themselves possessed 
of those very essential and absolutely necessary qualifica- 
tions- We have not yet seen the Stamp Act here, but we 
are told it empowers the Court of Admeralty (where a jury 
is not admitted) to take cognizance of causes arising there- 
upon,~This, to me is not a little alarming, and I may per- 
haps add, is so to every individual inhabitant of this Prov- 
ince, if not of this Continent- I have neither of these Pam- 
phlets to refer to and am not so vain as to pretend to con- 
fute the Arguments advanced for support of the Parliament 
to tax the Americans, but I say, that your reasoning appears 
to me the most plausible, tho' upon the whole, I think your 
Superstructure wants a Foundation, being wholy founded 
on prescription, and not on any rights invested by the Amer- 
icans in any Man or body of men in Parliament to represent, 
and consequently tax them- I know many Laws have been 
made by Parliament to regulate the trade of America, some 
of which have been found oppressive, and therefore have 
been scarcely ever executed, and its plain from the late re- 
duction of the Duty on Syrrups, that it has appeared so- I 
know likewise, that a tax passed to make our real Estates 
Assets, which always aopeared to me very just, yet all this 
only presumes a right, but does not prove any invested or 
delegated power of Legislation in Parliament to tax the 
brittish Americans, especially to load them with a burden 
thev cannot possibly subsist under- I have been told, that 
the Stamp Act, would raise Annually in South Carolina Forty 
Thousand pounds Sterling to be paid weekly in Silver for 
ever, which is perhaps more hard money than finds its way 
into the Province in three vears on an average- I have al- 
ways thought the annual tax raised here, to support our in- 

4^ The Letters of 

ternal Polity is full as much as the inhabitants can bear, and 
suppose the Stamps here to produce only one eighth of what 
it would in So. Carolina, it would amount to as much in one 
year, as our Tax laws raise in three, and perhaps we have 
not £5000 in gold or Silver comes into the Colony in five 
years, tho' the Act would require it in one year- If this is 
really the case, as I verily believe it is, how must every in- 
habitant of this Continent shudder at the very thought of 
an act taking place according to my present apprehensions, 
must inevitably ruin them- But I may perhaps have said 
too much, and I am sure a great deal more, than I intended, 
when I began my letter, but I shall not apoligize further to 
my friend, as I am persuaded, he sincerely believes me to be 
his- The inhabitants of this place here have already begun 
to shew their public dislike to this Law, and I hope and very 
heartily wish, they may not, as some of the Northern people 
have done, carry it to an unjustifiable excess- You know 
my principle is to pay a conscientous regard to all orders 
and acts of Government, especially as a public cflficer, for no 
longer, than I could do so, no longer would I act in a pub- 
lic character, persuaded that the Crown have as good a right 
to faithful servants, as you & I have to those we pay wages 
to- I have not heard, whether the West India Islands have 
made any opposition to the Stamp Act, but as they have no 
other Medium of Trade, but Gold & Silver it may not oper- 
ate so hard on them as on us in regard to payment of the 
Stamps. My Dear Friend 

Your affectionate Servant 

William Knox Esqr pr Capt Arburkle 

Dear Sir) Savannah in Georgia 30th Oct. 1765 

I had the pleasure of writing you a short line by 
the Georgia Packet Capt Anderson, who sailed in July last, 
and intended it should be followed by a long Epistle or two, 
but the very Extraordinary hot Season, till within a few 
Weeks past, so much relaxed my Nerves and depressed my 
Spirits, that I could not give the least Attention to any Busi- 
ness, and notwithstanding the innumerable Difficulties that 
presented against my leaving the Country. I had almost 
determined to retire to a Climate where I might (if not live) , 
at least breath out the few Days I have to remain here. I 
thank God I am now something better, and from a total 

Hon. James Habersham. ^y 

want of Appetite, begin, if not to like, yet not to love the lit- 
tle Victuals I eat. The Ship that conveys this, Carry's our 
Silk, and as soon as she sails, the Certiticates for Payment 
of it will be delivered, and out of ii6oo I have got £200 for 
you which you may expect by first Conveyance by way of 

I am at a loss to guess the Reason 
of not hearing from Mr Ellis, especially in Regard to the 
Suit depending about his Thunderbolt Lands, but as I have 
wrote several Times to him about them, I shall say no more 
unless He thinks them worth Contesting for. Our Assem- 
blv met the 22nd Instant and to day, I was informed that an 
Order was made requiring their Committee to lay before the 
House Your's and the Committee's Correspondence. Your 
letter intitled " The Claim of the Colonies examined" has 
given the greatest Umbrage, and I am afraid has not left 
you a single Person, who will open their Mouth for you in 
the Assembly, and I think not one of your Friends up Stairs 
can justify your making that Publication, tho' some of them 
have Endeavoured to offer the best Reasons, that presented, 
to soften your taking that Measure. I am sure your particu- 
lar Friend here does not approve of it, and very heartily 
wishes it had never appeared. I have read with great Atten- 
tion Mr Campbells Pamphlet, called if I recollect, "The late 
Regulation of the Colon ys Considered," and notwithstanding 
your great Encomivmi of the Performance, Especially where 
you say that He hath so fully answered the Objection the 
Colonys make to an internal Tax being imposed where they 
are not represented, that you need not add thereon. I can- 
not my dear Friend see that either you or He have advanced 
one real Argument in Support of the assertion. It appears 
to me an Insult on the most common understanding to talk 
of our being virtually represented, and I must own, I can- 
not fix any precise Idea to the Word virtual when we are 
speaking of the indefeasible Birth Right of a Brittish Ameri- 
can Subject. Surely our residing in a Country and Climate 
where our persons and Properties are subject to a thousand 
Casualties and Inconveniences (unknown to our fellow Sub- 
jects in great Britain, and ultimately for their Benefit) should 
not deprive us of being tryed by Jury, or subject us to a Tax- 
ation by two Body's ; one of them we indeed chearfully sub- 
mit to, because chosen by ourselves to represent us, and as 
they know our Situation and Circumstances they are con- 
sequently the best qualif3'-ed to impose any necessary Bur- 
dens on us, but the other cannot (I speak with submission) 

48 The Letters of 

surely think themselves possessed of those very essential and 
absolutely necessary Qualifications. We have not yet seen 
the Stamp Act here, but are told it answers the Court of Ad- 
miralty (where a Jury is not admitted) to take cognizance 
of Causes arising thereupon. This to me, is not a little 
alarming, and I may perhaps add is so to every individual 
Inhabitant of this Province, if not of this Continent. I have 
neither of these Pamphlets to refer to, and am not so vain, 
as to pretend to confute the Arguments advanced for sup- 
port of the Parliment to tax the Americans, but I must say, 
that your Reasoning appears to me the most plausible, tho' 
upon the whole, I think your Superstructure wants a Foun- 
dation, being wholly founded on Prescription, and not on 
any right invested by the Americans in any Men or Body of 
Men in Parliament to represent- and consequently tax them. 
I know many Laws have been made by Parliament to regu- 
late the Trade of America, some of which have been found 
oppressive, and therefore have been scarcely ever executed, 
and it's plain from the late reductions of the Duty on Syrups 
that it has appeared so. I know likewise, that a Law passed 
to make our real Estate assets, which always appeared to me 
very just, yet all this only presumes a right but does not 
prove any invested or delegated Power of Legislation in Par- 
liament to tax the Brittish American, especially to load them 
with a Burden they cannot possibly subsist under. I have 
been told that the Stamp Act wou'd raise actually in So 
Carolina forty Thousand Pounds Sterling to be paid weekly 
in Silver forever, which is perhaps more hard money than 
finds it's way into that Province in three years on an Aver- 
age. I have always thought the Annual Tax raised here, to 
support our internal Polity is full as much as the Inhabitants 
can bear, and suppose the Stamps here to produce only one 
Eight of what it wou'd in So Carolina, it wou'd amovmt to 
as much in one year as our Tax Laws raise in three, and per- 
haps we have not £5000. in Gold or Silver comes into the 
Colony in five years tho' the act wou'd require it in one year. 
If this is really the case, as I verily believe it is, how must 
every Inhabitant of this Continent shudder at the thought 
of an Act taking Place, which according to my present ap- 
prehensions must inevitably ruin them. But I may perhaps 
have said too much, and I am sure a great deal more than I 
intended when I began my letter, but I shall not apologuze 
further to my Friend, as I am persuaded, He sincerely be- 
lieves me to be His. The Inhabitants of this Place have al- 
ready begun to shew their public Dislike to this Law, and 

Hon. James Habersham. ^p 

I hope and very heartily wish they may not, as some of the 
Northern People have done ; carry it to an unjustifyable Ex- 
cess. You know mv Principle is to pay a conscientous Re- 
gard to all Orders and Acts of Government, especially as a 
Public Officer : for no long-er than I could do so, no longer 
wou'd I act in a public Character, persuaded- that the Crown 
have as good a right to faithful Servants as you and I have 
to those we pay Wages to. I have not heard whether tho', 
the West India Islands have made any Opposition to the 
Stamp Act, but as they have no other Medium of Trade, 
but Gold and Silver, it may not operate so hard on them, as 
on us in regard to the payment for the Stamps. 

Mr Jones has this day brought 
me unexpectedly his bills drawn in your favour on James 
Fitter Esqr for Thirty Pounds so long agoe as the 28th Jan- 
uary last. He lets you have them without any advance and 
says he promised them long agoe, and expected I wou'd call 
for them. I can only say, I forgot them, and you have now 
£2,0 more than I meant to send you this year. I wish I could 
send the Certificate for £200. but they will not be delivered 
till this Ship is actually sailed. I can scarcely hold my pen 
to subscribe my dear Friend 

Your Affectionate Servant 
P. S. 

You have the first of Mr Jone's Bill for £30. enclosed. 

William Knox Esqr in London) Pr the Greenville Packet 
via Charleston Savannah in Georgia 4th Deer 1765 

Dear Sir) 

My last to you was dated the 28th October past, 
which was forwarded by the Neptune Capt Arbuckle from 
this Port, and did little more than enclose our Treasurer 
Jones's first Bill in your favour on James Fitter Esqr for 
Thirty Pounds, and now I send you the second Bill and two 
of our Governor's Certificates for One Hundred Pounds 
Each, one payable to myself and the other to you. I was 
advised to take one in my own name, by our mutual Friend, 
as no Person in Trade was by his order to have more than 
£250. of these Certificates, and no Private Person (unless 
for Sums provided for in the Tax Laws) to have more than 
iioo. If the Packet which conveys this had not offered, I 
know not when I should have had an opportunity of writing 
to you, as I suppose all the Ports to the Northward of us 

50 The Letters of 

are shut up, as well as ours, occasioned by not admitting the 
Stamp Act to operate. Tlie Infection began in Boston, and 
has spread itself all the Way to this Place, and I am afraid, 
too many of us mean to be as good Patriots as our Northern 
Neighbors, notwithstanding we do it to our manifest Injury : 
I say to our manifest Injury, for altho' I really look upon the 
Stamp Act, as an ill advised Measure, and that, as it stands 
must prove very burthensome to the Inhabitants of the Con- 
tine t, yet I cannot see, that our refusing to receive the Stamp 
and consequently stoping up our Ports, the Courts of Jus- 
tice, and in short all Public Offices, can have the least Effi- 
cacy, towards obtaining a Repeal of it, but on the Contrary 
must (if adhered to for a few months) go near to ruin this 
Province, and many other innocent Persons in England, who 
have an undoubted right to receive Payments from us. But 
this at present is a very unpopular Subject, and a Man that 
will dare to deliver his free Sentiments for Moderate Meas- 
ures is threatened to be mobbed, and I know not what. Thus 
are we almost deprived of thinking, by those who call, or 
rather miscall, themselves the Sons of Liberty. However I 
have dared to give my opinion against the Violence of the 
many misguided and over heated Persons, to several that 
I thought more temperate, tho' I must own with too little 
Success, and therefore I shall for the Future say little on this 
Head, till Popular Clamour and Passion subsides, when I 
have no doubt of being thought a real Son of Liberty. You 
will doubtless learn from other Hands, that our Assembly 
have resolved, that they have no further Occasion for your 
Service as their Agent, notwithstanding I- Cannot learn, 
that on a Scrutiny of your Correspondence, they could or 
did blame your Conduct in any one Instance, therefore I 
must suppose some private unfavourable Impressions were 
perhaps industriously made to your Prejudice, tho' the rea- 
son offered by some was that you was not at full Liberty to 
serve us, being the Crown agent for East Florida, and by 
others, that you could not consistently oppose what you had 
in your 

(LTnfinished and lost) 

Hon. James Habersham. 51 

To Mr Wm Symonds Merchant in Philadelphia. 

Savannah in Georgia the 4th Dec 1765. 
Dear Sir. 

I think it more than a year agoe, since I had the 
Favour of a Line from you, but I do not mention this as a 
Complaint, as the fault lays more probably with me than with 
you, and if you agree to say no more about it I shall thank 
you as I must too sensible feel the least Reproach from you. 
I find I began a letter to you the 25th June last, when the 
Heat that then about set in, affected me so much, that I was 
obliged to postpone finishing it— We have had the hottest 
Summer and Fall I have ever experienced since I have known 
this Country, now near 28 years which so much relaxed my 
nerves and debilitated my Spirits that I have been till within 
a few weeks just incapable of giving scarcely any attention 
to business and notwithstanding the many Dif^culties that 
presented against my leaving this Country I had almost de- 
termined to do it. 

My Son Joe writes me from Philadelphia, 
of the 9th Ultimo that he had been, and then was, with you 
during Vacation and was about to return to College, where 
he lately entered with honor the Sophmore Class. This I 
have also learnt from one Mr Hutson, who took a Bachel- 
lors Degree at Nassau Plall the last Commencement ; and as 
Joe likewise informs me that you are marryed to as fine a 
Lady as any any one in Philadelphia, allow me to send you 
mv very sincere Congratulations on the happy event, and in 
particular make my best wishes and most cordial Salutations 
acceptable to the Lady, who as well as yourself must have 
laid me under many obligations for your mutual kindness to 
my dear Boy, who mentioned both your Civilities to him, 
but I must own speaks most feelingly of the Lady's. I wish 
I could acquaint you, that you might return the Compliment 
to me, but I really begin to think that I shall never be so 
happy as to give you an Opportunity— I must tell you that 
I am very proud of Joe's letter as it discovers a Manly sense 
of men and Things, and therefore I expect He will write me 
often, for this letter is the only one, I have received from 
him, since I parted from him at Prince Town; and surely a 
tender Father has rather a right to more gratification than 
a single letter in two years. I wish you would greatly re- 
prove him on this Head. Jemme has his Health very well, 
is extremely well in Business and is greatly Caressed being 

JKMME, referred to here, was the eldest son of James Habersham. He was a merchant 
In Savannah. He Is elsewhere referred to as "the gentleman of the family," of a mild dis- 
position, and suffering later from bad health. 

S2 The Letters of 

perfectly good natured, which I am afraid as I have fre- 
quently cautioned him, will be the Rock He will split upon. 
God only knows how it may be, and I cannot help having 
My Fears, but as he does not want a tolerable share of good 
sense, I am in hopes he will make profitable reflections from 
what he sees and hears among a Volatile, but kind people 
as we really in general are in this End of the Earth, whether 
it may be owing to our Climate, or to other Causes, I shall 
not take upon me to determine, but certain it is that the In- 
habitants of a Cold Country are less sprightly and more ap- 
parently thoughtful than those of a Warm Climate. Dont 
laugh at me for my odd Chimeras. Be pleased to present 
my Hearty and very best respects to all Friends with you. 
May you and I be always under Gods Holy Keeping and do 
always what is pleasing in his sight, as that only can Con- 
stitute real Happiness. I have only to add that I am with 
great Truth Dr Sir 

Yours Etc. 

Richard Stockton Esqr at Prince Town New Jersey. 
Savannah in Georgia 20th Jan 1766 
Dr Sir. I have not known of any Vessel, that has gone from 
this Port to Philadelphia for a year past, and I think only one 
to New York, but I do not mean this by way of Excuse for 
not answering your kind Favour by Mr Bolton, as I might 
probably have wrote by way of Boston, as I do this, or per- 
haps by some other Post- I accuse myself for being so long 
silent, and will be obliged to you, if you will place it to the 
Account of a bad State of Health, and consequently an aver- 
sion to Thought and Business of all Kinds, than want of Re- 
spect and Friendship- But methinks your good Heart for- 
bids any further apology, therefore I will not add on this 
Head— I am more than obliged to you and all my good 
Friends in New Jersey, for the regard you and they express 
for me, and I wish to deserve vour favourable opinion, how- 
ever, I must say, that I never spent a few Days more agree- 
ably, than at Prince Town, and that you did not contribute 
a little to make them so- I have resided in this Colony now 
near 28 years, and as the Heat, for 3 or 4 months every year 
has so much debilitated my Constitution, that I dread the 
Approaching summer, you must suppose I wish to retire to 

James Habersham suffered much from gout. His desire to visit England was never 
gratified, but he did make a visit to New Jersey just before his death and died there in 
1775. See letters dated Jan. 7, 1774, and Feb. 3, 1774. 

Hon. James Habersham. ^j 

some more equal and temperate Climate- Last Summer and 
Fall I almost expected woud have rid me of all future trou- 
ble from either Heat or Cold, and as its desirable to pass 
my few remaining Days as comfortable as possible I very 
seriously thought of measures to remove to my Native Coun- 
try and only the Consideration that I would do better for 
my Children here, than there prevented my coming to a reso- 
lution to quit this Colony. In short the more I thought of 
it, the more Dufificulty presented. I am so connected here, 
and the almost impossibility of converting any considerable 
landed estate here into Cash in any reasonable Time, unless 
for perhaps a third, of its value, made me drop any further 
Consideration on that subject for the Present, nothwith- 
standing, I hope to break loose and make a Visit to England 
in a year or two, but if not there, perhaps it may be to your 
parts. I most cordially congratulate you on the increase of 
yr family and do heartily wish God may make them com- 
fortable to you and Mrs Stockton, to whom be pleased to 
present my sincere regards- Accept the same &c. 

To the Revnd Mr Samuel Finley of Nassau Hall Prince 
Town New Jersey. 

Savannah in Georgia the 20th Jan 1766. 
Revnd & Very dear Sir. 

I shall not attempt to excuse my too 
long silence to you, but willingly acknowledge my Fault, and 
if you will forgive without chiding me too much I will thank 
you, as I must too sensibly feel the most tender rebuke from 
you especially as I promise to endeavour amendment for the 
future. At present my Heart is torn to pieces v/ith our pres- 
ent internal Distractions occasioned by the Stamp Act. I 
must and do dislike it, but I detest and abhor from every 
motive Human and Divine the Intemperate Zeal, to say no 
worse that has been shewn throughout this Continent on the 
Occasion— Surely such a Conduct must obstruct rather than 
forward a repeal of it and perhaps for the present put it out 
of the Power of the best of Kings to redress us. But I shall 
not obtrude on your precious moments with Politics unless 
to engage your addresses to him (who ruleth over the mad- 
ness of the People) to establish Peace, Harmony and Con- 
fidence amongst us~I have had a very bad share of Health 
for 9 months past, and very affectingly experienced that In- 
firmities and Age keep pace to-gether, and tho', as the cool 
weather came on, I found my Nerves begin to brace up, yet 

S4- The Letters of 

the late Disturbances have so chagrined me, that I scarce 
experience any Benefits from one of the finest winter Cli- 
cates in the World. I had a letter from my son Joe dated 
from Philadelphia the 9th Nov. last. He informs me that 
he has entered the Sophmore Class, he hopes with Honor, 
and I think his letter rather sensible and manly I make no 
doubt of his making solid improvement. I saw one Mr Hut- 
son who had a Bachellors Degree Conferred on him the last 
Commencement at Nassau Hall, and he gave me a good ac- 
count of Joe— I have heard but once from our Friend Mr 
Whitefield since he arrived in England, where he found his 
very pious and particular friend Lord Dartmouth at the Head 
of the Board Of Trade, which I trust will not only be a fa- 
vourable Circumstance to forward his Designs in this Prov- 
ince, but be beneficial to the whole Continent. I do not for- 
get the kindness of Good Mrs Finley & your whole family 
to me when at Prince Town, to whom I desire you will make 
my regard acceptable and be assured, that I am Really Revnd 
and dear Sir 

Your afifectionate and very hble Servt 

Pray assure Mr Forman and all inquiring Friends that I wish 
them all happiness. 

To the Rev Mr George Whitefield in London and the Friend- 
ship Capt Saml Ball 

Savannah in Georgia the 27th Jan 1766 
Rev and Very Dear Sir. 

I had the pleasure of writing you a long 
letter of the 17th August last, and intend now to give you all 
the News here, which however insignificant to almost all 
mankind, cannot be so to you, who are so much interested 
in our Welfare ; but we are in so much Confusion here about 
the Stamp Act that every Friend of Government and good 
Order, I may say of the Province, gives his whole attention 
to prevent, if possible, the most fatal Consequences— My 
very Flesh trembles while I am writing to you, at, I must 
say, the Madness of the People here, we mean to be as good 
patriots, as they have shewn themselves— Surely the violent 
measures that have been persued must rather retard than for- 
ward a repeal of the Act, which I must be free to say, I think 

was passed with too much Precipitation You know my 

Principle especially as a public of^cer, is to obey all orders 
and Acts of Government, for no longer, than I can do so. 

Ho7i. James Habersham. 55 

no longer will I act in a Public Character, persuaded that the 
Crown have as good a right to faithful! servants, as you and 
I have to those we pay wages to. On this account I have 
had an incendiary letter written to me, have been threatened 
to be mobbed at Night, and have my House pulled down, 
and while I am writing this, a friend has whispered to me to 
be in some Place out of, Town 2 or 3 days hence, least I 
should meet with some severe Insult which advice I shall 
follow, as we are well informed two or three Hundred Peo- 
ple are gathering together in the Country, and intend to 
encamp near the Town ; in order T suppose to intimidate the 
Governor and public ofiRcers to comply with their Demands— 
What they may be, I can only guess, but probably one will 
be to put a totall stop to issuing Stamp Papers, for you must 
understand that we have so far prevailed on the Sons of Lib- 
erty as they call themselves in this Town that the Stamp 
Papers be issued to clear out Vessells, otherwise I should 
not have had an opportunity of sending you this— We have 
now I believe. Sixty Sea Vessells in this Harbor, but I am 
afraid that Commerce will be again interrupted and all pub- 
lic ofificers, as well as Law Proceedings continue, as they 
have been since the ist Nov last, to be stopt. Dreadfull it 
is to find one's Person and Property at the Disposal of a 
giddy multitude for surely we are no longer Freeman, than 
the Laws of our Country can freely operate to protect 
them — I must insist on your not making a public use of this 
scrawl as I have not only wrote in a great hurry, but with un- 
reservedness~God bless you— I can say no more— ATy Heart 
bleeds— I shall only add that you have enclosed, a Bill of 
Lading for a quarter Cask Maidera Wine, which I think 
extremely good- It has lain by two or three months, and may 
have leaked, and want two or three quarts to fill it, but I do 
not chuse to mix any other wine with it I know you will ac- 
cept it as a small token of my unfeigned regard- Young 
Capt Ball has promised to take it in his Cabin and deliver 
it safe and in good order to you- I would have paid him 
the Freight, but he says that all Freights are paid in Lon- 
don- As the wine, I know, is extraordinary, I hope no adul- 
teration will be attempted on board, I am my dear Friend 

Yours most Afifectionately 

P. S. The People at Bethesda are all well. Our honest 
Governor has on this Critical occasion behaved like himself, 
I mean like a man of honor and a faithful Servant of the 

^6 The Letters of 

To Wm Knox in London. & the Friendship of Capt Ball 

Savannah in Georgia the 29th Jan 1766 
Dr Sir 

Your last letter that came to Hand was dated the 
22d June past and tho' I am not likely to succeed in a kind 
Help-mate, I heartily wish you may as no one more cor- 
dially wishes, your Happiness than I do) May it be soon and 
in every respect as yr Heart can desire- But my dear Friend 
I cannot now spend Time on so agreeable a Subject. We 
are here in the utmost confusion and our honest Governor, 
who will not submit an Inch to the phrenzy of an unthinking 
Mutitude, is laboring Night and day to prevent the worst 
Consequences- I think my self a person of no Consequence, 
however I have had an incendiary Letter sent me, have been 
waylaid in the night, threatened to have my House pulled 
down, which is now a new one, and well stored in every re- 
spect, and from a Hint from a Friend, I suppose it may be 
prudent for me to quit it 2 or 3 nights and leave our Friend 
Colin Harris in Possesion, while I take shelter unknown 
even to the Collonel in the Governors- Flow dreadful it is 
to have one's person and property under the Dominion of 
a Mob? O Liberty wither art tho' fled? Surely we can no 
longer be said to have a Shadow of it, than while the Law 
can freely operate to protect us. Good God ! did I ever ex- 
pect to see this day, and yet I think all will end well with us, 
perhaps better, than in any of the Northern Colonys, on this 
Side Nova Scotia. I know the Governor is thrust at 
through my Sides, but I will cheerfully bear it, Lewis John- 
son bears his share, and Martin, Harris, and Graham have 
not flinched on the occasion. You see how I am looked 
upon notwithstanding what I wrote you on the Stamp Act. 
I am still of the same opinion in regard to the main Points, 
but could wish to retouch my letter, however it was wrote 
to and from a Friend We have with indefatigable Pains got 
the Stamps to be quietly issued to clear out Vessells, of 
which we have now 60 in the Harbor, but in no other re- 
spect, consequently all Lav»^ Proceedings, and every thing 
in all public ofiices (except clearing Ships) is stopped. But 
I must have done with this disagreeable Subject, and ac- 
quaint you, that I sent you two of the same enclosed cer- 
tificates for £100 each by the Greenville Packet the 4th Ul- 
timo. God bless you I am truly, Dr Sir 

Yours Affectionately 

P. S. Capt Ball has been witness to all the terrible Con- 
fusion we have been in — 

Hon. James Habersham. 57 

Revnd Mr George Whitefield in London and the Countess 
of Sussex 

Savannah in Georgia 7th Febry 1766. 
Revnd and very dear Sir. 

I had the Pleasure of writing you by young 
Capt Ball the 22A ultimo, who sailed over our Barr, I am 
told, two days agoe, and by him I sent you a Cask Maiedera 
Wine, and then enclosed you a Bill of lading for it, and least 
it should miscarry I have now enclosed you the second- I 
think the Wine of the best Quality, and if it gets safe and 
free of Adulteration I hope you will find it so. I am now 
confined with a smart fit of the gout, and write with no little 
Difficulty — All are well at Bethesda- You will learn by Ball 
of the terrible Confusion we have been in here on account 
of the Stamp Act. I thank God it has at present blown over, 
without any considerable Damage to the Persons and Prop- 
erty of some who were threatened—Our Governor has be- 
haved with unusual Firmness & Spirit. If all his Majesty's 
servants on this Continent had done the same, probably The 
People woud not have carried their Dislike to the Act to 
the lengths, I am sorry to say- they have done- I must 
own, I have objections to the Act, and perhaps some of the 
Dutys imposed will prove too burdensome and unequal what 
must be the case when a general — tho' made by the wisest 
most August and respectable Body of Men is to operate 
among a Number of Individuals of whose particular situa- 
tion and Circumstances, they cannot be supposed to be per- 
fectly acquainted ; notwithstanding. I detest and abhor, from 
every motive human and divine the intemperate Zeal to say 
no worse shewn on this occasion throughout this Continent. 
Surely such conduct must obstruct rather than forward a 
repeal of the Act, and perhaps for the present put it out of 
power of the best of Kings to redress us. But I will not 
intrude on yr precious moments with Politics unless to en- 
gage yr addresses to him, who ruleth over the Madness of 
the People to establish Peace, Harmony, and Confidence 
amongst us God bless you- I can no more, only that I am 

To Mr Daniel Roubadeau in Philadelphia 

Pr Sloop Sarah James Stewart for Boston 
Savannah in Georgia the 17th Dec 1766- 
Dr Sir) 

I have not now time to inform you of the particulars 
of yr affairs here, only that I have finally settled with Read 

S8 The Letters of 

and Mossman, and have their note (now due) for the Bal- 
lance, yet coming to you, Namely ii77, 10,4 Sterling besides 
the Bill which they paid me now enclosed you for iioo Ster- 
ling drawn by our Governor on Abraham Mortier Esqr in 
New York.- I have done as for myself, and hope I shall meet 
with yr approbation, and by the next Conveyance will ac- 
quaint you of every particular. You will understand that I 
have yet to receive of said sum of £177, 10,4 Sterling with 
£8 PCt Interest, from the 4th Instant. I dont know of any 
Conveyance that has offered to yr City for almost, if not 
more, than a year past, probably occasioned by a report, 
that has prevailed here, that yr Assembly have pass'd an Act 
imposing a Duty of 5 pCt on rice, our principal Staple. This 
goes by way of Boston. We have here been in the utmost 
confusion about the Stamp Act, and God only knows how 
it may end. As we are almost in arms, one against another. 
Surely the Intemperate and indecent Zeal shewn on this Oc- 
casion cannot have the Effect desired, I mean that it must 
retard, rather than forward a repeal of this ill advised Act 
But I must conclude- We have agreed to make use of 
Stamps to open our Ports but on no other occasion, other- 
wise I should not have had this opportunity of writing to 
you. In Charlestown, the Port Continues as yet shut up. 
I did not know of this Conveyance, till within an hour past, 
or should have wrote to you more fully. We have upwards 
of 60 Sea Vessells in the Harbour, but have no Marine In- 
telligence by any News Paper, as our printer does not chuse 
to publish. I am Dr Sir 

Your most obt Serv 

J. H. 

To Samuel Lloyd Esqr in London 

Savannah 5th Sept-i 767- 
Dear Sir, 

If my Voice and all the influence I could have with 
my friends, could make you our provincial Agent, you would 
not want it, and I have mentioned among my select friends 
that I wished you if you would accept it, in the capacity, 
and indeed I have expected, that you would have at least 
succeeded the late Mr Martyn as Kings Agent, as some grat- 
ification for your services, when in Trust for this Colony 
especially as the emolument was better, more permanent, 

This letter is of special interest, as it shows how the Provincial Agent was created, and 
why Mr. Knox was discontinued. See letters dated Oct. 28, Oct. 80, and Dec. 4, 1765. See 
also letter dated March 31, 17G4. 

Hoyi. James Habersham. ^g 

less troublesome and not subject to the precarious humour 
of an American Assembly I doubt not but you know this De- 
partment is at present occupied by one Mr Campbel of 
Queens Square Holbourn- In regard to Mr Knox, the case 
stands thus- He did not stand well with some in the House 
of Assembly- I mean the house of Representatives, for you 
doubtless know, that the Legislature here consist of the 
Governor, Council & Assembly, who must respectively con- 
cur in every act of legislation, having some resemblance to 
the Legislature of Great Britain of King, Lords & Com- 
mons- The Council are appointed by the Crown, and act 
in two capacities namely, as a council of state to the Gov- 
ernor and as an Upper House in General Assembly- The 
Assembly (by which you will understand, I mean through- 
out this letter, the house of Representatives) are chosen by 
the Majority of Fifeeholders, and claiming the sole right of 
granting Money, as the Commons of Great Britain do, they 
also claim a right of nominating an Agent, because they say, 
they must provide for his Salary and for all other Expences 
in transacting the Provincial Business- The provincial 
Agent has hitherto been Annually appointed, and consequent- 
ly but for one year, by an Ordinance, in which the Council 
concur, and the Governor assents to it, and therein a Com- 
mittee of twelve persons are named and appointed to cor- 
respond with him, namely five of the Council & Seven of the 
Assembly ; and this I suppose to be the only legal way of 
constituting an Agent, and I also suppose, that without such 
an appointment, I mean by the three branches of the Legis- 
lature, no person would be received at the respective Boards 
in London as an Agent- Mr Knox having wrote something 
about the Stamp Act, which gave the Majority of the As- 
sembly disgust, in the midst of the Madness that possessed 
too many in America, they took upon them to order such of 
their members as were of the Committee, to write to Mr 
Knox, that they had no further occasion for his service- The 
Lipper House on the other hand voted their thanks to Mr 
Knox for his faithful services- This was near tw'O years ago- 
The Governor then recommended one Mr Cumberland to be 
their Agent, of which the Assembly took no notice, but sent 
their respective petitions to the King, Lords & Commons 
against the Stamp Act to Mr Garth Agent for South Caro- 
lina to present- Thus the affairs rested, till the last Session 
of General Assembly, when the Assembly sent up an Ordin- 
ance to the Upper House in the usual form to appoint Mr 
Garth Agent but they could by no means concur and agree 

6o The Letters of 

to it, Mr Garth being Agent for South Carolina, with which 
province we have very momentous affairs depending to be 
decided in England, and consequently the Upper house 
could not conceive, how Mr Garth could act in the same 
cause, for and against, and do justice to both provinces, and 
therefore they rejected the Ordinance; notwithstanding 
which, the Assembly did appoint a Committee of their own 
members to instruct and correspond with Mr Garth with- 
out any other appointment, than a bare resolution of their 
own House- This occasioned a disagreeable altercation be- 
tween the Upper House and the Assembly, and the matter 
has been fully stated to England, and now lays before the 
Ministry for their decission, which we daily expect- 

I am persuaded our happiness depends on our subor- 
dination to the Mother Country, and no longer; than that 
subsists no longer shall we be a free & flourishing People- 
By this time you see it is not in my power to gratify you in 
your inclination, however ardently I wish to do it- Please 
to make my Compliments acceptable to Mr Roberson- He 
must, from what he has seen, know much of what I have 
wrote, but had he been here during our late Tumults, he 
would have seen and heard, what I think must have made 
him very unhappy, as I am sure it has me- I am &c Yours 

James Habersham 

William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in New Street Hanover Square London the 17th Novr 1767 
pr Mr Hall 

Dr Sir 

About two Months agoe, 
I sent by Mr Hall, who had taken a Passage in the unfor- 
tunate Ship Hawke, a Coat and Breeches to get a Summer 
suit made by them- This Ship you will learn was cast away 
in a hard Gale of Wind near Sapalo with a valuable Cargoe, 
among which was our last years silk- All the crew and pas- 
sengers got safe on Shore, and Mr Hall goes to Charles- 
Town to take a passage from thence my coat and Breeches 
were lost in the Hawke, but Mr Hall is so obliging as to take 

This letter shows the close personal friendship existing between James Habersham 
and William Knox. The latter had not acted as Provincial Agent for some time, but he is 
here charged with having made for his friend a new suit of clothes, which, doubtless, he 
was glad to do in nstiirn for the many favorswhlch Habersham had shown him in looking 
after his business in (ieorgia. 

The minute directions given for the clothing throws an important light upon the style 
of dress worn at that time. He aoknowledg(!d the receipt of his clothes in a letter dated 
July 12, I7t;8, which see. See also letter dated June 10. 1771. 

Hon. James Habersham. 6i 

another Coat and Breeches to dehver yovi-I shall not apolo- 
gize for the Trouble I am now to give you, because I would 
not disoblige you-All my cloths are miserably spoiled by 
the Bunglers here, and after repeatedly trying new Hands, 
I am forced to this Method of getting a decent Garb 

I want a dress , plain and grave Col- 
oured Silk Coat- A black silk Waistcoat without sleeves, 
one pair of fine black frame knit silk stocking Breeches, and 
two pair of the finest frame knit black worsted stocking 
Breeches, as the best are the cheapest for common use- I 
chuse black Breeches, as they suit my coloured Coat, and I 
want the Black silk Waistcoat to attend funerals in Summer, 
for in that hot season, I always wear holland Jackets, except 
on these solemn occasions. 

In the Breeches Pocket now sent , you will find a piece 
of silk Grogram. of which I have a Coat that has now done 
its best after 3 Summers wear- The Colour I like, because 
I think it suitable for a man of near 55 years of age, and I 
onlv send it on account of the colour, that you may know, 
what I mean by grave, for otherwise I think it coarse, and 
would have something finer- However I entirely leave the 
choice to you. 

I suppose you will employ your own 
Taylor, and I would have him keep my Measure by him, in 
Case I may have Occasion to apply to him hereafter- you 
will observe, that I want a dress Coat, and that I dont send 
the Coat and Breeches for any other purpose, than to direct, 
as far as I can the size.- The Coat fits me at present tolerably 
well, is not cut quite full enough over the Breast, it is also 
about 13^ Inches too short in the Sleeve, and full 2^ Inches 
too short in the Skirts-These Defects the Workman will rec- 
tify- The Coat has been made 5 years-I would have my new 
Coat lined with something strong, and as light as possible, 
and the Taylor should particularly notice, that Cloaths can- 
not possibly be made too light and airv for Summer wear 
here. The Coat will doubtless direct him in the size of the 
Waistcoat-The Breeches now sent are about an Inch too 
short, and are a little too wide over the thigh, which the 
workman will advert to, in the Breeches to be made for me, 
and I shall add, that as I would not be quite in, neither 
would I be quite out of the fashion- What that may be,- I 
know not, but I apprehend a Cuff on the Sleeve, something 
like the Coat sent, may be as decent for a Man of my years 
as any-pray excuse this odd Epistle, and send the Workman 

62 The Letters of 

for payment of the whole to Mc Gillivary, Grahams and 
Clark- I had almost forj^ot to say, that I would have the 
Trimmings of the Coat quite plain, I mean the Buttons of the 
same Colour with the Coat, and send at least a dozen of spare 
Buttons, and some Remnants of the outside of the 
Coat, and lining to repair it, if necessary, and if 
two dozen of small Buttons and some Remnants of 
the Black silk vest were sent to mend, it would not 
me amiss, as you know such things are not always 
to be had here I would also have about an Inch let in on 
each side of the Coat and Jackett to let out, in case I should 
grow more Bulky, and any alteration should be needfull- 
Desire your Workman to send me Directions in his Bill how 
to write to him, and if he pleases me, I can then for the fu- 
ture send direct to him, without troubling you-I need not 
mention, as we all wear Drawers here, that the Breeches are 
not to be lined, and care will be taken to line the Seams with 
something strong- It's time to have done- I am dear Sir 
Your faithfull Friend and Svt 
James Habersham 
P. S. 

I believe I am a little round shouldered, and cannot 
wear a Coat, that is pinched there, and therefore I would 
not have the Coat and Waistcoat to be made a bitt less over 
the Shoulders, than the Coat sent-I am the more particular 
about the size, because if the Workman has once fixed my 
measure, there will be no need of a repetition on that head- 
I hope to have these Cloths to wear the 4th June next our 
Good King's Birth day- Pray direct the Taylor to have the 
Coat as light as possible, and if the Masster on the vessel! 
the Cloths are sent by, would put them in his Cabin or in 
some as dry place in the Ship, I would be much obliged to 
him, as I have frequently known Silks especially, very much 
spotted by the Heat of the Hold Tho' I have mentioned 
sending a pc of silk Grogram in the Breeches Pocket, I be- 
lieve I forgot to do it in the last pair, which are gone to 
Charles-Town, and therefore you will find a Bitt enclosed 

William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

In London the 4th December 1767 

Dr Sir 

My last to you was dated the 17th Ul- 
timo by Mr Hall a Resident Merchant of this Town, who 

Concerning Mr. KlIinKton mentioned here, see letters dated Dec. 31, 1770, and Jan. 9, 
1771. Also letter dated Jan. u, 1771. 

Hon. Javies Habersham. 6j 

went for England by way of Charlestown, and hearing of a 
Ship ready to depart from this Port for London, I must drop 
you a line, partly on my own affairs, and partly on yours,- 
I am obliged to you for pointing out the Error in my Preju- 
dice of i8 in the last account Current I sent you, which after 
reexamination I find to be so, and have accordingly charged 
you said sum in New Account 

Mr Ellington in his way to Augusta 
took up his Abode with me about a Month.- He preached 
here several Times with general Acceptance. I say general, 
because there were a few scofifers, which I think no bad tok- 
en-all allow him to be a pretty and pathetic Orator in the 
Pulpit, and an engaging Reader in the Desk- He strips the 
Creatures of all Dependance on himself, and preches Christ 
crucifyed as the only Foundation of all acceptance with God. 
This Nature cannot bear, for the world by Wisdom knew 
not God- A Paradox indeed, but so truly is Christianity to 
the wise of this world, however if I know anything of the 
Doctrine of all protestant Churches, and of the church of 
England in particular, Mr Ellington is with them- He had 
some tempting offers to stay in Carolina, where He was very 
much approved of, and I have the better opinion of him for 
refusing them- Mr Barnard and several Gentlemen from 
Augusta were here, and on their return took him with them, 
and if God gives the People hearing Ears, and obedient 
Hearts, He must be a precious Present to that Parish. I 
do not recollect any thing particular to add, but that I am 
with true regard to Mrs Knox, Dr Sir 

Yours &c- 

To Henry Laurens Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in Charlestown the 22 February 1768 

pr Mr Bruce 

Dear Sir 

I have now before me your favours of 
the 25th Ulto and the Qth Current, both which, I think I have 
not yet made any reply to- I am truly concerned, that you 
have been indisposed, because, if I know my own Heart, I 
wish you all Happiness- 

I thank you very kindly, 
for your offer to, accomodate my Son Joe, till He can be 
placed out, and I am very sensible of the Difficulty of get- 
ting him into a proper House in Charlestown, as I have now 
no interesting Connections there, which really puts me to a 

6^. The Letters of 

loss, how to dispose of him- Mr Clay seems to like him, but 
as my youngest Son John is in that House, and my oldest 
Son /. Jemme / is Mr Clay's Copartner, I, am afraid that 
Joe may not pay that DefTerence to his Brother, as may be 
right, and indeed three Brothers together in one employ are 
too many, tho' I believe they are as affectionate to each 
other, as any usually are ; but you know, there is a subjec- 
tion necessary to bring up Lads to Business, which it may 
be difficult for one Brother to exercise to another, and I am 
persuaded, such will think submission to a stranger more 
eligible and easy- I truly do not make this observation, be- 
cause I have any reason to suppose my Children less obedi- 
ent and docile, than others, but I think experience will gen- 
erally justify the remark. 

I have told Mr Bruce, if He comes here, that I 
will heartily render him any Service in my Power, and I flat- 
ter myself, that you have not many Friends more desirous 
of demonstrating on all occasions their esteem and regard 
for you, than, my Dr Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and Srt 

To William Knox Esqr London 

Savannah 7th May 1768- 
Our Assembly was dissolved about three weeks ago, 
and writs are issued for electing a new one- The spirit of 
opposition never was more violent, than now, and every 
election hitherto, which are this Town, the Sea Islands, Ver- 
nonbourgh & Acton have been carried against, what are now 
called, the Governor and his party, or more properly the 
friends of Government- I hear Mr Richd Crooke and young 
Mr Houstoun are arrived in Charlestown, and may probably 
have your letters- Pray did you enclose them to anyone in 
Charlestown or send them to find their way, without any in- 
termediate address to forward them- The upper House were 
of opinion, that the same objection remained against Mr 
Garths being appointed Agent this, as did the last year, be- 
cause from the dififerent interests of the two adjoining prov- 
inces, causes of altercation must naturally arise, and to com- 
promise with the Assembly, they agreed to appoint Mr 
Franklin the Philadelphia Agent, ours likewise by a Ordin- 
ance- For my part, I dont think he will act, as I apprehend 

Charles Garth was the Provincial Agent for Carolina, who for a time acted also as 
Agent for Georgia after the displacement of William Knox. See note to letter dated July 
27, 1764. 

Hon. James Habersham. 65 

his residence is properly in Philadelphia, and that his abode 
in London is only to answer a temporary service- Mr Garths 
letter did not come to the Assembly till Mr Franklin was 
nominated, but if it had, and I had seen your letter to the 
Governor concerninq- the Agency, perhaps the objections 
against Mr Garth might have had less weight- 

My dear Sir Yours- J- Habersham 

William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in London the 7th May 1768 

pr my Son Joseph in the 
Show Britania Capt Doone 

Dear Sir 

This I hope will be handed 
you by my second Son named Joseph, who has not his Health 
here, and goes to England hoping to obtain it there, in which 
I am persuaded, He will not be disappointed- 
He was at a College in new Jersey about 65^ years, and has 
been returned here about 16 or 18 Months, and I wish I 
could say his native air was as favourable to his Health, as 
I understand the Northern air was, tho' even there He tells 
me, some days in the Summer were very distressing to him,. 
He is very well all the Winter here, but in the hot summer 
months, and perhaps its as hot here, as in any part of the 
Globe, He is daily attacked with a violent Head Ach, which 
is accompanied with such a relaxation of his Nerves, as al- 
most to render him incapable of Business, and therefore 
wishes to spend a few years in a more temperate climate, 
where He hopes his Nerves would be braced up, and his con- 
stitution so strengthened, that if either necessity or conven- 
ience might oblige him to reside in a Climate, not at present 
so favourable to his Health, He would be the better able to 
bear it ; and as I am determined to gratify him in going to a 
more equal and cooler Climate, than Georgia, I would not 
hesitate to fix on England- He is I believe a tolerable 
classical Scholar, has, since He has been here, attempted to 
acquire the French language, which I have desired him to 
perfect in London, and has made some Progress in the 
knowledge of accounts &c, which, tho' an absolutely neces- 
sary part of Education, no kind of Care had been taken to 
instruct him in to the Northward, and especially in writing, 
which was so bad, when first He returned here, that it was 
scarcely legible, and its far from being now. I would it a 
good Business hand, as you see by the aforesaid copy of my 

66 The Letters of 

letter of the 14th Ulto- He has been in Clay & Habersham's 
store and compting House 2 or 3 Months, and gave very 
close application, and at present expresses himself very de- 
sirous to persue a mercantile Business, which I have no Ob- 
jection to, but rather approve his Choice- I have requested 
my Friend Mr Knox to take him under his particular Care 
and Charge, and to provide him with everything, that may be 
necessary, and more may be hurtfull- Our Friend John Gra- 
ham has been so kind as to write you a line by my Son, 
which He will deliver you, and if you have room, or would 
oblige me to admit him into your compting House, you would 
make a Father anxious for the welfare of his Child, very 
happy- I have no great Fortune to give my three Sons, who 
are the only remains of a numerous Family, and consequently 
they must depend on their Industry to improve the little, I 
may be able to give them I mention this, because I do not 
send my Son to London to spend in an idle and hurtfull way, 
what I have laboured for with great Industry, bu t principally 
for the recovery of his Health, and at the same time to ac- 
quire the Knowledge, how to get his Bread in an honest and 
reputable manner ; and therefore I expect that you or who- 
ever may take him into compting House, will keep him 
closely employed, and I flatter myself, He will have sense to 
know, that Industry, submission and a punctual and cheer- 
ful obedience to all oders, He may receive, will not only be 
his indispensible Duty, but his best recommendation to the 
esteem of me and my Friends- If it should be thought neces- 
sary to have him taught to write better, before He goes into 
Business, I shall have no objection to his being 3 or 6 Months 
in a good Academy, where He might at the same time perfect 
himself in French, and if you. Sir, will take him under your 
Care, I shall desire Mr Knox to spare no expense to make 
him usefull to you, and comfortable to himself, I mean I 
would by no means have him be the least Burthensome to 

P. S. 

Tho I have mentioned my Sons present Inclination to 
engage in commerce, yet if he should alter his mind, and 
chuse some other employment, I shall have no objection, as 
I dont mean to lay any unreasonable restraint on my Child- 

Thus far to Mr Clark, and I have written 
something to the same Purport, tho' not so fully, to Mr 
Whitefield, Mr Ellis and Mr Lloyd, but the two former, I 
suppose, may not have it much, if at all, in their power to 

Hon. James Habersham. 6y 

serve my Son, and the latter as I have now no interesting 
Connections with him, may not think much about him, es- 
pecially as He has applied to me to get him appointed Agent 
for the Province, which I have candidly wrote him is not in 
my Power to oblige him in- you see I have no assurance of 
Mr Clark taking Joe, and I wrote to the other Gentlemen 
before mentioned, who might, on your consulting them, re- 
tain so much Friendship for me, as to throw in their Interest, 
whatever it may be, to get him situated, where He may have 
an opportunity of seeing something of real Business- I think 
Joe a sensible Lad- It has been remarked here, that Jemme, 
my eldest son is the Gentleman, that is, is not over fond of 
Business, Joe the plodding, plain man, and John my youngest, 
the Merchant, and truly I think him one of the best Clerks 
in the Province, and as a specimen, the Copy of my letter of 
the 14 Ulto and your account Current are his writing He 
was but 13 years of age last Deer has had no other Educa- 
tion, than what He got here under my own eye, having never 
been out of the Province, and I truly lament, that I ever sent 
my other two Sons to the Northward- Joe went there at 
83^ years of age, and under the Idea of stuffing his Head with 
useless Criticisms on Phrases and Words in Latin and Greek, 
He was neither taught to write legibly nor with Propriety 
in the Language. He intends to get his Bread in ; however 
as I am sure, he does not want Ability and Industry. I think 
He will turn out a clever Fellow- Mr Pryce will weather 
him across the Atlantic, and will therefore tell you, what He 
thinks of your Boy, for I truly call him yours , and as the 
greatest Instance of my Esteem, I really commit him wholly 
to you, and do hope as a reciprocal Instance of your Friend- 
ship to me, that you will accept the Present I now make you- 
I have told Joe, if He has Health, and can make his way in 
to Business in England, and should chuse to reside there, 
rather than in America, I would do all in my power to as- 
sist him, I did not say what, but I hope to be able to give him 
1500 £ if not £2000 to buy Tools to begin with, however this 
I have cautioned him to keep to himself, as perhaps it might 
be an objection to a Person's taking him into a compting 
House, because He might one day carry away some of his 
Business. This Town is at present so very bare of Goods, 
that it does not afford a yard of woolen Cloth of any kind 
to make a suit of Cloths, which he is so much in want of, that 
I wish what He has may last to cover his Nakedness to Lon- 
don- at my expressing my uneasiness at sending my Child 
away in so shabby a Plight, our Friend Charles laughed at 

68 The Letters of 

me, and asked, if I wanted to carry Coals to New Castle, 
that it was only Joe's feigning unwell for a day or even an 
Hour, and Tom Harris in Monmouth Street would rig him 
off as shanty as He need be- I believe He has shirts for some 
time, but He will want every thing else, and I think two suits 
of Cloths immediately- I mention this, because as he has 
not been used to provide for himself at his own Discretion 
yet, you will be good enough to let him apply to you for 
every thing He may want, of which, you will not only be the 
judge, but order and pay for, till you find him prudent 
enough to do it for himself- In the mean Time, be pleased 
to furnish him with what Pocket money, you think will be 
suflficient for a Lad of his years, 17 next August, to spend 
innocently- As I do not know, what may happen before He 
may reach you, I have given him £10 in Gold and Silver- 
And now my good Friend, I beg you will provide and pay 
for every thing necessary for him, in which I desire you will 
not be too sparing, and I will punctually, thankfully and 
gratefully repay you- Methinks this taking leave of my Son 
perhaps never more to see his Face on this side Eternity is 
awfull and will excuse a falling Tear- 
God bless you my Friend. Pray make my 
Regards acceptable to your Lady, and tell her I hope Joe 
will make her a dutifull Son- 
My dear Sir 
Yours &c 

To my Son Joseph Habersham on his going to London 

Savannah the loth May 1768. 
My dear Child, 

Be fore I take leave of you, perhaps never more 
to see your face on this side Eternity, let me enjoin rather 
let me request you, as a proof of the filial duty you owe to 
a Parent, anxious, very anxious for your welbeing both for 
Time and Eternity to give the few following remarks a fair 
and candid reading on the first day of every month for one 
year after your arrival in London- 

Thls letter Illustrates the tenderness and deep religious feeling of James Habersham. 
The heart is touched at the parental solicitude expressed in this letter, and. keeping in 
mind the noble character of the father and his loyalty to the King, the subsequent career 
of this same "Joe" heading the Liberty Boys in Savannah, arresting Governor Wright, 
capturing the King's powder, and his jirominence in the Nationnl Government of America, 
seems from this point of view a deep ingratitude. The tide of the Itevolution, however, 
was sweeping rapidly onward, and in the climax of events the f)atriotism of the son and 
the loyalty of the father compel equally our admiration. Joseph Habersham was Post^ 
master-General under Washington and the elder Adams, 

Ho7i. James Habersham. 6p 

You know, I have often lamented my sending you and 
your elder Brother from under my own Eye, for your Edu- 
cation, because from clear Demonstration, I am convinced 
that no Person, however well disposed can feel and be so 
watchfuU for your real Interest, as a Parent I shall not enter 
into particulars, because they will naturally occur from your 
own Experience- 

I need not say that my present motive for agreeing to your 
going to England is principally for the Establishment of your 
Health, which I have no doubt of your obtaining and thereby 
rendering the unavoidable Vicissitudes of Life more easy to 
pass through ; But- 

Tho' this is my Chief Care in regard to your Body, yet I 
must be much more concerned for the welfare of your better 
part, your precious and immortal Soul, which is to live in a 
State of Happiness or Misery when Time shall be no more- 
This indeed is a momentous Point, did I say momentous, 
that does not I think fully express my meaning it is the only 
object, that should first and primary engage our Attention, 
if we believe what our Saviour says- Seek ye first the King- 
dom of God and his righteousness, and all these Things shall 
be added to you, which I apprehend is as much as if our Sa- 
viour had said, first secure an Interest in the Kingdom of 
God and these things, the things of this Life which men are 
eargerly in pursuit of shall be superadded and thrown into 
the bargain, as things of no account with God 
You have been taught and may you my Child experience its 
Truth, that you are a Sinner by Nature, as well as by Prac- 
tice, that in that State, you are at an infinite Distance from, 
and an Enemy to God, that Christ alone having done and 
suffered all that is necessary to reconcile you to God, is there- 
by become a perfect and complete T\Iediator and through him 
that is by believing on, and cordially embracing him, in his 
mediatorial character for life and Salvation, you have Peace 
with God, have authority to call him Father, who will also 
give you his Holy Spirit to renew and sanctify your Heart 
and qualify and make you meet for his Kingdom of Glory 

I need not say, because you are first enjoyned to secure your 
eternal happiness, that 5^ou should by any means neglect 
your Worldly Employment- Every man ought to be indus- 
trious and diligent in that Station wherein Providence has 
placed him- An Idle man is the lumber of Creation and if 
it could be, I would almost say ought to be expelled Society- 
su-ch generally being the ring-leaders in all manner of Iniquity 

JO The Letters of 

and consequently Enemies to Society ; and you know I have 
often told you that the way to avoid being led into Tempta- 
tion is always to be lawfully employed and 1 think it is an 
observation founded on Fact, that Industry and Sobriety are 
always attendants- 

In all populous Places, and especially in London, where I 
resided several years- you will daily see new objects and new 
Faces, and I know the People very prudently avoid making 
new Acquaintances, unless where their business is especially 
interested and indeed except in that Case you will generally 
find that next door Neighbors have no more real Knowledge 
of each other than the greatest Strangers. The reason is, 
there are so many People who appear otherwise that what 
they really are, that to avoid being imposed upon, every wise 
and discreet Person will carefully shun making even any Ap- 
proach to an Acquaintance, 'till the Person is well known- 
You will also find sharpers in every place of public Resort, 
and those of a lower Class at every Corner of a Street, who 
will endeavour to engage your attention in order to draw you 
into some Snare, by some specious Artifice, perhaps under 
the Disguise of kindness, Civillity and I know not what- From 
such flee as for your life- 

I have before observed, that for a considerable Time new 
objects will daily strike you- Dont at first give too much 
attention to them, I mean when you have Business to do- 
because they will naturally divert your mind from it, and 
whenever you are sent out about Business, be particularly 
carefull to make all the Dispatch you can, this will preserve 
you from Snares and please those you transact for- 
Never attempt to go near a mob, as they are often fomented 
to perpetrate Robery and in the Confusion to practice the 
greatest Villainies 

Lastly - 

Never be out at night at any Place 
of public Diversion, or elsewhere, even in the most reputable 
House, without the Knowledge and consent of those who 
may have the Charge of you ; because if it be a friends house 
you will be where no objection may be made and if at a 
place of public resort they will naturally take care, that you 
arc in such company v.'hose prudence may be depended upon- 
This caution let me request you particularly to advert to- 
These observations and I could add many more, I am per- 
suaded you will find necessary strictly to adhere to, in order 
to preserve your reputation without blemish and give you 
peace of mind with God and man- My dear Child you have 

Hon. James Habersham. yr 

my constant Prayers- If you are happy you will contribute 
to make me so, and thereby show your gratitude and regard 
to a Parent who is truly my dear Son 

Your affectionate Father and friend 
P. S. 

I Properly avoided to advise you to observe to behave re- 
pectfully to every one- A soft answer turneth away Wrath- 
and to pay a cheerful obedience to all orders you may re- 
ceive- because I depended on your own good sense to sug- 
gest this obvious Duty 

Sir Savannah in Georgia the 19th May 1768 

From the Great opinion the Governor, Council and 
Assembly have entertained of your integrity and abilities 
they have unanimously concurred in appointing you by an 
Ordinance Agent to transmit the affairs of this province in 
Great Britain, and we have now the pleasure of enclosing 
you an Authentic Copy of the said Ordinance, by which you 
will see that we with some other persons therein named are 
appointed a Committee to correspond with and instruct you 
in such Matters as we may have in Charge from the General 
Asembl}^ to recommend to your Solicitation as well as any 
other Matters which may occur to us during the recess of 
the said General Assembly that we may judge to be for the 
Service of the province- 

About Two Months agoe our Governor received 
his Majesties Royal disallowance and Repeal of Tw^o Acts 
of Assembly which we think of great Moment to the Wel- 
fare of this province, namely, "An Act for the better Order- 
ing and Governing Negroes and other Slaves in this prov- 
ince and to prevent the inveighling or carrying away Slaves 
from their Masters or Employers passed the 25tli March 
1765". Also an Act passed the 6th March 1766 for encourag- 
ing Settlers to come into the province and for granting to 
his Majesty the Sum of £1815 Sterling to be issued in Cer- 
tificates by the Commissioners herein named for the said 
purpose and also for the rebuilding the Court House in Savan- 
nah in Consequence of an Act of the General Assembly pass- 
ed the 29th February 1764"- The former Act or something 
similar to it, we cannot possibly subsist without, — You Know 

This letter was evidently addressed to Benjamin Franklin, who was sent to England as 
agent for Pennsylvania, and while residing there was appointed Agent for Georgia. October 
26. 17t;r. The next letter dated May 2(!. ITOS, is addressed to Franklin. Although his ap- 
pointment was for a year, it was subsequently enlarged, and Br. Franklin continued to 
represent the Province until the outbreak of the Revolution. See letters dated llth May, 
1770, 23d May, 1770, and Aug. 10, 1770. 

y2 The Letters of 

that our Staple Commodities, which in general are the same 
with those of So Carolina, cannot be cultivated and produced 
without a Number of Hands and that it has been found from 
many Years Experience how that white people were unequal 
to the Burthen in this Climate and therefore it was absolutely 
necessary to allow us the free use of Slaves- Our first Law 
for the better Ordering and Governing Negroes passed soon 
after the Kings Government took place here in the year 1755 
was framed on the plan of that of So Carolina and we never 
heard any objection against it the before recited Law of 1765 
now repealed was passed on the Expiration of the former and 
we thought it was framed on more extensive and humane 
principles than our former Law or that now in Force in So 
Carolina and as we are informed no reasons were given to 
the Governor for its repeal we are truly at a loss to guess 
what was exceptionable in it- This Repeal came to the Gov- 
ernors Hands a few days before the dissolution of the late 
General Assembly and as he well knew the difficulties and 
distresses the want of such a Law must involve us in he very 
kindly and prudently consented to the passing a temporary 
Law where every Clause in the former Law that could be 
supposeed exceptionable was left out, by which means it is 
too contracted and cannot answer all the purposes such a 
Law should extend to- We therefore desire you will inform 
yourself of the objections made to our former Law and Ac- 
quaint us of them that they may if possible me avoided in 
framing a New One (for the present Law is only to continue 
in force for One year) which may at the same time meet with 
the approbation of Government as well as answer our local 

We are also equally in the dark in regard to the objec- 
tions to the last recited Law, for encouraging Settlers to 
come into the province &c, unless it may be the issuing Cer- 
tificates to be sunk in a Certain time to defray the services 
therebv intended- The Court House is now very near fin- 
ished and is not only an orniment to this Town but a Credit 
to Government and some people have and m (illegible — prob- 
ably many will come) ome into the province to settle under 
the Faith and encouragement of this Law tho repealed who 
must not be disappointed but how that is to be avoided is 
a Question not easily resolved, and surely those are objects 
that might/ with Submission/ be supposed commendable 
and Consequently to meet with Countenance notwithstand- 
ing any little impropriety in the means of affecting them- Our 
legal currency in this province does not exceed Seven Thou- 

Hon. James Habersham. yj 

sand Pounds Sterling which is Much, very much too Httle 
to answer the present Medium of Trade and as that daily 
increases so does our distress in proportion ! We are 
thoroughly convinced that a larger commission of paper 
currency than may be requisite for the medium of Trade 
must be attended with bad Consequences to the Provinces, 
but at the Same time we well know and indeed it must be 
obvious to any One that as we have very little opportunity 
of bringing in any Bullion that our Trade and Commerce 
must Stagnate without such a Temporary Medium as we can 
establish among ourselves on Substantial and Sufficient 
Funds which if we are restrained from doing its impossible 
we can think of carrying on any publick works however 
necessary or give any encouragement for the further Settle- 
ment of the province because both must be done by ready 
Money or certificates that may answer the same purpose, 
and therefore we request you will inform us what Reasons 
now assigned for the Royal disallowance to this Law which 
we need not say may be least understood from the Report 
made thereupon by the board of Trade to his Majesty- 

We are very sensible the Salary allowed 
You tho as much as has been ever given to any Agent of 
this province and is indeed what we can at present alTord, 
may not be equal to your Services yet we hope you will ac- 
cept of our agency and generally promote our Interest and 
appear and solicit against what you May think may be in- 
jurious to our Trade and future prosperity of which you will 
please to advise us that you may receive out Instructions 
thereupon- This Province if it meets with no Illadvised 
Check we are persuaded must soon become very advanta- 
geous to the Mother Country and Considerable in itself- We 
intirely confide in your Known prudence and goods Sense 

to Serve us and are with great respect 


Yr Most Obt Hbl Servants 

PS. We need not Acquaint you James Habersham 

that the Governor transmits to the N~Jones 

Boai J of Trade authenticated Copys Lewis Johnson 

of all Laws and Ordinances passed N. W. Jones 

here under the Seal of the province, John Milledge 

that you may perhaps hear of your Archibald Bulloch 

being appointed our Agent before this William Ewen 
may reach you- 

74- The Letters of 

Benjamin Franklin Esquire Agent for 

the province of Georgia 

First Copy pr the Britania Capt. Dean 

Second pr. 

Sir Savannah the 26th May 1768* 

The foregoing is dupHcate of our Letter 
of the 19th Instant, which was forwarded by the Snow Bri- 
tania Capt Deane, and we have now the Pleasure of enclos- 
ing you another Copy of the Ordinance, and remain, with 
Esteem, Sir 

Your Most Obedient Servants 
Signers to the Copy of the foregoing Letter to Mr. Frank- 
lin — Agt James Habersham, N. Jones, Archibald 

Bulloch, John Milledge, William Ewen, Alexander Wylly, 
Joe Gibbons, John Mulryne, N. W. Jones- 

At a Meetine of the Committee appointed to correspond 
with Benjamin Franklin Esqr Agent for transacting the af- 
fairs of this Province in Great Britain at the State House 
at Savannah on Friday the nth day of May lyyo-ij) 

f James Habersham 
Noble Jones 
James Edward Powell 
The Honr & Nob W J Jones Speaker ] Esqrs Present 
William Ewen 
Phillip Box 
Richard C. Crooke 

The Board appointed John Simpson Esqr Clerk to 
the Committee, and Mr Robert Bolton Messenger, and then 
wrote the following letter to be forwarded by the Snow Bri- 
tainia Capt Stephen Deane- 

! Ordered- That the Members of this Committee be sum- 
moned to meet at this Place on Monday the 21st Instant 
at Ten of the Clock in the forenoon. 


That the Clerk do prepare a Copy of the Bill Intituled an 

Act to amend an Act Intituled and Act to ascertain the man- 

*The question of negro slavery toucneci upon in this letter is but the recurrence of a 
problem with which \\\k' ixnijile of the South hail much trouble in early times, and which 
has causpfl so much tninblc since. The fciinflcrs of (Jeoriiia wisely foresaw many of these 
evils, and by the original charier of the Colony slavery was forbidden. The competition of 
cheap slave' latior in the other neiuhliorliiL' Provinces, however, worked a hardship upon 
Georgia and in lT4!i upon the earn<'st petil ion of the Inhabitants, the Trustees permitted 
slavery 'unrli-r certain conditions. See .lones' History (Ja., Vol. I, p. 422-42.5. Among the ad- 
vocates of this measure were James Haliersham and Uev. George Whitefield. 

tCrossed out in the original. 

Hon. James Habersham. 

ner and form cf Electing Members to represent the Inhabi- 
tants of this Province in the Commons House of Assembly 
by the next meeting 


That the Deputy Secretary of the Province do prepare Copys 
of the Ordinance Reappointing the Provincial Agent passed 
the 27th February last and of that passed yesterday also the 
present Election Law and of the Negroe Law passed yester- 

William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in London. the 12th July 1768* 

pr the Brig Hope Capt Wadland 

Dear Sir 

The charming Sally Capt 
Rainiot is arrived, by whom I received my Cloths, tho' too 
late for the King's birth day, and so was the Governor's- I 
much approve of your Taste and choice of my Coat, but how 
you send so gay a Waistcoat, however to shew my respect 
to you, I wore it, the day after it was landed, being Sunday- 
I thank you for the trouble you have taken, and shall only 
say, that I will endeavour to convince you, that I am truly 
sensible of your regard for me- It's now 5 of the Clock in 
the Morning, and the Captain waits an Hour extraordinary 
to carry this short Line- I am afraid, I cannot tresspass so 
much, as to drop a line to Joe, to whom I have a warm heart- 
God bless you and him also 

I am my dear Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and Svt 

Mr John Clark, London Savannah in Georgia 

Sent to Mr Laurens to forward the loth October 1768 
Dear Sir 

About the 2d Instant I 
received your much esteemed Favour of the 3d August last 
by the Georgia Packet Capt Anderson, and am indeed ex- 
tremely obliged to you for the Contents, and especially for 
that Part of it, wherein you so cheerfully express your readi- 
ness to take my Son Joseph under your Care ; an event, that 
I shall never think myself enough thankful! for, and if ever 
it may be in my Power to shew my Gratitude, I hope, I shall 

*The clothes here mentioned were ordered November 17, 1767. See letter of that date. 

y6 The Letters of 

lose no opportunity of evincing it- I am very sensible of 
Mr Clay's Father's kindness to me and my Children, and 
that he would be pleased with shewing it on every occasion, 
but I know something of London and Business too, and am 
perfectly satisfied, that it must subject a youth, as well as 
the person, who has the Care of him to numberless incon- 
veniences and Neglects to be under any other Roof, but 
where his Business lays- In short, I never had the least Idea 
of his boarding and lodging with Mr Clay, meaning however 
nothing more, than for the Reason I have mentioned- You 
will therefore oblige me to make him in every respect one 
of your Family, under Mr Milligan and your good Sisters 
Roof, who I will cheerfully satisfy for all their Care and 
trouble for him, and desire you will make the Terms of board- 
ing and lodging him perfectly agreeable to them- I hope 
my Son will behave so, as to give you Satisfaction, and me 
the Pleasure of hearing, that He does so- You will doubt- 
less observe many youthfull Foibles in him, and indeed, who, 
throughout all the more advanced Stages of Life, are with- 
out which I desire and request, you will take proper Notice 
of to him, and in such Cases put yourself in my Place- This 
will be shewing him and me also the greatest Instance of 
your Friendship, and I flatter myself, He will have sense 
enough to acknowledge it- He and my other Children must 
not be idlers , but men of Business and Integrity, and if they 
are not, they will entail Beggary on themselves, and Grief 
and Shame on me. Permit me to request you to do by my 
son, as you would do bv your own, in which I shall be per- 
fectly satisfyed and reimburse every Expense, you may en- 
gage for on his Account. I am &c 

Charles Pryce Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

To the Care of Mr Pryce at Lady Boyle's loth Novrr 1768 

Parson's Green near London 
Sent to Mr Laurens to forward 
Dear Sir 

Your agreeable Favour of the 
30th last from Parsons Green lays before me, and, you may 
be assured, the Contents gives me more satisfaction, than I 
am able to express- I heartily thank the giver of every good 
and perfect Gift, for guarding you and your Son Joe, as you 
very kindly call him, in safety and Health to our Native 
Land, and allow me to say, that I am more than obliged to 
you for your paternal Care of him- you must also suppose. 

Hon. James Habersham. 77 

that the very favourable opinion, you entertain of Joe, must 
be very pleasing to me, and those agreeable sensations must 
be increased, if his future conduct entitles him to the regard 
of you, and my other Friends in England, and you will please 
to excuse my acquainting you, that He has his letters to 
me, which have not been very puerile, expressed the most 
gratefull Sense of yours, as well as of Friend Knox and his 
Lady's kindness to him, in doing of which. He did not forget 
the Civilities of his Aunt Pryce at Parsons Green- Pray tell 
my good Sister, that I do not despair of one Day thanking 
h:r in Person. As far as I can learn, your Charley behaves 
very prudently. Our Assembly are met, and after truly a 
great deal of Temper on the part of the Governor, I think our 
public Business will go on very well, Mr Clark hath written 
me that he will take Joe into his Compting House, which 
gaves me great Satisfaction. If it is in my power to serve 
you here, I beg you will tell me, wherein I can, and I hope 
you will not find me deficient as far as health and strength 
will permit, for I find Infirmities grow daily on me, and I 
have lately been troubled with a pain in my right arm, that 
much impedes my writing, which our Doctors say is the 
Rheumatism, perhaps the Gout. I have before told you it 
is peaceable here, and I have laboured not a little to bring 
it about, because I can see no End, it can answer to be other- 
wise, I am - Yours &c 

Savannah in Georgia nth Mav 1770 


pr the 


Capt Deane 

As we expect a Ship is now at Cockspur Road at 
the entrance of this River bound for England and 
as we hope to get this on Board we embrace the 
Opportunity of acquainting you that two Ordin- 
ances have been passed by the General Assembly, 
one reappointing you Agent for this Province 
passed the 27th Febry last ending the first June 
next and another passed yesterdav for another year 
ending the ist June 1771, We have not a moments 
time/ the Boat waiting to carry this on board/ to 

See note to letter of May 19. 1768. 

This extract from the minutes of the Committee of Correspondence wasi'found among 
the letters, and it is here given in chronological order. 

y8 The Letters of 

say anything on Publick Business of which we have 
several Matters in Charge and will be prepared to 
go by a Ship now here that will sail in all this month 
with Copies of the Ordinances properly authenti- 
cated- There is iioo provided for you the present 
year and enclosed you have our Governors Certifi- 
cate for one hundred Pounds (for payment of which 
you will apply to John Campbell Esqr his Majestys 
Agent for this Province) for your Service from June 
1768 to 1st June 1769- 

We are Sir — 
J Habersham 
Noble Jones 
To Benjamin Franklin Esqr ^ J. E. Powell 
Agent of the Province of [• N W. Jones 
Georgia in London ) Wm Ewen 

Philip Box 
R Cunym Crooke 

That the Messenger do acquaint the Gentlemen of the Com- 
mittee that their Attendance in required at the Council Cham- 
ber next Monday Sennight at Ten of the Clock in the Fore- 

And then the Committee adjourned till next 
Monday Sennight 10 of the Clock. 

At a Meeting of the Committee of Correspondence on Mon- 
day the 2ist May 1770 

i James Habersham ") 
The Honble \ Noble Jones J- Esqr 

( James Read ) 

The Honble Noble Wimberly Jones Esqr 
John Mullryne 
William Ewen 
Charles Odeingsell 
John Milledge 
Philip Box 

That the Clerk do request the favour of his Excellency the 
Governor to let him take a Copy of the Report of the Lords 
of Trade to his Majesty on the Act passed here in 1759 for 
quieting Possessions also that the Clerk do make out a Copy 
of the letter wrote to Wm Knox Esqr late Agent for this 


Hon. Ja7nes Habersham. jg 

Province dated May the 14th 1765 that he do also make out 
Copies of the Address of the Commons House of Assembly 
to his Excellency the Governor for electing Representatives 
for the four Southern Parishes. That he do also make out 
Copies of the Resolutions of the Commons House of As- 
sembly respecting- Instructions to be sent to the Agent and 
referred to this Committee as an Act of that House- 
That he do also make out a Copy of the Petition preferred 
to both Houses of Assembly by a Number of the Inhabitants 
of this Province respecting the Lands said to be Claimed 
by the late Sr William Baker deceased That he do also make 
out a duplicate of the last letter wrote the Agent and inclose 
the Second Certificate from his Excellency the Governor for 

That Mr Habersham and Mr Mullryne be a Committee to 
prepare a letter of Instruction to be sent to the Agent and 
report the same at the next meeting of the Committee- 

And then the Committee adjourned 
till Wednesday 

Wednesday 23d May 1770 
At a Meeting of the Committee of Corres- 

l Janies Habersham \ 
The Honble \ Noble Jones \ Esqr 

(. James Read ) 

The Honble Noble Wimberly Jones Esqr 
Wm Young ) ..^ 

Philip Box s E^q^ 

Richard Cunym Crooke ) t-v 

WmEwen L | ^^^'^ 

The Clerk presented to the Committee the several Papers he 
was ordered to prepare- 

Mr Habersham from the Committee appointed to prepare 
a letter of Instructions to be sent to the Agent reported they 
had prepared the same which was read agreed to and is as 
follows Viz. 

Savannah in Georgia 23d May 1770 

The nth Instant we wrote you a short line by the Bri- 
tannia, Captain Deane, of which you have now a Copy en- 
closed principally to acquaint you of your being Reappointed 

ConcerninK the merits of the claims of Sir William Baker to lands mentioned in this 
and the subsequent letter see Jones' History of Georgia. Vol. 2, p. 138. 

8o The Letters of 

by the General Asembly Agent to solicit the affairs of 
this Province in Great Britain for the Present year ending 
the first day of next month and also of your being Reap- 
pointed for the ensuing year ending the first day of June 
1 771 and with this you will receive authenticated Copies of 
the two ordinances empowering you to Act in that Capacity 
and at the same time We enclosed you our Governors Cer- 
tificate payable by the Kings Agent for this Province (John 
Campbell Esqr) for one Hundred pounds Stg for your al- 
lowance as Agent ending the first of June last and you have 
now a second Certificate and as soon as the Publick Treas- 
urer can invest the like Sum provided for you in the last Tax 
Act in a Bill payable in England it will be transmitted 

Perhaps it may be necessary to make an Apology 
for an Intermission in our Correspondence with you as a 
Committee vvhich however you will be pleased to believe did 
not arise from the least doubt of your Intention or Abilities 
to serve us but from Circumstances arising from the disso- 
lution of the late Assembly which are now subsided 

You will see by a copy of the Resolution of 
the Commons House of Assembly enclosed to which the 
Upper House agreed the Matters we have in charge to 
recommend to your Sollicitation and to that end We have 
sent you a Copy of an Act for the better ordering and Gov- 
erning Negroes and other Slaves &Ca to which the Governor 
has assented but with a suspending Clause till his Majestys 
pleasure is known thereupon agreeable to an Instruction 
to him for that purpose- You will please to refer to the Com- 
mittees letter of the 19th May 1768 in which they informed 
you that an Act similar to this had been disallowed by his 
Majesty but that the Reasons for such disallowance was not 
communicated to the Governor, and therefore we were at 
a loss to know how to frame another that might be unexcep- 
tionable and at the same time answer our local Circum- 
stances ; since which we have understood that the Council 
to the Board of Trade Reported that Slaves should be made 
Real Estate and go with the Lands they were employed upon, 
In a young and extensive Country like this, wliere Property 
must necessarily be frequently Aliened and new Settlements 
daily made, many cogent Reasons might be urged against 
such a Measure but as we are informed our Governor has 
fully given his Reasons to Remove this Objection which 
have been approved of We need not add thereupon and have 
only to remark that in our unavoidable Situation this Law 
is of the utmost Importance and without it we cannot well 

Hon. James Habersham. 8i 

subsist and as the greatest Care has been taken to frame it 
on the most humane Principles that the Nature of such a 
Law can admit we can make no doubt but it will meet with 
his Majesty s Royal and speedy Approbation which you will 
please to lose no time in solliciting 

The next matter under Consideration is the Address 
of the Commons House to the Governor requesting him to 
issue Writs for the electing a Representative for each of the 
Four New Southern Parishes of St David St Patrick St 
Thomas and St Mary lying between the Rivers Alatamaha 
and St Mary- These were part of the Lands ceded by Spain 
to his Majesty by the last Treaty of Peace and were annexed 
by his Royal Proclamation to this Province but as the Gov- 
ernor did not think himself authorized to add to the number 
of Representatives without an Instruction from the Crown 
for that purpose in which Opinion his Majesty s Council con- 
curred tho' you will see by his Answer to the said Address of 
which you have now a Copy that he thought it right and just 
that every Parish should be represented as also did the Coun- 
cil, and therefore we are persuaded he has stated or will 
state the Matter to Government and We have no doubt but 
he will receive orders to issue Writs accordingly and it may 
be proper to acquaint you that in the last Tax Act these 
four Parishes are expressly exempted from paying any be- 
cause not Represented, and as all Taxation should be equal 
and not partial we cannot conceive that there can be any 
Objection to obtain the Redress requested 

We are now to acquaint you that the Commons and 
Upper Houses of Assembly have passed a Bill intitled an Act 
to amend an Act intitled an Act to ascertain the manner and 
Form of electing Members to Represent the Inhabitants of 
this Province in the Commons House of Assembly of which 
the Governor said he would Consider being framed as we 
understand contrary to a Royal Instruction and afterwards 
both Houses presented an Address to him requesting him 
to use his utmost Endeavours to obtain an Instruction from 
his Majesty permitting him to assent to a Law of the same 
Tenor and purport, a Copy of which with his Answer a Copy 
of the Bill not assented to and of the Law^ it was intended to 
amend passed the 9th of June 1761 are herewith transmitted 
that by comparing them you may be the better furnished with 
the Reasons that induced the Assembly to pass the Amend- 
ment Bill, which among others was to make the Qualifica- 
tions of the Electors and Elected more equal and better 
adapted to our local Circumstances, In the subsisting Law 

82 The Letters of 

you will observe that a person possessed of fifty Acres of 
Land tho' in some Instances not worth five Pounds is quali- 
fied to Vote when another Person not having 50 Acres of 
Land tho' possessed of Town Lots and Buildings to the 
Value of a thousand fold more cannot an Impropriety which 
we think will appear at first View to require an Amendment 
and the same Reasoning must hold good as to the Qualifi- 
cations of the Elected, as it is no difficult matter for a Per- 
son wanting to be a Representative to get five hundred Acres 
of Barren or Lands of little Value to qualify him for that 
purpose tho' perhaps in every other Respect he is very im- 
proper to Act in that Capacity. The method of balloting 
for Representatives has been found very Salutary in other 
Provinces on this Continent particularly in South Carolina 
and has prevented undue improper Influence of designing 
Men who have got themselves Elected too often, not to 
serve, but to distress Government and carry on their own 
private and selfish Views. We are apprehensive that the 
Clause for limiting the Duration of the Assembly for three 
Years in the proposed Bill may meet with Objections tho' 
the same Clause is in the Election Law in South Carolina 
and has never that we know of been attended with the least 
Inconvenience to the Public Good and you know that in 
Pensylvania some of the Northern Provinces and some of 
the West India Islands the Assemblys are chosen annualy- 
In this Climate where the Inhabitants are so often subject 
to change their Situation three years is a long time to at- 
tend, and even this Term has been found extremely incon- 
venient to many who tho' well disposed and qualifyed to 
serve their Country have declined Acting and if the Dura- 
tion should remain imdetermined by Law we may and shall 
be deprived of the Service of some of the most usefull Mem- 
bers of the Community- We do not urge this Matter from 
the Conduct of our present Governor whom we have no 
Reasons to believe would keep the Assembly sitting longer 
than three years and perhaps the same Reasons operate with 
him as We have offered and would his Instructions admit 
of his Assenting to the proposed Bill We are of Opinion he 
would not object to it 

The Committee have another Matter in Charge of which 
they write to you in a seperate Letter We need not say that 
any expence you may find necessary in the execution of the 

Hon. James Habersham. 83 

Business recommended to you by the Committee will be re- 
imbursed vou with thanks- We are 

Your most Obedient Servants 
Then the aforegoing letter w^as signed by all the Members 
of the Committee present and directed ^ 
To Benjamin Franklin Esqr Agent >- 
for the Province of Georgia in London j 


That Mr Habersham and Mr N W Jones be a Committee to 
prepare a Letter to be transmitted to the Agent respecting 
the Lands said to be claimed by the late Sir William Baker 
of London deceased and report the same at the next meet- 
ing of the Committee 

And then the Committee adjourned till 

Monday next 

Monday 28th May 1770 
Mr Habersham from the Committee appointed to pre- 
pare a letter to be sent to the Agent respecting the Lands 
said to be claimed by the late Sir Wm Baker of London 
deceased reported they had prepared the 

At a Meeting of the Committee of Correspondence 


! James Habersham ^ 
Noble Jones \ Esqrs 

James Read J 

The Honble N W Jones Esqr 
William Ewen "^ 

Philip Box \ Esqrs. 

Richd Cunym Crooke ) 

Mr Habersham from the Committee appointed to prepare 
a letter to be transmitted to the Agent respecting the Lands 
said to be claimed by the late Sir William Baker of London 
deceased reported they had prepared the Same which was 
read and agreed to and is as follows Viz. 

Savannah in Georgia the 28th of May 1770 

We are now to take under Consideration the Instruc- 
tions of the Assembly respecting a Claim of Lands made by 
the late Sir William Baker of London deceased, in this Prov- 
ince, which We are directed to instruct you to Represent 

♦Lines drawn through the original. 

84. The Letters of 

to his Majesty. These Resolutions were drawn up tho' the 
Substance of them was long before agreed to, in too great 
a hurry, perhaps not half an Hour before the Prorogation 
of the Assembly, and this in particular which we are now to 
remark upon, was for that Reason in part mistaken- It di- 
rects that we should instruct you to apply to "William Knox 
"Esqr (lately an Agent for this Province) for the Plan of the 
"Lands claimed by the late Sir William Baker and the Me- 
"morial acompanying it, which was transmitted to him to 
"be presented to his Majesty" the mistake is that no Me- 
morial was sent to Mr Knox as you will see by a Copy of 
the Committees letter to him on that Occasion herewith en- 
closed but only a Copy of a Petition to both Houses of As- 
sembly of the Inhabitants settled on the Lands supposed to 
be within the said Claim of which you have now another 
Copy and therefore we have only to desire you to apply to 
Mr Knox for the Plans referred to 

In November 1759 the General Assembly passed an 
Act Intitled an "Act for establishing and Confirming the 
Titles of several Inhabitants of this Province to their re- 
pective Lands and Tenements" as the Legislature then un- 
derstood that this and some other obsolete Claims of Lands 
not till about that time heard of and never to our knowl- 
edge made here (which ought to have been done) were in- 
tended at a future day to be produced perhaps at a time when 
the Lands became more valuable from the Industry and La- 
bour of the present Occupants, which Opinion is now 
strengthened by the Assigns of Sir William Baker having 
lately lodged a Power of Attorney here to treat with the 
Persons supposed to be settled within the Lands by them 
claimed for a certain Sum of money to relinquish their Pre- 

On part of those Lands many of the early Adventur- 
ers had been quietly seated since the first Settlement of the 
province and the before recited Law, tho' on further Con- 
sideration it appears to be framed to operate too extensively 
We mean that the Provisions and exceptions necessary in 
such a Law were not sufficiently adverted to was then 
thought to be founded on the most equitable Principles and 
doubtless was intended to prevent People who had left their 
native Country and Friends to seek a Retreat in a Climate 
and Situation subject to numberless Inconveniences and 
Hardships from being harrassed and dispossessed of their 
Lands and Labour and in some Instances of their All- 

Hon. James Habersham. 8^ 

Upon the Board of Trade taking this Law under Con- 
sideration Sir WilHam Baker was heard by his SolHcitor and 
in Consequence their Lordships reported against it to his 
Majesty and it accordingly met with his Royal Disallow- 
ance, Enclosed you have a Copy of their Lordships Report 
by which you will be furnished with the Arguments then 
urged on both sides- 

Upon this Report being known here the Petition be- 
fore mentioned was presented to both Houses of Assembly 
who in Consequence instructed their Committee to write to 
Mr Knox then Provincial Agent Thereupon which they did 
and a Copy of the said letter dated the 14th May 1765 you 
have as before mentioned enclosed and as we think the mat- 
ter was there fully set worth which we now confirm we have 
only to add that we desire you will pursue the Instructions 
therein given which is that a dutifull Petition or Address be 
presented to his Majesty humbly praying for the Relief re- 
quested in such a manner as you may be advised or may 
yourself think proper- Mr Knox we apprehend mistook the 
Committees meaning in this Point as he did not make such 
Application ; however as it did then and does now also ap- 
pear to be the most effectual means to obtain Relief for the 
Petitioners who must be otherwise on their parts innocently 
oppressed, many of whom being utterly incapable of making 
the Compensation required nothwithstanding they or their 
Fathers have defended their particular Property as well as 
the Province in general not only when invaded by the Span- 
iards but on many other perilous Occasions- 
It may be necessary to acquaint you that a Law In- 
titled an "Act for limitation of Actions and for avoiding of 
Suits in Law" was passed the 26th March 1767 which was 
intended to answer as far as might be the Purposes of the 
former repealed Act and to Remove every every exception 
and we have not heard of any having been made to it the 
following Clause was inserted "Provided also and Be it 
further Enacted that nothing in this Act Contained shall ex- 
tend or be construed to extend to take away or prejudice 
the Claim of Sir William Baker of the City of London Knight 
or his Heirs or Assigns in and to a Certain Barony or Tract 
of Land within the Parish of Christ Church in the Province 
aforesaid" however it was not intended by this Claim to es- 
tablish Sir William Bakers Claim and we are clear it does 
not but only to leave it open and not to debar him from mak- 
insf such Claim at anv future time- 


86 The Letters of 

As this is a Matter we on behalf of the distressed Pe- 
titioners very much wish to have settled we hope you will 
lose no time in using your utmost endeavours to have it 
brought to an agreeable Issue and any Expence that may be 
Necessary in effecting it will be thankfullv reimbursed you- 

We are &Ca.' 
N B 

The Plan in Mr Knox's hands is only supposed to be the 
Barony claimed being never executed by any Actual Survey 
that we know of and was solely meant for his private In- 
formation it will therefore answer the same purpose with you- 
The Foregoing Letter was signed by all the Members of the 
Committee present and directed 

To Benjamin Franklin Esqr. Agent for the Province of 
Georgia in London- 

And then the Committee adjourned Sine Die- 


Jany _ 1771 

At a Meeting of the Committee of Correspondence 
The Honble James Habersham 1 

Noble Jones 
James Edward Powell 
James Read 
The Honble Noble Wimberly Jones Esqr 

Wm Young 
John MuUryne 
Philip Box \ Esqrs 

R. C. Crooke 
Wm Ewen 

The following Letter received from Benjamin PVank- 
lin Esqr. Provincial Agent was read to the Board in the 
words following Viz. 

Gentlemen London August loth 1770 

Your several Favours of May 11, 23, & 28 came 
duly to hand, The first contained a Certificate for One Hun- 
dred Pounds, which will be paid, and carried to the Credit 
of your Province, Please to accept my Thanks for your Care 
in transmitting it.- With the second I received. The Two 
Ordinances appointing me your Agent till June 1771, The 
Act for ordering and governing Slaves, &C, A Copy of the 

This letter from Franklin and the fniKinent of the minutes of the meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence appears among the Habersham letters, and they are herewith 
given. See note to letter dated May 19, 1708. 

Hon. James Habersham. 8y 

Commons Address to the Governor of Nov. i6, 1769 relat- 
ing to the four Southern Parishes, A Copy of the Act to 
amend an Act intitled An Act to ascertain the manner & 
Form of Electing- Members, &c, presented May 10, The Ad- 
dress of both Houses to the Governor on that Act ; and a 
Copy of the Act it was intended to amend, which passed June 
9, 1761- And with the third, I received, A Copy of the As- 
sembly's Instructions to the Agent : A Copy of the Petition 
of the Inhabitants of Lands said to be claimed by Sir William 
Baker : Copv of the Committees Letter to Mr Knox : And a 
Copy of the Report of the Board of Trade on the Act for con- 
firming Titles, &C, On all which I can now only say, that I 
have carefully persued the several Papers, to acquaint my- 
self well with the Matters contained in them ; and that as 
soon as the great OflBcers of the State return to Town ; and 
the respective Public Boards enter again on Business, I shall 
not fail to proceed with Diligence in prosecuting every Point 
recommended to my Care, agreeable to the Instructions of 
the Assembly and the Directions contained in your Letters- 
I beg you would be so good as to present my dutiful Re- 
spects and Thanks to His Excellency the Governor & to 
both Houses, for the Honour done me by those repeated 
Appointments, and assure them of my Intention in all things 
faithfully to endeavour the Service of the Province.- With 
great Esteem &: Regard, I have the Honour to be 
Your most Obedient & most humble Servant 
Benjamin Franklin 
And then the Committee adjourned Sine Die 

William Knox Esq in London per Gov Wright Capt Hall. 

Savannah in Georgia 9th Oct 1770 
Dear Sir — 

How far the Freshes or Tides may prevent your 
improving Knoxborough by banking I can not possitively 
determine, unless I know from my own observation, and I 
really cannot with precission advise about your keeping or 
your selling your property at Goshen.- Your settling there 
was no plan of mine, and you have totally put it out of my 
Power to interfere officially , and so Mr Martin understands 
it, but if you had left it wholly with me, perhaps your affairs 
there would not have been so displeasing to-you- As it is I 
believe I may truly assert, that I had more trouble about 

88 The Letters of 

them, than any one concerned for you, which I have cheer- 
fully done, because I truly wish to serve you. I know you 
have had Reason to be chagrined, otherwise I could scarcely 
forbear animadverting^ on some Parts of your Letters to me 
which have not a little grieved me, because I have so sin- 
cerely felt for you, I hide nothing respecting your Concerns 
here, and perhaps my own, from a particular Friend. He 
knows my Heart and Sentiments better than any Person in 
Georgia. To him I appeal, and as you will probably sec him 
in about lo months, dont determine on any of your affairs 
here, till you meet Tete a Tete or if you like English better, - 
Check by Jowl- I think he has seen all my material corres- 
pondence with you, and this letter if he will take the trouble 
of reading it, he will also peruse- Truths and Facts, I mean 
to support me thro' my remaining days, and they will not 
fail to recommend me on my winding up, to the Favour of 
God and Man. The Governor tells me he has wrote to you 
by Capt Hall respecting your Knoxborough— I am at a Loss 
to say what you think of my easiness of Temper, which I 
must think you suppose borders on Folly, and Weakness- I 
may perhaps have been, and shall be a sufferer by my disin- 
clination to distress any one, but when I am acting for an 
other, few men are more peremptory, and speak plainer of 
which you will probably be soon convinced some Letters 
passed between me and Mr- on your Account, and when I 
found him Trifling, I fixed a day to settle, and if not then 
done, I would put his Bill in Suit, which I accordingly did 
in Feb. last-xxx- I have a thousand things to say to you, and 
very heartiy thaink you for your advice respecting my self 
in your letter of the 4th June. I sincerely wish you happy 
and successful in your new appointment, and in all other Re- 
spects. I hope you will by this Time, think that the Climate 
of Georgia has not disposed me to be a lazy Correspondent 
with you, however I may have been with some other Persons. 
If your Affairs should prevent my dropping Mr Clark and 
Joe a line pray excuse me to them. I am Dr Sir 

Your real Friend and Servant. 

P. S. The most sensible Defect I feel from Age, is my Eyes 
failing me, for sometimes I find it difficult with Spectacles, 
to make a Pen at Noon day, and that I might in some meas- 
ure remedy this Inconvenience, I desired Mr Clark to send 
me 200 of the best ready made Pens, but they were made 
(tho' charged at 5 pr 100) with an Instrument and from bad 
Quills, and my good Friend Mr Whitefield gave me about 

Hon. Javies Habersham. 8p 

one hundred more, but they were not much better, and by 
no means equal to the Government Office Pens, which after 
you have done with, you will oblige me to send about lOO of 

Mr Joseph Habersham at Messrs Graham Clark & Co 

Pr The Governor Wright. Capt Hall S 
My dear Joe- Savannah in Georgia 13th Oct 1770 

I received your two letters of the 7th June and 
loth July last, with the Magazines and Lady's Chronicle 
which you refer to. Parker's porter shipt me came in good 
order and I believe is of a good Quality- I think better than 
I had formerly sent me by Mr Kenton. I find you now and 
then touch on politics, which it's very well to acquaint your- 
self with, provided you do not determine your opinion from 
popular Clamour, instead of recurring to first principles of 
Government, and our Constitution in particular. Liberty 
as well as religion, has many pretenders among its votaries, 
and both are too often made a block of Licentiousness, for 
Hypocrites can as easily cant the phrases of patriotism, as 
of San city. I do not know that ever I told you my Senti- 
ments of the present unhappy difference in Great Britain and 
in America, and perhaps I may not 'till I think you have de- 
liberately formed your own, because I woud have you do it 
from your own convictions, and free from parental Influ- 
ence ; and this rule ought to be observed in Religious mat- 
ters, otherwise you will always be fluctuating in principle, 
and Consequently in practice : I mention this because I have 
been lately perhaps spoiling half a page in our Gazette, but 
as the subject matter of my productions is rather Local, it 
may not be very Interesting to you in England- The Ga- 
zette I have sent Mr Knox, and pointed out what are mine. 
My views on writing were to exhibit to the Public, that some 
of the greatest Bawlers for Liberty, had taken an unjust and 
partial advantage of their Neighbors, who the}^ were now 
oppressing with a heavy hand to serve their own selfish pur- 
poses, and also that by their present conduct, they had taken 
the powers of Government out of it's proper and legal chan- 
nell, and invested it in a Mob- which must eventually end 
in a total subversion of all Law and Government and of 
Course expose Mens persons and properties to Violence and 
Rapine. Thus my lear Joe, it is easy to inflame the popu- 
lace, which when once done, it is very difficult, if not con- 

po The Letters of 

tinues impossible to keep them within the bounds of reason 
and Equity, and is frequently productive of the most terri- 
ble Effects. Our own History funishes us with many flag- 
rant Instances to confirm this observation, and God grant 
that it may not be repeated by the present Generation. I 
shall only make one further remark, that it is greatly to be 
lamented that some of the men are drawn in, (doubtless from 
a principle of promoting Liberty) to, be the first encouragers 
of the facetious Spirits, not suflficiently considering what may 
be the consequence, which if it should turn out of an evil 
nature, they perhaps never can forgive themselves for the 
part they acted- to bring it about. I am sorry that the 
wearing your hair gives you the head— and if that should 
be really the case, I can have no objection to your 
having it cut off and wearing a Wig, however I find a con- 
trary effect from my experience. I wore a Wig from the 
age of i6 'till I was upward of 51 years of age, which I found 
very troublesome in the hot and trying Climate, and since I 
have let my hair grow for about 7 years-past. I have scarce- 
ly ever found the least inconvenience from it. You mention 
that if you was certain of having your health in Georgia, you 
would return in 18 Months. As it appears to me at present 
I think Georgia is the place where I could best serve you, but 
as I heartily wish you happy, which you cannot be without 
health, I would willingly foregoe the Satisfaction of having 
you near me, to make you so, and therefore leave this matter 
to your choice, which you will be better able to determine 
a year or two hence, and so shall I to advise you- I must 
tell you for your Encouragement to proceed in the prudent 
conduct you have hitherto, that not only Mr Clark but Mr 
Knox and Mr Pryce, and all your friends mention you with 
great respect indeed. Do my Dear Joe continue it to glad- 
den an Affectionate Fathers Heart, and remember you will 
be thereby amply rewarded by peace in your own mind, as 
well as from the inexpressible pleasure you will give him, 
and all, who wish you well ; and I have so much dependence 
on your good Sense, that I cannot admit a thought that you 
will ever give me or your Friends the least cause of com- 
plaint. I humbly thank the author of all our Mercies that 
he has carryed you safe through the Measles, and am truly 
obliged to good Friends Pryce and Sister, for their kindness 
to you, to whom you will make my Grateful Acknowledge- 
ments acceptable. Give my love to my Sister Bagwith and 
Brother Clay- pray tell them I am hurryed and pinched for 
time, and cannot write to them. They may be assured I have 

Hon. James Habersham. gi 

a warm heart for them. Mr Melleyg-ams Nephew has dined 
with Johnny at my House, and I shall send for him to dine 
with me to morrow, being Sunday. It's now growing late- 
and Captain Hall closes all his Business to Night and will 
go, to Cockspur to Sail to morrow- 
I am Dear Joe 

\ our Truly Affecate Father 

John Ellis esq Agent for West Florida 
At Grays Inn London- 
Savannah Georgia i8th Oct 1770 
Sir. I received the favour of your Letter of 

the I2th March last, which enclosed some seeds of Rhubarb. 
They were very carefully packed in Cotton, and appear to 
have come free from all Hurt or damage. I took the most 
early opportunity to distribute them among a, Number of 
Gentlemen, who promised to have them carefullv attended 
to, but I cannot learn from several of them, that any have 
come up- You did not mention the proper Season for sew- 
ing the seed, and therefore they were I suppose immediately 
put in the ground. I received them about the loth Tuly last- 
The Gentlemen to whom I distributed them were, Mr John 
Mulryne, who has the neatest and best Garden in the this 
part of the Province, and really delights in cultivating use- 
full and ornamental Plants of all kinds ;- 
Dr James Cuthbert, who was a sensible man, and was mak- 
ing considerable Improvements at his Country House. He 
dyed yesterday ; 

Mr Josiah Tatnall, who has a tolerable Garden, but has no 
particular passion for improving it further than for the Mar- 
ket and his Table ; 
Mr Nathaniel Hall, and Mr Thomas Netherclift- Merchants 

who have little useful Gardens for the 

Mr Johnathan Bryan, who has a general knowledge of this 
Province and So Carolina, and of its' many unnoticed, tlio' 
perhaps usefull Plants- both medicinal, and ornamental. 
Mr Geo. Baillie, Revd Mr Frink, Mr John Graham,- and Mr 
Thomas Schnider- ; 

Mr Bowen the inventor of, and Patentee for making powder- 
ed Sage, says &c. 

Mr James Jackson of Augusta, situate about 150 Miles North 
West of this Town, upon the River Savannah from which it 
took its' name, who I am told has got a pretty Garden, and 
delights in its' Improvement. 

92 The Letters of 

My friend Governor Ellis mis- 
takes in thinking- I have any knowledg^e of, or particular 
Passion for the cultivating of Plants tho' I must own, I re- 
vere and esteem Men who act out of the narrow Sphere of 
Self, and communicate their Knowledge for usefull Improve- 
ments for the Public good ; but this kind of Knowledge has 
lain far out of my way of obtaining in any tolerable Degree- 
I have been from my youth 'till I was near 50 years of age 
unavoidably immersed in commercial Business, which never 
allowed me Time to think much of other matters.- After I 
determined to wind up my Concerns in Trade, I put my In- 
terest in the planting Way, and retired with my family to 
one of my settlements to, the Country about 8 or 9 miles 
from this Town, where I built a comfortable House, and be- 
ing desirous of making it agreeable to myself and Family, 
I laid out a spot of ground of about 7 or 8 Acres at some 
Expense, under the direction of an English Gardener, who I 
accidently met with, and appears to be no mean Artist in 
that way ; but he has been several years dead, and my wife 
and several of my Children have dyed also, and my remain- 
ing 3 Children being settled, two here and one in London, 
I left the Country, and now reside almost wholly in this 
Town. My Garden in the Country has in consequence been 
totally neglected, except a small part of it, sufficient to em- 
ploy one Negro man to raise a few Kitchen Vegitables for 
my own Table. Governor Ellis saw this Garden in it's best 
State, and tho' it would at no time admit of the least Com- 
parison with a Garden in my native Country, England, he 
might attribute the small Improvements made therein to my 
Taste, instead of my Gardener, and my Inclination to make 
the place agreeable to my wife and family who more than 
deserved all the Regard, I could possibly shew them. I am 
now on the Verge of 60 years, and my public Business calls 
for more Attention. I truly can give, and as our Worthy 
Governor, Mr Wright proposes to go with his family to Eng- 
land next Spring, having the King's Leave. If is probable 
I shall have such a Load of public Concerns devolve on me, 
that I am afraid I shall not be able to give the least Atten- 
tion to my private affairs- I have now been near 33 years 
in this trying Climate , and find, that the Powers of both my 
Body and Mind are greatly debilitated, and by the excessive 
enervating Heat, more than keeps pace with the natural In- 
firmities of growing years- I mention these Matters so cir- 
cumstantially, because tho' it is not in my Power, I could 

Hon. James Habershajn. pj 

wish to send you something from hence, (and I think we must 
have something in the Vegitable World, if I knew them- that 
would be acceptable to you and your Friends) in return for 
your disinterested Regard to promote usefull and ornamental 
articles of Commerce in his Majesty's Dominions ; an at- 
tempt truly laudable, because, so far as we can supply our 
selves, we so far render ourselves independent of foreign 
Assistance, and agreable to an old home Spun Adage, a 
Penny saved is a Penny got ; and if you will not think me 
too officious, I would recommend you to the Correspond- 
ence of Mr Mullryne Mr Bryan and Mr Jackson, and I am 
persuaded, whatever you send them by the Way of Experi- 
ment, they will carefully attend to, and whatever you may 
hint may be acceptable from hence, they will endeavour to 
furnish you with. Mr Mullryne resides a few miles East of 
this Town on a pleasant Salt-water River. Mr Bryan about 
the same distance West on a fresh Water and Mr Jackson, 
as I have intimated, far up in the Country, which must pro- 
duce very different Plants of all Kinds. These Gentlemen 
know nothing of my mentioning them to you, but if you 
please to make mention of my Name, you have my Liberty. 
I had almost forgot our present Surveyor General Wm 
Henry Young w^ho with his wife and part of his Family, is 
now in England, and as I have heard he soon proposes re- 
turning here, he would be a very proper Correspondent hav- 
ing discovered more than a common Inclination to investi- 
gate and promote Plants, either for use or Ornament- I am 
with Respect Sir 

Your most Obedient humble Servt 

J. H. 

To Mr Robert Wells Printer In Charlestown 
Pr Wm John Forbes 

Savannah in Georgia 24th Nov. 1770 
Sir I have long wished to have your Ga- 

zette, as also Mr Timothy's and Mr Crouch's, but unless I 
could have them regularly they will be of very little use. The 
Bearer Mr Forbes, Mr Moody, and many of your friends 
say, you will willingly oblige me sending yours, and the other 
weekly publications, as Opportunity offers, which I hope 
tho' I do not know that a more neighborly Communication 
would serve Georgia as much as So Carolina) will not now 
be under any interdictory Restraints as I truly wish, not onlv 
to call mvself, but to be, A Friend to Societv and for that 

94^ The Letters of 

Reason, I am an Enemy to all Protestant as well as Papal 
Interdictions, whether in Church or State. Will you there- 
fore be pleased to take in Timothy's and Crunches Paper 
for me, and add your own, which I beg the favour of you to 
enclose to me at Savannah, by every presenting Conveyance, 
and you may depend on my punctually fulfilling every En- 
gagement, you may enter into on my account notwithstand- 
ing I am an Inhabitant of Georgia and consequently one of 
those who are charged with having F)asely taken every Ad- 
vantage of the more virtuous Colonies. You see, I offer 
myself, and therefore hope, you will put me on your List, as 
one of your Correspondents, and pray dont be afraid that 
I shall poison your Mind with facetious, disaffected or Trea- 
sonable Principles, either against the British Government or 
the American Revolutionists, as I am heartily tired, and 
have done with Politics. Dare you, if you have not already 
done it, give a Place in your Gazette for the publication in 
the enclosed Paper from an old Friend, to perpetuate the 
memory of a truly worthy deceased Gentleman, who has de- 
served every Mark of Respect from the Inhabitants of this 
Province : and the Public in general. I think it cannot give 
any Offense to your general Committee, because I recollect 
their Resolutions were only to have no commercial Deal- 
ings with the Georgians, and I am persuaded, you will not 
find one Word about Commerce, Non importation or Poli- 
tics of any kind ; however, if you suspect it may give the most 
distant offence, I should not wish to see it in your Paper in 

I am Sir 

Your very humble Servant 
J. H. 

P. S. If you have Jencks Mediations prefaced by the late 
Revd Mr Hervy, pray send them- I want to present them 
to a young Man, who is intended for the Ministry, also 
Steels Christian Hero for another youth. If you have any 
small Memorandum Books, pray send me half a dozen. What 
I have usually carried in my Pockets, are about 4 Inches 
long and 2^2 Inches wide, bound with thin red Leather, and 
a blotting Paper, between each Leaf, and such I would chuse 
as most handy and useful. You will take Timothy's and 
Crouchs Papers in your own name, and pay for them, which 
I will punctually, and thankfully reimburse you 

Hon. James Habersham. g^ 

To William Knox Esq. under Secretary of State to the right 
honr the Earl of Hillsborough, Whitehall pr Mr Corne- 
lius Winter. 
Dear Sir- Savannah in Georgia the 26th Nov 1770 

The Bearer Mr Cornelius Winter has been employ- 
ed by the Executors and Trustees of the late Reverand 
Bartholomew Zouberbuhler for a year past, to instruct the 
Negroes on the deceased's Plantation in particular, and 
others occasionally, as he has had opportunity, which he has 
not failed to improve : and wherever he has been in some 
rneasure contenanced, he has prudently declined obtruding 
himself, chusing rather to recommend his Services by his 
inoiTensive and pious Behavior, and by that means remove 
some Peoples weak Objections against having their poor 
ignorant Servants instructed in the Principles of the Chris- 
tian Religion: and he has so far succeeded, as to be received 
with great Respect by the Heads of several Familys, as well 
as to give entire Content to the Executors of Mr Zou- 
buhler's Will, in the discharge of the duty therein required 
as far as in the Power: but as they think by the Tenor of the 
said Will, and I am of the same opinion with them, that he 
intended the Person, who should instruct his Negroes, 
should be a Minister of the Church of England, and conse- 
quently qualified to baptize, and perform other holy offices, 
they have in writing requested the Governor to recommend 
him to the Lord Bishop of London and to the worthy So- 
ciety, or perhaps to both of them for Ordination, and f have 
understood they have requested the same of our present 
Rector, the Revd Samuel Frink, and both of them I believe 
will readily do it- He is suf^ciently provided for, and wants 
no further Assistance, being allowed by the Executors £125 
Pr annum, besides his Board- I have had more than com- 
mon opportunity's of knowing the Bearer, and do think him 
to be a truly serious good man, and that he has engaged in 
instructing these much neglected and benighted People, with 
his whole Heart and simply to promote the Honour of God, 
by bringing them from the horrid Darkness of Heathenism' 
to the light of the glorious Gospel of the Son of God- You 
know that I have long and ardently wished that some Person 
would undertake and begin this truly charitable tho' very 

This letter is of interest as showing what provision was made to give the neero slaves 
of the Province moral and religious instruction, While .Tames Habersham and his friend 
Whitefield were warm advocates of the introduction of slaves into tho Province both were 
deeply concerned in their religious instruction as may be seen in several of these letters 
Concerning the laws relating to the treatment of slaves see Jones' History of Georgia Vol' 
I, pp. 423-426 and 480-185. See also note to letter dated May 26, 1768. See also letters dated 
Dec. 1, 1770, June 6, 1771, and April 19, 1775. leiiers aated 

p6 The Letters of 

arduous Work, and must say, that I think Mr Winter pe- 
cuHarly quaHfyed for the Undertaking. He is very conde- 
sending, and indeed has much of the Spirit of the humble 
and Meek Jesus, and from my own knowledge, will stoop to 
the unimproved Capacities of these poor Creatures, I have 
heard him in the Town, and at my Plantations, where I have 
near two hundred Souls, Men Women and Children, exhort 
them with great Judgment discretion and Christian Affection, 
and have seen such visible marks of decency and Attention 
among them, that I could not help bearing a Part in their 
Sensibility ; and very heartily thanking God for so useful a 
Man : and I might add, if I may be allowed to be a Judge, 
that he has real Abilities and such as would not be despised 
in any Congregation I hope therefore to have the pleasure 
of seeing him return to us in holy Orders, by which his 
Sphere of Usefulness will be more enlarged, and he will be 
more acceptable among white People, and consequently 
much more so among the Blacks, who you know are influ- 
enced by Example. For my Part, I am not ashamed to say, 
I have done and will do all in my Power to forward and pro- 
mote the lauable Design of the deceased, and Mr Winter 
and I are happy in the Prospect of one day seeing a congre- 
gated Church of Africans, rejoicing at their being brought 
from a Land of Darkness, and of having the Opportunity 
of being partakers of our Common Salvation, to which, both 
bond and free are equally entitled ; and as I know you have 
expressed a Desire to have your Negroes instructed, I have 
taken the Liberty to recommend this young Man to your 
Friendship, and doubt not but he will be countenanced by 
the worthy Fathers of an Excellent Church, and qualifyed 
by holy orders to proceed in his pious Undertaking, which 
has been so warmly and affectionately recommend by them 
in their Annual Sermons, preached before the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel ; and I am so well convinced 
of the uprightness of his Intentions, that I shall esteem every 
mark of respect shewn him, as done to myself, being per- 
suaded that he will thereby neither dishonour vou nor Dear 

Your affectionate humble Servant 


Hon. James Habersham. P7 

To William Knox Esq under Secretary of State to the Right 
Honbl the Earl of Hillsborough- Whitehall pr the Georgia 
Packet. Capt Anderson : 

Savannah in Georgia ist Dec 1770 
Dear Sir 

The 28th Ultimo, I received from the Governor your 
two extraordinary Letters of ist Oct and the it September 
last, and am extremely sorry to find, that I have not given 
you the satisfaction Intended as your Attorney : and as I 
am anxious, that I have endeavoured faithfully and disin- 
terestedly to serve you in that, and every other Capacity, 1 
came to a resolution to have no further Concern in your af- 
fairs, and one of your Attorneys, which I signifyed in vv^riting 
to your other Attorneys, Messieurs Johnson & Graham, a 
copy of which with their answer I now enclose, and as I 
know they have real Friendship for you, I am sorry that they 
declined to take charge of your Concerns.- You see by their 
answer, that they have seen your late Letters to me, Mr 
Martin being here T thought it necessary to acquaint him 
with my Determination, and also with that of your other 
Attorneys, but as he observed, he had no Power to act for 
you, otherwise than your Letters authorized him, and seemed 
much concerned : I told him as your attorney had declined, 
I would appear, if necessity required, as your legal Represen- 
tative, untill you had appointed some person here, or had sent 
over one to act for you, because I wished to preserve your 
Friendship, and Esteem however provoking and unkind the 
contents of too many of your late Letters had been to me, 
but with this express Condition, that I will on no Account 
interfere with your planting Affairs, or say one Word about 
them to him or you, otherwise than by accounting to you for 
what may any Way come into my Hands, I expected An- 
dresen would have sailed yesterday or today, and am happy, 
that I had settled with Mr Martin (and the account you will 
have with this) before I received your late Letters. By the 
Ship Gov Wright Capt Hall I wrote you largely and sent 
your account Current with me, which, (with the present In- 
closed) I hope will justify my Asserting, that I have served 
you faithfully and disinterestedly, and have truly given more 
Attention to your Business, than to my own. In my Letter 

William Knox, it will be remembered, had been the Provincial Aeent of Geortria. but 
had been removed on account of the position he took about the obnoxious Stamp Act. He 
had large planting interests in Georgia, which were looked after by his intimate friend. 
James Habersham, who calls himself here "attorney." See letter of October 9. 1770. 

C. tt H.. referred to here, was the mercantile house of Clay Si Habersham. 

Concerning the apparent breach in the friendship between Habersham and Knox indi- 
cated in this letter, see letter dated Nov. 28, 1771. 

g8 The Letters of 

by Capt Hall, of the 9th October last, I then observed that 
I could scarcely with hold animadverting on some Parts of 
your late Letters on other language, than I chose to make 
use of, but as I knew you had been disappointed in your Ex- 
pectations (not by me), and had reason to be chagrined,! for- 
bore : and must deny, that I have not been very particular in 
my Correspondence with you, and desire, as a proof, that you 
will compare my Letters, with the Accounts sent Capt Hall 
and this Ship, by which, I am persuaded it will appear that I 
have been very circumstantial in my Information, and for 
Confirmation, I can appeal to your Friend here, who has 
seen most of my Material Letters, and to whom I have often 
complained from your Answers, that I believed, when you 
received and read them, you thought very little more about 
them, tho' I think, I have neither been an inattentive, un- 
inteligible or careless Correspondent and I am sure, you must 
acknowledge, not an interested one, unless for your Benefit- 
If your planting Scheme has not succeeded, you surely can- 
not blame me, I did not advise you to enter upon it, and 
neither had I any charge of your Plantation, which you to- 
tally put out of my Power to interfere in, unless by perhaps 
giving unthankfull Advise : you may observe by your ac- 
counts sent by Capt Hall, that the principal Part of your last 
year's crop was not at Market, 'till the 15th June last, and 
as your preceeding crops had left you annually in Debt to 
C. & H. and 'till lately I was almost considerably u-". Ad- 
vance for you. I chose to wind up your whole planting Af- 
fairs, and give you a clear state of them at one view. You 
say, you was one year informed, that you had some Lumber 
to sell, another year you heard you had some Rice planted, 
another, that there was no less than 300 barrels Rice to be 
looked for. If I gave such Information, as those you em- 
ployed, furnished me with, am I to be reproached for it? I 
gave you Authority by name, and I could do no otherwise 
unless you expected that I was to wade through your Rice 
Field, (where you had no Banks) up to my middle in mire 
and Water to the manifest Hazard of my Life ; and indeed I 
have for more than two years past, been so infirmed and 
Lame, that I could not do it either for myself or you. I know 
you have a considerable Sum due you, which you ought to 
have received, but if you have been thereby injured, it is not 
my Fault, and neither am I sensible that you have been hm"t 
by any Connections of my making. You say "I must beg 
you will not draw any Bill upon me for any Purpose what- 
ever, except the iiii- which you are already engaged for. 

Hon. James Habersham. pp 

This caution is in every Sense needless , because if you had 
attended to the many uninforming- Letters, I have wrote to 
you for 2 years past, I have repeatedly told you, that you 
might depend, I would not on any pretence draw on you, 
except for the £iii, for which Rice should be Shipt to Mr 
Nutt, to whom I understand, this money was to be paid- 
Upon the whole, I am tired with these Explanations, and 
now take my leave offending- and proving, and be assured I 
never will say or write one Word more on such Subjects, 
for if my Own Conduct will not justify me, it is full time to 
have done with such Correspondence ; and as I truly and 
very Sincerely wish your Welfare in every respect, I hope 
my Successor will transact better for you than Dear Sir 

Your real Friend and very Humble Servant- 
James Habersham. 

Savannah in Ga ist Dec 1770 
To the Rev Thomas Broughton Sect, to the Society for pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge London.) Dear Sir-. 

Upwards of 33 years agoe when 
you was Minister of the Church in the Tower of London, I 
was honoured with your Acquaintance, and as I suppose you 
have not forgot me, I shall make no further Apology for 
taking the Liberty of troubling you with this. The late 
worthy Rector of this parish. The Rev Bartholomew Zou- 
berbuhler- deceased having by Will left, great part of his 
Estate in trust for the support of a person propely qualifyed 
to Instruct his Negroes on his Plantation, in particular, and 
any others occasionally in the Principles of the Christian 
Religion, as established in the Church of England ; and the 
Bearer Mr Cornelius Winter, having been recommended to 
the Trustees as a serious and judicious person, and very fit 
to execute the pious Intentions of the deceased, they have 
for about a year past employed him in this service, in which 
he has given intire Satisfaction, having conducted himself 
in the difficult Undertaking with great prudence, Assiduity 
and Discretion, not only with respect to, the people imme- 
diately under his charge but wherever he has had an Oppor- 
tunity of giving a Word of advice to the poor Blacks, on other 
Plantations, and, I thank God, he has found some persons 
of Considerable property, who have gladly opened their 
Houses to him, and thankfully accepted and countenanced 

See note to letter dated Nov. 26, 1770. 

loo The Letters of 

his Services, by attending- themselves on the very sensible 
and affectionate Exhortations he has given their Numerous 
Slaves. It is to me unaccountable, that any people calling 
themselves Christians, should have any objections against 
having their Servants instructed, unless it is their Inatten- 
tion to, or Ignorance of, the eternal Importance of the Chris- 
tian Revelation ; but it is a melancholy Truth that there are 
too many such, and for this Reason, as well as many others, 
that might be mentioned, it is necessary that the person em- 
ployed in this Service, should be ordained, because however 
little Regard some people pay to the pious Instructions of a 
Minister, there are, I hope, but few, if any so abandoned, as 
not to show some respect to his sacred Character, especially 
if his life and conversation is comformable thereto. Mr Win- 
ter I understand, has been long desirous of being usefull in 
the Church, and has taken no small pains to qualify himself 
for that purpose, but finds, he cannot be so usefull in his 
present contracted situation, as he wishes to be, and as the 
Executors and Trustees of the late Mr Zouberbuhler's Will 
think by the Tenor of it, and I am of their opinion, that he 
intended the person, who should instruct his Negroes, should 
be a Minister of the Church of England, and consequently 
qualifyed to baptize, and perform other holy Offices they 
have requested his Excellency the Governor to recommend 
him to the Lord Bishop of London for Holy orders, and I 
am informed, thay have desired the same of our present Rec- 
tor the Rev Saml Frink, and both of them I believe will 
readily do it. He is sufficiently provided for, and will want 
no further assistance, being by the Executors allowed one 
Hundred & twenty five pounds pr annum, besides his Board, 
a Servant &c. I have had opportunity of knowing him in his 
private Conduct, and to think him to be a truly Serious Man 
and that he has engaged in instructing these much neglected 
and benighted people with an honest view to promote their 
eternal Welfare, and the Glory of God, by bringing them 
from a real state of Heathenism, to the sight of the Glori- 
ous Gospel of the son of God- I have long wished, that 
some good man, would undertake this truly charitable tho' 
very arduous Work, and I must say, that I think Mr Winter 
peculiarly qualifyed for it. He appears to be very condes- 
cending and patient, is of a remarkably humble and quiet 
disposition, and from my own knowledge, will stoop to the 
barren, (because too generally unimproved Capacities of 
these poor Creatures. I say unimproved Capacities, as some 
ignorant people would foolishly insinuate, that they are 

Hon. James Habersham. loi 

scarcely reasonable Creatures, and not capable of being in- 
structed in the divine Thruths of Christianity ; an absurdity 
too obvious to deserve any refutation, and I am ashamed to 
have occasion to make this observation, as daily Experience 
evinces, that there are many ingenious Mechanicks among 
them, and as far as they have had Opportunity of being in- 
structed, have discovered as good abilities, as are usually 
found among people of our Colony ; but making them good 
tradesmen is immediately profitable, and the Rev^ard of mak- 
ing them good Christians is at a Distance- I have been in 
among the Northern provinces, and have with great pleas- 
ure seen many serious Negroes, and in the neighboring 
Province of So Carolina, I have known several, who have 
honoured the Gospel, perhaps not Less, than their Owners, 
and we have some, tho' but few here, who are baptized and 
admitted to other Holy Ordinances, whose Behavior is not 
the most Reproachable. I have heard Mr Winter speak to 
a considerable Number of Negroes, in this Town, as well 
as at my own plantations, where I have near two hundred 
men, women, and Children, with great judgement and Chris- 
tian Affection, and have seen such apparent marks of de- 
cency and Attention among them, that had you Revd Sir, 
been present, I am sure you could not help bearing a Part 
in this Sensibility, and of thanking God for so usefull a man ; 
and if I am a Judge, I think he has real abilitys, and such as 
would not be despised in any Congregation ; I hope there- 
fore to have the Satisfaction of seeing him return to us in 
Holy Orders, by which his Sphere of usefullness will be more 
enlarged, and, as I before observed, he will by that means, 
be more acceptable among the white people and will be much 
more so among the Blacks, who are in this Instance in partic- 
ular much influenced by example. For my part, I am not 
ashamed to say, that I have done and will do all in my power 
to forward and promote this laudable Design, and that 1 am 
happy, even in the prospects of one day seeing a congre- 
gated Church of Africans, rejoicing at their being brought 
from a Land of Darkness, and of being made partakers of 
our own Common Salvation, to which both bond and free are 
equally intitled, and as I am persuaded Rev Sir, that you will 
rejoice in having an opportunity to promote the Welfare of 
the meanest of our fellow beings, I take the Liberty of recom- 
mending the Deplorable state of these poor neglected Ne- 
groes to your Friendship as well as the Bearer, who is de- 
sirous of serving them, not doubting, but he will be counten- 
anced by the Rev and Worthy Father of our Church, and 

102 The Letters of 

duly qualifyed to proceed in his good undertaking which 
has been so warmlv and affectionately recommended by 
them, in their Annual Sermons preached before the worthy 
Society for the propagation of the Gospel, and I am so well 
convinced of the uprightness of Mr Winters Intentions, that 
I am persuaded, he will neither dishonour you, nor Rev and 
Dear Sir 
p ^;, . Your Affecate Friend & Servant 

Mr Winter has an authenticated copy of the late Mr Z's 

To the Right Honourable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 
ingdon London pr Mr Cornelius Winter Pr the Georgia 
Packet Capt Anderson 

Madam ) Savannah in Georgia loth December 1770 

I make no doubt but that your Ladyship heard of the 

truly lamented Death of that dear and much Honoured Ser- 

The death of Whitefield occurred on September 30, 1770, at Newburyport, Mass.. while 
he was on a tour of New England in behalf of his beloved Bethesda. Whit«fleld made the 
Countess Dowager of Huntingdon his heir in the interest of Bethesda, and, in ease of lier 
death, his "faithful and invariable friend, the Honorable .James Habersham," who was 
named as executor for Georgia, and Robert Keen the London executor. 

Concerning the plans of Whitefleld for establishing a college at Bethesda. see Jones' 
History of Georgia, Vol. I, pp. 408-412. See also letter dated Feb. G, 1771. 

Concerning the property interests of Governor Wright in America the following extract 
from Slave Holdings ix Geohgia, by U. B Phillips, will be of interest: 

"Among the archives in the Department of State, at Atlanta, in a volume of deeds and 
bills of sale there is an inventory of the slaves, rice and live stoclt upon the plantation of 
Sir James Wright, dated January 8, 1771. Of the eleven plantations listed, three are stated 
to be near Savannah and eight on the dgecchee and Canoochee rivers. The number of 
slaves on the several i)lantations is given as follows: 

Men Women Bovs Girls Total 

1 19 20 7 t> 52 

2 20 28 S 7 63 

3 IS 13 4 3 38 

4 30 24 12 6 72 

5 16 16 6 1 38 

6 IS 17 7 2 44 

7 ly 18 9 1 47 

8 20 15 4 1 40 

9 22 16 ^ 48 

10 22 14 5 6 47 

11 22 15 fi 1 44 

Total 221 lfl6 72 34 523 

"This table adds further light to the statement in Carroll's Historical Collections of 
South Carolina. 11, 202, referring to the size of the South Carolina rice plantations. 'They 
reckon tliirty slaves a proper number for a rice plantation to be tended with one overseer.' " 
In a similar volume there is a Sfliedule of the lands, houses and slaves of John Graham. 
Lieutenant Governor, dated 1781, whicti gives f)irther illustration of the organization of in- 
dustry in the low country, and shows also the stylo of living of the few men of wealth in 
early Georgia. A list is given of tracts of land ranging mostly between 300 and 2.000 acres 
each, and aggregating 2f«,57Si4 acres. On the "Monteith l'lantation"ofB,000 acres, it is stated, 
there were 77 slaves, of whom 36 were men. Among these are listed one driver (i. e. fore- 
man), 2 eariters. 2 boatmen, 4 sawyers. 2 carpenters and 1 cooper. Among the 27 women 
one was a washerwoman and one a cook to the overseer. On the "Mulberry Grove Planta- 
tion" of 1.274 acres, there were 80 negroes of whom 43 were men. 22 women, 8 boys, and 7 
girls. On the "New Settlement" 71 slaves were employed. Finally, a list is given of thirty 
"negroes usually employed and kept about the house." Of these, Nero is listed as a coach- 
man. Will Cruz as a cook, Don.ald a steward, strap a hairdresser. Bob a groom, George a 
tailor. 8(!ruh and Harry waiting; boys. Alyema a coolt, Chuffee and Phoebe children's 
women, Maria, Leah and Jeanne washerwomen. Penny a cook, Phyllis a midwife, Rose 
and Hannah house wenches. 

Hon. James Habersham. loj 

vant of Jesus Christ,- the Revd George Whitefield at New- 
buryport in New England, about the same time as we did 
here, which was the beginning of last Month, and as your 
Ladyship must know the Character and Usefullness of the 
Worthy deceased, in the Church, it will be needless for me 
to say any thing on that subject. I have however lost in 
him The oldest and Dearest Friend I had upon Earth. My 
first acquaintance with him was 34 years ago soon after he 
left Oxford and on his first visit to London, before he was 
known as a popular preacher, and from the first hour we 
saw each other, to the hour of Death, our Affectionate and 
real Friendship never abated ; indeed it was so deeply found- 
ed, that we knew not how to part, and when he first set off 
for this, then Infant Colony in December 1737, I left my 
Business, Contrary to the Sentiments of all my Friends, and 
embarked with him, without having any particular design 
in View, otherwise than to accompany him, and since my 
Arrival here near 33 years ago, I have not once seen my na- 
tive Country, and perhaps never may. Some of the first 
years of my being here, I was wholly engaged with, and for 
him, in erecting the Orphan House and conducting his Af- 
fairs there. He has long appeared to be particularly design- 
ed by divine Providence to be singularly usefull in promoting 
the Interests of real Religion in this new and very extensive 
World, and I believe his death has been very truly and very 
Generally Lamented, wherever he has had an opportunity of 
being known throughout this Continent, and the Inhabitants 
of this province have in him, lost a Friend indeed, which they 
appear to be sensible of, and so does the Legislature now 
convened : who have publickly and genteely expressed their 
Gratitude, which I have endeavoured to Acknowledge in the 
enclosed Gazette, and at the same time mentioned some In- 
cidents, well known to a few, yet alive of our first Settlers 
in memory of my Valuable Old Friend under the signature 
of An old and real Friend to the deceased and to Georgia- 
among the papers inclosed with this : your Ladyship will find 
an Authenticated Copy of his Will under the Great Seal of 
this Province, which I have sent, the better to enable your 
Ladyship and the London Executor to Act- The Original 
is wholly in his own Hand writing which he made a Short 
Time before he last embarked from hence, and left it in the 
care of Honest Mr Ambrose Wright, his Faithful Friend and 
Servants who delivered it to me, on hearing of the Certainty 
of his Death, by which your Ladyship will find, he has left 
an his Affairs in this province absolutely to your Ladyship : 

104. The Letters of 

a circumstance I am happy to find, but could have wished to 
have had the perusal of it, and particularly an other Friend 
(I mean our Worthy Governor) as we should have doubtless 
pointed out the necessity of adding a few Words more fully 
to extend the power of his devises, agreable I am persuaded 
to his Intention , and what he really thought he had done, 
having told me so in one of our last Conversations- I must 
own, it's appearing rather defective, has given me no small 
pain, as it is well known there are many, too many who 
would gladly improve every pretence to put the Worst Con- 
structions on the Conduct of the deceased, who I need not 
say to your Ladyship acted in every respect, with a disinter- 
ested and pure View, to promote the Honour of the Great 
God, but in order that I may be better understood I shall 
take the Liberty of Tresspassing on your Ladyship's pa- 
tience, while I make a few remarks. It is conceived as T be- 
fore remarked, that the Will is not so clear and express as 
it might have been in regard to the Trust invested in your 
Ladyship and the London Executors, for tho' there is strong 
Implication of a Trust to your Ladyship, (and to myself in 
Case of your Ladyships demise) as to the Georgia Affairs, 
there is not a Word to that purpose to Mr West and Mr 
Keen in respect to the Tabernacle and Tottinham Court 
Chappel and unless the Leases of the Lands, on which these 
buildings are Erected, declare their Uses, I am afraid the 
deceased's Heir will (unless he will release- or the Executors 
or one of them should Survive 'till the Expiration of the re- 
spective Leases), have an Absolute Right to them for, the 
term, if any may remain unexpired- Your Ladyship will 
please to observe by the Copys of the Grants enclosed of the 
lands here, that there are seven, three of which are in trust 
for the Use and Benefit of the Orphan House , three in Trust 
for the Endowment of a College, which is a happy Circum- 
stance, and there is one for 500 Acres Called Huntingdon 
granted generally and without any Trust expressed, which 
after your Ladyships Decease will undoubtedly come to the 
deceaseds Heir, if he does not before that period release 
This Tract, I many years ago took up unknown to my late 
Friend and after he knew it, he gave its' Name out of respect 
to your Ladyships : and, if my memory does not fail me, I 
believe I advised him to have the Grant in his own Name 
only, that he might add it with his many other Donations 
to the Orphan House, as his own Gift and property which 
I am sure he did not advert to on making his Will, other- 
wise it would have been 'specially devised to your Ladyship, 

Hon. James Habersham. 105 

for the use of the Orphan House, having repeatedly heard 
him say that none of his Relations should possess a Foot 
of property, he had dedicated to the Service of God. This 
Land as yet unimproved adjoins to the plantation called 
Ephata, is valuable and will be extremely convenient for the 
future Improvement and Support of the Institution ; and if 
the Heir is not prevented from Claiming it in future, it would 
much grieve me, as I had it in my power to have had the 
Grant in my own Name, and to give it for the Use I very 
truly intended, when I took it up,- I need not observe to 
your Ladyship, that neither the lands in England, or Here, 
are by the Will devised in Fee , and, from what I have under- 
stood, my late Friends Heir, and any that may Succeed, is 
by no means fit to have the Trust, (and he can have no more, 
unless, if not prevented, Huntingdon) of the deceased's 
landed Afifairs here, which however was the most distant from 
the Testators Intention- The Negroes, and all the personal 
Estate, the Heir at Law cannot interfere with, and, if I am 
not mistaken in my observations, I should think it might be 
expedient to have some Instrument drawn up, declaring the 
Uses of all the Lands, Negroes &c, agreable to what your 
Ladyship and the Executors know was the deceased's In- 
tention, and in the deeds (for, if any are thought necessary, 
there must be two, one from your Ladyship in respect to the 
Georgia Afifairs, and another from Mr West and Mr Keen 
for the London Afifairs) to insert a Clause by which the Heir 
at Law Releases all Claims &c to the Lands (if any he has) 
and join in the Declaration of uses or Trusts &c, but, if it's 
thought the Heir will make any difificulty, then it may per- 
haps be better to say nothing to him about it but of this your 
Ladyship and the Executors will be better able to Judge, 
after taking advice on the Will- And, as I cannot doubt, but 
your Ladyship will condescend to accept of the Trust- I take 
the Liberty to recommend to your Ladyship to send me a 
particular power of Attorney, and as I am in years, and Life 
is Uncertain, I also recommend to your Ladyship to join the 
following persons with me- The Honourable Francis Harris 
Esqr John Smith Esqr Mr Joseph Clay, Mr Ambrose Wright 
and Mr James Habersham Junior, that if your Ladyship 
thinks proper, they may apply here to endeavour to obtain 
a Law to establish the College, as the deceased intended to 
have done, had he lived, or to act in such other Manner as 
your Ladyship may judge most proper for perfecting the 
desirable. Object of the Testator- I hope your Ladyship will 
excuse my presuming to give my Opinion, and attribute it 

io6 The Letters of 

to my hearty Inclination to serve an Institution, I have de- 
voted so much Time, and have been at great Pains to Sup- 
port and render Usefull, agreable to the pious purposes of 
the Founder ; and I am extremely concerned, that your Lady- 
ship should have any trouble, that might have been spared, 
had the good man known as much about Law, as he did of 
the Gospel. I purpose sending this, with the several Inclos- 
ures, by Mr Cornelius Winter, who it's expected will embark 
to morrow, or at farthest the day following for London, to 
endeavour to obtain Ordination, as a Missionary to, the 
poor Negroes, and whatever Objections our Revd Fathers 
may have to a Methodist preacher, being instrumental in 
Converting Christians, I should add Nominal ones, I hope 
they will have none against Converting Negroes who are al- 
m'ost totally in a perfect State of Heathenism, he carries with 
him perhaps better Credentials, than most do who go from 
America for Holy Orders, and if your Ladyship has time to 
peruse them, I believe they will appear reputable, and can- 
not fail of being attended to, unless his pious and Exemplary 
Behaviour, and (should it be known, as it probably may) his 
connection with my deceased Friend, should operate against 
him. I suppose your Ladyship may have seen him having 
been one of Mr Whitefields family in London, and he has 
been esteemed so here, and consequently is in some measure 
able to answer, any enquiry's, your Ladyship may chuse to 
make in regard to the Orphan House. My acquaintance with 
him has only been for about a year past, and I am greatly 
mistaken, if he does not engage with a Single Eye in the 
Work he has undertaken if permitted. Your Ladyship will 
please to observe that the Will was not proved, 'till this day, 
as I thought it Necessary that it should be on its's Way to 
your Ladyship, before the contents were known here, as 
well on Account of the respect due to your Ladyship as that 
a Malicious and near relation of the deceased in this Town, 
might not have it in his power to circumvent any measures 
your Ladyship might think proper to take with the Heir at 
Law in England, who I suppose is well known to Mr Keen- 
I have found among, my late Friends Papers, a Sketch of a 
Law to establish a College, and I shall immediately employ 
a Lawer to put it in Town, and send your Ladyship a copy 
by the next Conveyance for your Ladyships Approbation, 
in which I may perhaps be indulged with our very Sensible 
and kind Governors advice, who is esteemed an exceedingly 
Good Lawer, having formerly been in Great practice in South 
Carolina, where he was many Years Attorney General. He 

Hon. James Habersham. loj 

proposes going to England with his Family next May, when 
this Government will probably devolve upon me, and being 
sensible of my own Inability for such an Undertaking, I truly 
Tremble at the Thought- He has very Great property here, 
which I shall have the principal Charge of: he goes to Eng- 
land as Governor of Georgia, having the King's Leave to 
return to his Government, if he chuses, which is a favour 
not granted to every Governor, and I am sure, he will very 
readily assist and advise your Ladyship in promoting the 
Testators Intentions of which he is acquainted, having had 
many conversations with him, on that Subject, when last 
here- Among the Inclosures, your Ladyship will find a Sched- 
ule of the lands and Negroes of the deceased, also a copy on 
an account enclosed with his Will of his Money Matters, he 
left with Mr Keen, which I suppose is all his great Worthy 
Estate, so much talked of by his Enemies, and 1 think when 
his Legacy's are paid there will be but very little left for the 
Orphan House, the Accounts of which were all settled and 
Audited last February, and It's debt paid to that time, and 
what has been necessarily contracted since, I am told will 
not be very Considerable, which I shall take care to discharge, 
and duly render your Ladyship an account- I shall likewise 
have an Inventory taken of the deceased's real and personal 
Estate, as soon as possible, which I am obliged to have done 
within 3 months, agreable to Law, and my Oath on Quali- 
fying as Executor- I have informed your Ladyship, that I 
only qualifyed to day and covild not 'till that was done, legal- 
ly act, tho I have not been Idle in my Friends Affair since 
I heard of his Death- I do, not precisely know the Number 
of poor Children at the Orphan House, but I believe there 
are not many, of which and every other particular, I shall 
inform myself, and consequently your Ladyship. I have had 
several Applications since my Friend last left this province, 
and some lately, to take in poor Children, but I have determ- 
ined not to enlarge the Family or make any other alteration 
in it, untill I hear from your Ladyship- The Institution will 
want further Support, and I know it's Founder intended, as 
his ability permitted, to add 15 or 20 Negroes more, which 
if he had lived to do, I think it would have been Sufficient to 
Support the president-Tutors, and Servants, and as many 
Orphan Children, as could conveniently be taken in. The 
Students when a College is superadded must pay all their 
Expenses of Board &c, and some settled sum towards Sup- 
porting the president and other Offices : The additional 
Buildings for the Accomodation of Students are in great 

io8 The Letters of 

forwardness, and will soon be finished, but they will be of 
no Service without a person properly qualifyed to preside, 
without which nothing can be- done to purpose as a College. 
I would beg leave to recommend to your Ladyship the ob- 
taining such a person as a principal Object , and as such, I 
can make no doubt of your Ladyships considering it ; he must 
necessarily be well acquainted with Classical Learning, and 
should have a tolerable Knowledge of the Sciences ; He 
should be a Clergyman of the Church of England, of sound 
principles, and no Stranger to Experimental Divinity and I 
may add he should not only be a Gentleman by profession, 
but in practice capable of Governing with Dignity, tho' with 
Tenderness- Such an one my Lady would, I had almost 
said, be the greatest Benefaction that could be given to the 
Institution and to the province in General. The Chappell 
is very neat, and nearly completed, and the two Wings for 
Students, and other Buildings are in great forwardness, and 
all together they are very convenient and make a handsome 
appearance ; and Mr Wright assures me, he will see them all 
finished, and will Execute any further Business your Lady- 
ship may require of him. It has been extremely chagrining, 
and a disagreable State of Suspence to Mr Whitefields 
Friends here, not to have even heard till within a few days 
past from Richard Smith, the Servant who waited upon him 
on his last Journey, and was with him at the time of his 
death. In his Letter, I am informed he acquaints Mr Wright 
that he intended to embark from Boston for London by the 
advice of a Friend there, tho' his own Judgement, and the 
knowledge he had of, his Master's affairs here should I- 
think have directed him to return with all speed to Georgia, 
with what Effects and Money his good Master had with him- 
It appears by the Will, which he could not be acquainted 
with,- that he is intitled to all the Wearing Apparel his Mas- 
ter had with him, but not to several little things, Mr Wright 
informs me, the deceased's carryed for his convenience, be- 
longing to the Orphan House, and especially a Gold Watch 
my dear Friend left me, of which I am in no want, otherwise 
than I should preserve, and Esteem it as a token of his Love 
and Regard. Mr Smith has also a Legacy left him of 50 i 
and I suppose when Mr Keen settles that with him, he will 
take care, that he Accounts for what money he found in the 
possession of his kind Master at the time of his Death. He 
has a Son at the Orphan House, and I must think this part 
of his Conduct is by no means pleasing- I shall endeavour 
to write to Mr West and Mr Keen by this Opportunity much 

Hon. James Habersham. log 

to the same purpose I have done to your Ladyship, and I 
am sorry I have been obHged to be so proHx and intruding 
upon your Ladyships patience but I thought it my Duty, to 
be as particular as in power at present and beg your Lady- 
ship will believe me to be 

Your Ladyship's Obedient & very humble Servt 
P. S. I shall endeavour to inform your Ladyship from Time 
to Time as Circumstantially as possible of the Affairs oi 
your Trust- I forgot to mention that I have enclosed Copys 
of 3 papers I found of my late Friends Writing, intitled Sub- 
jects for Annual prizes, College Rules and a List of War- 
dens for the intended College, which I send for your Lady- 
ships amusement- I have just seen Mr Wright, who says 
that Mr Smith wrote him, that the money he found of his 
late Masters, was between £24. and £25. I understand that 
Mr Thomas Adams, Mr Howell Davies, and Mr Stirk, late 
of this province dyed before the Testator, and if so as the 
Legacys are only to the Legatees and not their Heirs, they 
will I presume remain as part of the Testators Estate. 

To the right Honourable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 
Madam ) Savannah in Georgia the 31st Dec 1770 

I had the Honour of writing your Ladyship a long 
Letter the loth of this Month, which was forwarded by Mr 
Cornelius Winter, who came over with my late deceaseded 
Friend, the Revd George Whitefield, and went to England in 
the Ship Georgia Packet, with intention to obtain holy Or- 
ders as a Missionary to the poor Negroes to which I must 
beg leave to refer your Ladyship, hoping Mr Winter will 
arrive safe, and there by render it unnecessary to trouble 
your Ladyship with Duplicates I then enclosed an authenti- 
cated Copy of the deceased's Will, and sundry other Papers, 
by which your Ladyship will find yourself solely invested 
with his whole property in this Province : and at the same 
time I mentioned, that I should send your Ladyship a draught 
of a Bill for establishing a College, which has been consid- 
ered agreed upon by our worthy Governor and my late 
Friend, and has intended to be laid before the Legislature 
now to be convened to be passed in to a Law, with a Clause 
to suspend its taking Effect till it has obtained his Majestys 
royal iVllowance and Approbation upon perusing the Sketches 

See letter dated May In, 1771, acknowledging a reply to this letter. 

no The Letters of 

of this intended Law, found among my Friends papers, they 
are so imperfect, that in some Instances I am at a Loss to 
vmderstand their Meaning-! am however in hopes that your 
Lordship, is before this Time possessed of the real Copy, 
as I find my Friend carry ed it with him, whence he last went 
from hence- Lewis Johnson Esqr one of his Majesty's Coun- 
oil of this province embarked with him for Philadelphia for 
the recovery of his Health, and being lately returned, in- 
forms me that he had the Perusal of the draught of this in- 
tended Law, and had also several Conversations with Mr 
Whitefield on the subject Matter in Philadelphia, that, I 
must suppose, his Servant Richard Smith who was with him, 
and who I have before acquainted your Ladyship embarked 
for London from Boston, instead of first returning here, has 
doubtless delivered it, with what ever Papers and Efifects 
he found in the Possession of his Master at the Time of his 
Death to your Ladyship- I must therefore beg leave to re- 
quest your Ladyship to send me a Copy of it, with the Names 
of the Wardens or Trustees, that, if your Ladyship approves 
of it. I may endeavour to have it passed into a Law- I must 
observe that my deceased Friend intended previous to the 
passing this Law to have made over his real and Personal 
Estate in this province to some Persons in Trust for the Pur- 
poses reposed by the Law, as a Ground to obtain his Ma- 
jesty's royal Approbation, which I have not the least doubt, 
would have been granted, especially as it would have been 
countenanced and recommended by the Governor as well as 
the whole Legislature ; and I presume such a Power or deed 
of Trust may be necessary for your Ladyship to eflfect the in- 
tention of the deceased- In two or three days I shall have an 
Inventory taken by sworn Appraisers of all the Goods and 
Chattels of my late Friend in this Province, and by a good 
opportunity I shall send your Ladyship a Copy thereof with 
the Accounts of the Orphan House settled to this day. 

My deceased Friend be- 
fore he last left us, engaged a young Clergyman of the 
Church of England, the Revd Edgard Ellington, to reside 
at Bethesda for-the present , for which he agreed to give him 
£50. pr Annum and his Board &c expecting he might be 
further supported by becoming an Assistant to the rector of 
the Parish- He has accordingly officiated in our Church for 
about six months past, once and sometimes twice every Sab- 
bath day, and with almost Universal Approbation, tho, he 
has yet had no other reward than the satisfaction of doing 
his duty. Several of the Inhabitants want him to remain 

Hon. Jatnes Habersham. in 

here, and would make some provision for his Support but 
the rector differs with him in religious Sentiments, and it's 
believed does not want, and will therefore probably not agree 
to give him the free use of his Pulpit once every Sunday, and 
occasionally on other Days, he does not seem inclined, (and 
neither indeed can I advise him,) to remain here on disagre- 
able Terms with the rector, and at best to move in a con- 
tracted Sphere, especially as he has been offered one of the 
best Parishes of South Carolina, where he will probably be 
as usefull as he can be here. I think him to be a serious 
young Gentleman, and of promising Abilities, which, how- 
ever he has not had the best opportunity of improving, and 
although I am persuaded, he will acquit himself as a Parish 
Minister, usefully and with reputation, he does not I believe 
think himself sufficiently qualifyed to instruct Youth in Class- 
ical and other usefull Learning, and such a Person, I must 
recommend to your Ladyship to procure to preside at Be- 
thesda College, without which no Law, nor all the Counten- 
ance that can be given it, will effectuallv answer the good 
Purposes of the Founder, and your Ladyship 

I humbly pray God to bless and direct 
your Ladyship in all your pious Undertaking, to promote 
the true Interest of religion, and am with profound respect. 

Your Ladyship's 
Most Obedient & very Humble Servt 

To Mr Robert Keen in the Minories London pr the Brig 
Crosby Capt Fortune. 

Savannah in Georgia 3d Jany 1771 
Dear Sir I had the Pleasure of writing to 

you and Mr West the loth Ultimo very fully, in respect to 
the Affairs of our late Reverend Friend, which was forward- 
ed by Mr Winter, who went in the Ship Georgia Packet Capt 
Anderson for London, and by the same Conveyance, I en- 
closed a letter particularly directed to you, which I found 
sealed up with my deceased Friend's Will- I did not take a 
Copy of it, which might perhaps have been proper, as there 
is an Appearance of a War, and Mr Winter may be prevented 
by the Enemy, from delivering it, But I recollect, the sub- 
stance was, that he had left with you sealed up Mr Hardy's 

Robert Keen was the London executor of the estate of Rev. George Whitefleld, "the 
deceased friend'' here referred to. and James Habersham was the executor in Georgia. 
Whitefield left all his property to the Countess Dowager of Huntingdon for the benefit of 
the Orphan House at Bethesda. 

112 The Letters of 

Note for a Thousand Pounds, being- what he had provided for 
his Wife, which, with the Interest for 5 or 6 years, for I am 
not certain about the Time, was to be paid to Mr Daniel 
West, to reimburse him I think Thirteen Hundred pounds, 
he had lent him the use of without Interest. I now wish, I 
had taken a copy of this Letter, which out of Delicacy I did, 
I did not, because it was a matter He particularly enjoined 
might rest between you and him I hope Mr Winter will ar- 
rive Safe, as my Letters by him furnished you with every 
Intelligence, respecting the deceased's Affairs, in my Power. 
I beg the favour of you to have the enclosed Letter conveyed 
to him, to which I refer you, as I cannot now enlarge, hav- 
ing a great deal of Business on my Hands- I have also by 
this Conveyance wrote to good Lady Huntingdon, and not- 
withstanding Bethesda has lost it"s generous Founder and 
Benefactor, I hope God will yet shew that he has many Bless- 
ings reserved for it in the unexhausted Stores of Heaven. I 
desire Mr Winter to get me some cloths made, and to apply 
to you for materials, which Mr John Clark in Billeter Square, 
with whom my second Son lives will be answerable to you 
for. Mr Ambrose Wright is well but he has met with Af- 
fliction by the Death of two Sisters and a Brother. He is 
determined to finish our late Friend's Plan at Bethesda, 
which will reflect Honour on the Founder and all concerned 
in it. Please to make my best Respects acceptable to Mr 
West, and believe me dear Sir 

Your Most Obedeient Humble Servant 

In a Postscript of the above Letter I took notice of the Ca- 
veat said to be entered in London by a Creditor of the de- 
ceased (see my Letter to Lord Dartmouth) and I also en- 
closed Mr Smiths Sermon on the death of Mr Whitefield 
sent from the Author, for the use of the Tabernacle 

To the right Honourable the Earl of Dartmouth at His 
House St James Sqr London- pr Brig Crosby Capt Fortune 
My Lord. Savannah in Georgia the 9th Jan 1771 

Was I not well informed of the Amiable and con- 
descending Disposition of your Lordship, I could not pre- 
sume to take the Liberty of this Address, especially as I have 
not the Honour of being personally known to your Lord- 
it is worthy of note here that so good and unselfish a man as George Whitefield had his 
enemies, who "charged him with secretly amassing a Great Worldly Estate for his private 
purposes." It is needless to state that these charges were wholly unfounded. See letter 
dated April 22, 1771. 

Ho7i. James Habersham. ii^ 

ship, tho' I suppose your Lordship may not be unacquainted 
with my Name, by means of my Worthy deceased Friend- 
the Revd Mr Geo. Whitefield,- who, I have understood was 
Honoured with your Lordships Friendship and Esteem. Our 
first acquaintance and Friendship commenced soon after he 
left Oxford upwards of 34 years agoe, and continued un- 
abated till the Hour of his Death- I came over with him, when 
he first embarked for this Province, and have had a principal 
Charg^e in conducting under many and unknown Difficulties, 
his Disinterested and generous concerns Here, and in him, 
I have lost the dearest and oldest Friend I have upon Earth. 
Before he last embarked for the Northern Provinces on this 
Continent, he made his Will, and left the whole of his Af- 
fairs here to good Lady Huntingdon, and in case of her 
Death, to me desiring, that as soon as may be, his intended 
plan here may be effectually prosecuted, God's Thought's 
are not as our Thoughts, but to all Human Appearence it 
is to be wished he had lived to return here, as he had got 
the draught of a Bill prepared to Establish his intended Col- 
ledge, which had been considered and agreed upon by 
our Worthy Governor and him, and was intended to be laid 
before the Legislature, now convened to be passed into a 
Law, with a Clause to suspend its operation, until it had ob- 
tained his Majesty's Royal allowance and Approbation, which 
I flatter myself would have been granted, as it would have 
been strongly recommended by the Governor and the whole 
Legislature. This Draught, my deceased Friend, took with 
him, but his Servant Richard Smith who attended him on his 
late journey, instead of first returning here, as I thought he 
ought to have done, went from Boston to England, and 
doubtless carried the Copv of this Bill, and what papers and 
Effects he found in his Masters possession at the time of his 
Death, with him, which I must Suppose he has delivered to 
Lady Huntingdon, who I have requested to furnish me with 
a Copy, that I may endeavour to have his intention carryed 
into Execution, as far as may be in my power- I have sent 
her Ladyship an Authenticated Copy of his Will, and also of 
every paper I could find relative to his Affairs in this Prov- 
ince, and likewise sent an Authenticated Copy of the same 
to his Executors in London- (Mr West and Mr Keen) for 
their Information and Guidance with respect to Tottenham 
Court Chappell, and the Tabernacle. I must however wish 
he had communcated the Contents of his Will to a friend 
here (the Governor) and myself, as he would have probably 
been advised to express his Intentions better and more agre- 

11^ The Letters of 

able, to what I am persuaded he meant, of which I have 
written to her Ladyship, as well as Mr West and Mr Keen 
very fully and circumstantially by Mr Cornelius Winter who 
lived some years with my Deceased Friend in London, and 
came with him from England. I think him to be a very ser- 
ious humble and pious young man. He embarked about 
three weeks ago for London, and goes well recommended 
for holy Orders, as a Missionary to the poor Negroes agre- 
able to the Will of our late Rector the Revd Mr Bartholmew 
Zuberbuhler, who had thereby made a handsome Provision 
for that Purpose, and I am persuaded he engaged in this 
laudable design with an Honest and single Eye to promote 
the real Good of these truly benighted People. I very heart- 
ily hope he will succeed. I have to day seen one of the South 
Carolina Gazettes of the 31st Ult. in which is the following 
Paragraph taken from a London paper of the 8th November 
last "Yesterday on receiving the Account of the Death of 
the Revd Mr George Whitefield, a Caveat was entered at 
Doctors Commons by a principal Creditor, to whom a con- 
siderable sum of money is said to be owing." This Intelli- 
gence early as he died the 30th September preceding, and as 
I well know my Lord that every aspersion that can be in- 
vented by the Enemies of the Son of God, will be thrown out 
to hurt his Memory. I can scarcely give creditt, that any 
such Caveat Exists, and if it does it must be without any real 
Foundation. 1 am sure my Friend was Incapable of deceiv- 
ing, and am not afraid of staking my reputation, which I es- 
teem dearer than any other Consideration, on his Veracity, 
in the minutest Instance. I found enclosed and Sealed up 
with his Will a State of his Money Matters, which is all in 
the Hands of his trusty Friend Mr Robt Keen in London, 
and after his Legacy's, which are principally to his Servt who 
more than deserved all he had in his power to do for them, 
and some inconsiderable Sums to his relations, and particu- 
lar Friends, are paid,, I believe there will be very little of 
anything left for the Support of his Institution here. I am 
well informed that the only Debt he owed in England- 
which was to a kind Friend, who lent him the Use of a Sum 
of Money without Interest, he has taken care to make pro- 
vision to discharge, as will appear, if please God, Mr Winter 
arrives Safe to deliver my Letters to his London Executors,. 
His Accounts and every demand on him here, were settled 
paid and audited last February, and what has been unavoid- 
ably contracted since, I shall discharge, tho' I have not a 
farthing of his Money, not doubting but I shall be reimburs- 

Hon. James Habersham. 115 

ed : and this my Lord, I am persuaded is a true Account of 
his Great Worldly Estate, which his Enemies have charged 
him with secretly amassing for his private purposes- The 
time is now come my Lord, to evince to the whole world, 
the uprightness of his Intentions, and that his Views were 
Solely and disinterestedly terminated in promoting the Glory 
of God, and the Good of Mankind. The Additional Build- 
ings necessary for the College he intended to superadd to 
the Orphan House, are going on, and will soon be finished, 
and they will be not only Extremely UsefuU and conven- 
ient, but make a handsome and ornamental Appearance, and 
must Efifect a lasting Honour on the founders Memory. My 
deceased Friend has appeared to be particularly designed 
by Divine Providence to be singularly usefull in promoting 
the Interest of religion in the new and Extensive World, and 
his Death has been Universally lamented throughout this 
Continent. The Inhabitants of this province seem very sen- 
sible of their Loss in particular, and the Legislature here 
have very genteely expressed their Gratitude to their de- 
parted Friend, which I have endeavoured to acknowledge in 
the enclosed Gazette, under the Signature of " an Old and 
Real Friend to the deceased and to Georgia " I have like- 
wise taken the Liberty to enclose your Lordship two Funeral 
Sermons, one published here, and the other in So. Carolina, 
and the latter is the production of a good old Gentleman, 
who is far advanced in Years, and is Labouring under the 
Natural Infirmities of Age. For several years past he has 
appeared very little in the pulpit, but I suppose could not 
be satisfied without leaving this last Testimony for the de- 
ceased, in which the Warmth of a truly Friendly and good 
Heart is Visible. He has been a very sensible usefull writer, 
and is the Mr Smith mentioned by Mr Newton in his Life, 
which I have lately read with great pleasure. The real Af- 
fection that has subsisted between me and my old Friend, and 
the regard your Lordship had Expressed for him, I flatter my- 
self will plead my excuse for this intruding on your Lordship, 
and if your Lordship will not be displeased with my requesting 
your Lordship's Friendship to a worthy Gentleman I shall 
think myself highly honoured. This Gentleman is Lewis John- 
son Esqr a Usefull and sensible Member of his Majesty's Coun- 
cil in this Province, who embarked with my late Friend when 
he last left us, to Philadelphia for the recovery of his Health, 
having been long affected with sickness, and thereby de- 
prived of attending his profession as a physician. His jour- 
ney to the Northward has answered his purpose, and he is 

ii6 The Letters of 

returned in as good a State of Health, as he has enjoyed for 
some years past, and his Judgement is esteemed equal, if not 
Superior to any of the practitioners in the Medical Way here, 
his late absence, and his frequent and tedious sickness before, 
and, I am sorry to say, his steady and faithfuU Conduct to 
Support Government during our late disturbances, on Ac- 
count of the Stamp and American duty Acts, has not a little 
contributed to throw the Greatest part of his Business into 
other Hands. He is my Lord, the Father of a reputable and 
Large Family, a carefull and prudent Wife and thirteen 
young Children, who depend upon him for Support, He has 
had a Liberal Education, and has been regularly brought 
up in his profession, and I believe this Attention to his Busi- 
ness especially in the Latter part of the Summer, which is 
our Sickly Season, has hurt his Constitution, and as the Same 
Cause will probably have the same Efifect he is desirous of 
getting some Employment that may secure a certain and 
decent support for himself and large Family during his Life. 
The Collector of his Majesty's Custom here, is very Old and 
according to the Course of Nature cannot be expected to 
live long, and if Mr Johnson could succeed him, I am per- 
suaded he would Execute the office Faithfully, and with repu- 
tation. Our Governor and his Friends here very heartily 
wish it and I know the former has a real respect for him, and 
will recommend him to the Commissioners of the Customs 
at Boston./ I find our present Collector's Appointment is 
from the Commissioners of the Customs in London, but it 
was before any board of Commissioners was Established in 
America, and as it is a revenue Of^ce, perhaps it may lay 
with the lord of the Treasury in the first Instance, and if 
your Lordship can Serve this Worthy Man by Insuring the 
reversion to him, I am sure he will not dishonour your Lord- 
ship's Countenance for him : as I express the Sentiments of 
my deceased Friend, who, I have not the least doubt, would 
have done every thing in his power to serve him had he lived 
to return to this Province. Our Worthy Governor's Leave 
of Absence, proposes going with his Family next May, when 
this Government will probably devolve on me, during his 

I request your Lordships pardon for this Intrusion and 
am with great Esteem and Respect 
My Lord 
Your Lordship's Most Obedient And very Humble Servt 

Hon. James Habersham. iij 

To the Right Honourable Countess Dowager of Huntingdon 

in London pr the Brig Crosby Capt Thomas Fortune 
Madam ) Savannah in Georgia the 9th Jan 1771 

This Morning the Revd Mr Ellington left us, and 
went to the Parish, to which he has been invited in South 
Carolina. I paid Him £25 for his salary for six months, he 
resided at Bethesda, agreable to my Friends Agreement with 
him- Our rector declined calling a Vestry to consult about 
his remaining here, as his Assistant, and has communicated 
a Letter to a Gentleman who particularly requested his call- 
ing a Vestry, from the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, directing him not to give any Countenance to Mr 
Ellington, the Society being displeased with him for leaving 
his former Parish to reside at the Orphan House- This mark 
of disrespect is doubtless ultimately aimed at my late Friend 
who is now happy, and out of the reach of Envy and detrac- 
tion, and it has probably terminated in Mr Ellington's Ad- 
vantage, as he is much better provided for in South Caro- 
lina, without the Assistance of the Society than he could be 
here with it. A young Man, one Mr Langworthy, has ex- 
pressed a great Desire to be employed as a Tutor at the 
Orphan House He has for more than a year past kept a 
School in this Town, but has laboured under a bad state of 
Health During the late Holidays, he has been at Bethesda 
on a visit to his Brother-in-Law. Mr Wright, whose sister 
he marryed (but she is dead) where he has got his Health 
perfectly established, being certainly as healthy a situation 
as any in the Province,- I am encouraged by John Graham 
Esqr one of his Majesty's Council, and some other Gentle- 
men of the first Consequence here, to begin a School at the 
Orphan House for Academical Learning with Mr Lang- 
worthy, who I think is a very good Classical Scholar and in 
other Respects is better qualifyed than any person I know 
here for the undertaking, and Mr Graham and all the other 
Gentlemen will send their sons. I have accordingly agreed 
to give him £50. pr annum, and his Board and lodging, and 
next Monday, the 14th Instant he is to open his School with 
about half a dozen youth, and I doubt not, but their number 
will soon be encreased. There are now only the Orphan 
Children there upon the Charity who are under the imme- 
diate Instruction of a very promising youth, a relation of my 
deceased Friend, and the Boarders will be under the Care 
and Tuition of Mr Langworthy, who has engaged to superin- 
tend the whole. I understand, by Mr Wright, that the Found- 

See letter dated May 15, 1771, acknowledging a reply to this letter. 

ii8 The Letters of 

er, intended to fix the price of Boarders at £30- pr Annum 
Each, including' Tuition, but as this is yet but a young, tho' 
thriving Colony, I have agreed to take £25, for the present 
year, being desirous to make it as easy as possible in the be- 
ginning, which I hope your Ladyship will approve of,- The 
Buildings are plainly Elegant, neat and extremely conven- 
ient, and the Situation healthy, and could your Ladyship 
see them, I am sure your Ladyship would join me in wishing 
to have them occupyed for the laudable purpose, they have 
been with much Difficulty, labour and Expense erected. It 
is better to be up and doing. God works and sends by whom, 
he will, and from the most contemptible beginnings generally 
effects his Purposes, because he will have the Honour I only 
mean Mr Langworthy to make a beginning, and by no means 
to supersede the necessity of a Gentleman, such if possible, 
as I have described to preside there. I hope there may in 
future be full Employment for a President and a Tutor, as 
I hope to see a Number of Students there, and that the In- 
stitution will also be able to support a Number of poor Chil- 
dren. There will be a necessity to make some distinction be- 
tween the former and the latter in respect to their Dyet and 
Education. It is not necessary and I think it would be hurt- 
full to make poor Children, who are to be placed out to 
Trades, Classical Scholars, except in particular Instances, 
where they may discover a Genius, which no doubt should 
be improved to qualify them to move in a higher Sphere, and 
if they have plenty of wholesome dyet, are kept clean, are 
decently clothed and are taught to read, write and account 
well, I suppose more cannot be generally expected- These 
are my present undigested Thoughts, and Experience and 
Time will discover the Method of reducing the Order of the 
Institution into a settled Plan. 

I have no doubt, but 
your Ladyship will have seen many Publications on the Death 
of my late Friend from the Northern Provinces, and I take 
the Liberty to enclose two, one published here, and the other 
in South Carolina. I had the honour of writing your Lady- 
ship a letter of the 31st Ultimo, but as the Ship, by which 
it is intended to go, is not sailed, I have thought it necessary 
to give your Ladyship the foregoing Information-I have by 
this opportunity taken the Liberty to write to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, requesting a favour of his Lordship for a Friend, 
and at the same Time, I have given his Lordship some ac- 
count of the worthy deceased's Affairs here. The 25th of 
next A'lonth the new and very neat Chappel at the Orphan 

Hon. James Habersham. iig 

House is to be opened and Mr Ellington is to be here to as- 
sist on the occasion, when I hope to hear some little pro- 
formances, exhibited by our young Pupils in public. I have 
got my Friends Personal Estate at Bethesda appraised, but 
as the Articles are Numerous, and fill many sheets, it will 
take time to have it copyed, which however will be done, and 
sent your Ladyship by some safe conveyance, it amounts to 
about ^3300, besides the Buildings and Lands, which are 
worth much more. 

I have the Honour to be, with great Respect, 
Madam,- Your Ladyships 
Most Obedient & very Humble Servt 

- P. S.) I have no doubt of your Ladyship's having received 
the Copy of the Intended Law, for Establishing the College 
from Richard Smith, and if there are any other Papers rela- 
tive thereto delivered with it, of which I have not sent your 
Ladyship a Copy I must intreat your Ladyship to send me 
Copys. I am extremely sorry to have occasion to give your 
Ladyship so much Trouble. 

To Samuel Lloyd Esq in London 

Savannah in Georgia 6th Feb. 1771 
XXXXXXXX You have doubtless heard 
of the Death of my late dear Friend, the Revd Mr Geo. 
Whitefield in New England, an Account that too sensibly 
affects me to wish to dwell too much upon. He has left the 
Trust of his Affairs here, to good Lady Huntingdon, and in 
case of her Demise to me, who am also his only Executor 
here, by which a very weighty concern devolves on me. 
There have been many Publications throughout this exten- 
sive Continent, on his much lamented Death and I beg leave 
to enclose our Gazette, in which is a short one of mine, under 
the signature of "an Old and real Friend to the deceased 
and to Georgia." I am the only one left in America of his 
first Friends, and must soon follow him. I have no doubt 
of his laudable and disinterested Institution Succeeding, tho' 
at present the Means of its visible Support are indeed very 
small, and by no Means adequate to the Undertaking. I am 
at present hurryed, and shall only add, that if you want any 
further Explanation with Mr Spenser, or have any commands 
here, that I can Execute, you may depend, I shall embrace 

I20 The Letters of 

every opportunity of evincing', that I am, with real regard, 
my dear Sir 

Your Affectionate Friend &; Servant 
P. S. 

I know you will serve Mr Johnson if you can. 

London, Messrs Graham, Clark & Co pr the Prince Frederick 
Gentlemen — ) Savannah in Georgia the 12 Feb. 1771 

I have now before me your Favour of the 
13th October last, and in regard to Messieurs Greenwood 
and Higginson declining to supply my Son and Mr Richard 
Wylly in their intended Connection in Trade, it is no great 
Disappointment to me, being no Plan of my concerting, and 
the Part I took in it, I did at the particular request of My 
Son, and purely to oblige him. I do not mean to be under- 
stood that I had any objections to Mr Wylly, who is a sen- 
sible and industrious young man, and I believe very capable 
of Business, but the Truth is I rather chuse my son should 
be connected with my own Family, and therefore un'till one 
of his Brothers can properly join him. I have proposed to 
be concerned a moiety with him and to become his Partner 
in Trade under the Firm of James Habersham Junr & Comp, 
and shall accordingly enter into articles with him, for two 
years or longer, if thought necessary by the Parties or rather 
until my Son Joseph or John may take the concern. I shall 
hold, in consequence of this new Connection, we have sent 
you an order for some Goods which I hope, you will have 
no objection to execute as I will do in my Power to make 
the Correspondence agreable to both Parties. I observe 
what you say in regard to a Deposit of Money with a new 
House being more prevailing, than any Security can be, in 
which I agree, and if I could now have Freight for rice, or 
could sell for Bills, or purchase them with Cash, it should 
not be wanting to the utmost of my Ability. I expect how- 
ever to get some Bills on London in a Month or two, which 
will be sent you, and to ship 4 or 300 Bbls of Rice of my 
present Crop, as Freight offers. I have no Inclination to be 
again concerned in Trade, and was it not to serve my Son 
James, who is married to a discreet young Woman, and may 
expect an encreasing Family, in which I cannot be uncon- 
cerned, and also to lay a Foundation to introduce my other 
two Sons into Business, I could by no means think of it, as 
neither my present nor perhaps future Situation in this Prov- 
ince will admit me to give much Attention that Way, and. 

Hon. James Habersham. I2i 

as it is, my Son proposes, and must take upon him the whole 
Management of the intended Connection, which he is very 
capable of transacting, untill he can be assisted by one of his 
Brothers. We intend to limit our Business and not to im- 
port more, than we can make Satisfactory Payments for. We 
must however send an other Order for a few Winter Goods, 
and if it may be convenient for you to Supply us, I can only 
repeat, that I will do my utmost to render the Correspond- 
ence pleasing, but if Gentlemen, it may not be perfectly con- 
venient for you, I would by no Means wish or desire you to 
do it, and I must further request that you will not make an 
Offer of our Business or even make it known to any House 
in London, except to Mr John Nutt, of whose Honour and 
worth I have conceived a high Opinion, and should he, in 
such case, accept of our Business, I desire he would look upon 
this, and our joint Letter to you as written to himself and 
act accordingly. 

I am with real regard 
Your Most Obet Svt 

J. H. 

Messrs Graham Clark & Co. London 

Gentlemen ) Savannah the 15th Feb 1771 

Since I wrote the foregoing it has appeared 
doubtfull to me, whether J H Junr & Co can get freight to 
ship v/hat they propose and intend, and therefore they have 
as you will see by their respective Letters of yesterday and 
to day, desired you to charter two Vessels, one to be here 
in All next August, and the other about the middle of No- 
vember next, both to be loaded by us, our Worthy Governor 
and your John Graham, one third each. We shall besides 
endeavour to get Freight for 200 Barrels Rice or more with- 
in the ensuing three Months as it's our Interest as well as 
Inclination to get Money in London. Our Governor if no 
public Incident happens to detain him, goes to England next 
May, when this Government as well as his large private 
Concerns will probably devolve on me. He, or rather I shall 
for him. Ship from 2 to 3000 barrels Rice annually from his 
own plantations. I am Gentlemen 

Your very humble Servant- 

P. S. If it should be inconvenient for you or Mr Nutt, to 
undertake and continue our Business I must desire you will 
ship the enclosed Order and an other to follow for a few 

122 The Letters of 

winter Goods, which is not intended to exceed iiooo- and 
depend on us for due payment. I would not willing disap- 
point my Son, and until I know your mind, my Hands in 
regard to any Application elsewhere are tyed. 

To Wm Knox Esqr Under Secretary of State to the right 
Honbl the Earle of Hillsborough 

Savannah in Georgia the 13 March 1771 
Dear Sir )xxxxxxx We have lately had an amazing 
Quantity of Rain, so as in a Manner to deluge the Country, 
and this Town has sometimes been almost impassible on 
Foot, and I suppose it must have been equally so in the back 
Country, as we have had Freshes in this, and the other fresh 
Water Rivers higher and for longer Continuance than has 
scarcely been remembered- The Governor has lost perhaps 
200 barrels Rice on his plantation next the River at Ogee- 
chee after it was stacked in his Barnyards, and yet I do not 
understand that the Freshes have been so high there as at 
Knoxborough by some feet, and I think thev are better situ- 
ated to be banked to keep out the Freshes than yours. I 
mean they can be done easier and at less Expense. 
Jxxxxxxxxxxx And now, my good Friend, be not 
ofifended when I plainly tell you, that you fall short of being 
a punctual Correspondent. I mean in your Answers to my 
Letters, which are much in too general Terms, and I think 
you trust too much to your Memory, when you sit down to 
write. My Method is immediately before I answer a letter, 
to look carefully over it, make some short Notes, namely of 
the date, perhaps how I received it, and every material Part 
I may think necessary to reply to, if not Paragraph by Para- 
graph. For want of this, or some Methods, I have often 
been at a loss to know (unless from some general Re- 
marks in your Letters) which of mine you had received, and 
being under that uncertainty, it has probably occasioned 
needless reputations on my Part, which I have not leisure 
to attend to, and every Moment of my Time, may soon be- 
come more precious to me than hitherto and must be hus- 
banded, especially as I find Infirmities keep Pace, and my 
Abilities for Business grow slower, with growing years. I 
am my dear Friend with all Sincerety 

Your Affectionate Servant 

The watch referred to here is the one left to Habersham by Whitefleld in his will, and 
the rinH; is a raourninK ring to be worn in Whitefleld's memory according to the custom of 
that time. See also letter dated June 10, 1771. 

Hon. James Habersham. 123 

London. Mr Robert Kean in the Minores pr "Polly" Capt 

Savannah in Georgia 28 March 1771 
Dear Sir 

Our Friends the Messieurs Wrights and Mr Crane, 
have by this Conveyance sent a special Power of Attorney 
from each of them to my Friend Mr John Clark in Billiter 
Sqr, with whom my second Son lives, to enable him to re- 
ceive, and fully to acquit you, and our late dear Reverend 
Friends other Executors in London for the Legacy's he 
kindly left them, when it may be convenient for you to pay 
them. I have had the best advice on the will in respect to 
this Matter, and was advised to this Mode of doing it, as 
the most proper. Our Friend Ambrose has lately married, 
I think a prudent and discreet Woman, and as he proposes 
to remain at the Orphan House, while he may be thought 
usefull, and I trust that will be during his Life, she will be 
a good Helpmate to him. He has also bought a House and 
Lott in this Town for £250. which I have advanced him for 
the residence of his ingenious, and industrious Brothers, who 
will have more Emplo3'ment, and that from the best People, 
than they can possibly undertake, Mr Reynolds the Brick- 
layer, who came over with them, has more than full employ. 
Mr Crane will probably marry, and end his Days among us, 
I mean at the Orphan House. That Institution is indeed be- 
reaved, but God can, and I believe will supply our Loss. I 
must own I now and then, in res pect to it , feel a Damp on 
my Spirits, and seem to be encompassed with Clouds and 
Darkness, but in general, blessed be God. I experience a 
chearful and undoubting Dependence on him, that he will 
raise us Means and Friends in his own Way, for he must 
have the Honour, to support and enable us to go on, and 
bring forth the Head Stone with shoutings, crying Grace, 
Grace unto it. I have already advanced to Mr Ambrose 
Wright £200.- to pay Expenses to the ist January last, which 
I hope good Lady Huntingdon, who is our Friend's resid- 
uary Legatee, will be enabled to reimburse me. I hope in all 
next Month, I shall hear from her Ladyship, and you and 
our other good Friends, because 'till I do, I am scarcely at 
Liberty to act, or rather am acting without her Ladyship's 
Direction and approbation in every Instance Last Monday, 
(Lady Day) w^as our Anniversary at the Orphan House Aca- 
demy, when our new, very decent and plainly elegant little 
Chappell was opened, where a numerous and very polite 
Company attended. Perhaps when I tell you, that you wall 

124. The Letters of 

see very few such genteel Auditory's in London, you will 
smile, but, notwithstanding, it may be, and I believe is a Fact, 
if I know anything of London. Last January I Employed 
Mr Langworthy, and began an Academy with 4 little Boys, 
sons of the first Gentlemen here, and they are now doubled 
and I have no doubt will encrease, and now and then, we 
add an Orphan Child to those there, but we must go on soft- 
ly. On the Anniversary, Peter Edwards, son of our late 
Friends Brother the Captain deceased, introduced the Solem- 
nity with a Speech, which he delivered with great Propriety 
and Modesty, Much, very much to my Satisfaction, and the 
whole Audience. When I tell you, he did me Justice you 
will suppose I penned it, This Speech with Mr Langworthy 's 
on the conclusion, and a short account of the Proceedings 
of that Day, you will find in the enclosed Gazettes, of which 
you will furnish Mr Hardy, Mr West, and your other Friends 
with a Copy. These Transactions are published on the Spott, 
and cannot be contradicted. There were four young Gen- 
tlemen who spoke on a Stage erected for the Purpose, they 
were indeed young , but acquitted themselves with applause, 
but one of them, not seven years of age, amazed the whole 
Company, and if you will not think me too proud , he was 
my own Nephews Son. The Governor gave Peter Edwards 
£5. and some other People gave him near as much more, 
which if added to his deceased Benefactors Legacy, may, if 
properly disposed of be of future Advantage to him. I have 
great Hopes, he will turn out a usefull Man. Mr Ambrose, 
Mr Robert and Jacob Wright are all now with me, as is Mr 
Crane, and I believe they live in Love and cordial Friend- 
ship, Mr Ellington has left the Copy of his Sermons preach- 
ed on opening the Chappell, with me to publish if I chuse 
to do it, but I know not what I shall determine for although 
I like the Matter, the Method, that is the Management of the 
Discourse, may admit of objections, and if I would, I have 
neither Time nor Leisure to put it in an unexceptionable 
Dress, and therefore I shall probablv let it sleep in Silence. 
I have a short account of our Friends Money Aflairs in your 
Hands in your own writing, which I shall send by our Gov- 
ernor, who will probably sail for England in about two 
Months, and as I expect he will go in a Man of War, he will 
probably go safe, if there should be a rupture with Spain. 
If you will please to pay Mr Clark Ten Pounds left me and 
take his Receipt, in Discharge of it, you may depend I will 
return it with full interest, to my beloved Bethesda here. I 
hope you have got from Richard Smith the Gold Watch left 

Hon. James Habersham. 12^ 

me, and pray send me a ring of the size of the Pattern en- 
closed. These are Memorials I should be sorry to want, 
and hope they will remain with my latest Posterity. Their 
Value otherwise would be of very small Consideration with 

Mr Benjamin Stirk to 
whom a small Legacy is left by our late Friend dyed last 
July and was buryed at the Orphan House, so that Legacy 
will elapse. We are here very poor, and I hope you and the 
other Executors will continue yovtr Friendly assistance to 
us. Please to assure them of my cordial Respects. How 
happy should I be to manifest it in Person, but I now begin 
to dispair of ever being favoured with making a Visit to 
my native Country, as Business seems to multiply on my 
Hands, with growing Years, consequently with growing In- 
firmities, I am with great Truth Dear Sir 

Your Affectionate Friend & Servant 
Jas Habersham 

Savannah in Georgia April 22. 1771 
To Mr Robt Keen in the Minories London 
Dear Sir 

I have very little more to say, than to send 
you a copy of my Letter of the 28th Ulto, and a duplicate 
of Messieurs Wrights & Cranes Letter of the same date, the 
Originals of which by Mr Martin Jollie, who went in the 
Polly Capt Ranier, a ship belonging to Messieurs Green- 
wood and Higginson of London and as we are now in a state 
of anxious Suspense about Peace or War, Duplicates are 
sent in case the Originals pr Mr Jollie should miscarry or 
be taken by an enemy. 

On further consideration, I have put Mr Ellingtons Sermon 
in the Press and introduced it with a special Dedication, to 
our Governor, about our deceased Friend, and his Affairs 
here, that a testimony may be borne on the spot to his pius 
and disinterested Views, to promote the Kingdom of Christ 
especially, in this Province, which the united Malice of Devils 
and Men cannot, dare not, contradict. If I had Time and 
Ability, I would revise his whole writings from his first ap- 
pearance in publick Life, and publish them, and also an ac- 
count of his Conduct from that Period to the day of his 
death. But, alas, whatever my inclination may prompt me 
to do, I have not the Materials, and if I had, I have not Lei- 
sure nor capacity for the Undertaking. 

126 The Letters of 

I am an infirm Man, advanced in years, and, without my 
seeking, involved in a multiplicity of complicated Business 
about the stuff of this world. I have no doubt, but you and 
his other good Friends in London will be at no Loss to find 
a Man, who partakes of his spirit, and Sentiments, and has 
abilities and a heart to undertake this usefull work. I think 
Mr Pembertons sermon in Boston, on the death of our late 
Friend is executed in a masterly and friendly manner. I 
have only seen a borrowed single copy, and therefore can- 
not send it to you, which however I suppose needless, as 
you will have many sent you. Will you be so good as to col- 
lect every thing published on his Death, and send a set for 
the Library, at Bethesda, and another for me. I intended 
in my last Letter to have sent you the size of a ring for my- 
self, which I ommitted, but it is now enclosed. We are going 
on at Bethesda as well as we can, trusting that God will help 
and support us. I want much to hear from England in 
answer to the many Letters, I have wrote about the deceas- 
ed's Affairs here. We have a report, I know not how well 
founded that the Georgia Packet Anderson is safe arrived 
in London. I hope it is so, as Mr Winter went in her. I 
long to hear, how he has succeeded, and that he intends re- 
turning to us- Be pleased to make my hearty regard ac- 
ceptable to him and all Friends. He will hear from the many 
Letters I have written of our State here. I think the gen- 
eral State of Bethesda Afifairs are rather more and more 
countenanced by God and man 

I am, dear Sir 
Your Aff Friend and Servant 

P. S. Pray have the enclosed Letter delivered to my old 
Friend Betty Wood. I knew her in Leadenhall Street, be- 
fore she heard of our deceased Friend, and always esteemed 
her for the Honestv of her Heart. 

To the Right Honourable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 

Savannah In Georgia May 15, 1771. 

I am honoured with your Ladyships Favour of the 
24 February last, by which I find your Ladyship has receiv- 
ed my Letter of the loth December last by Capt Anderson, 
since which, I have had the Honour of writing your Lady- 
ship three Letters of the respective Dates of the 31st De- 

Hon, James Habersham. I2y 

cember, 9th January, and 4th of last Month ; the two former 
by the brig Crosby Capt Fortune, and the latter by a Gen- 
tleman, Mr Martin Jollie, who took a passage in Polly Capt 
Ranier. It affords me the highest Satisfaction, that your 
Ladyship is pleased to add, to your many noble Undertak- 
ings to promote the Kingdom of Christ in the Hearts of sin- 
full Men, your patronage and care for the Orphan House, 
and I entreat your Ladyships Acceptance of my most grate- 
full thanks for the respectable Sentiments you entertain of 
me, and have so kindly expressed in the Confidence your 
Ladyship has been pleased to repose in me, which I hope 
to evince is not misplaced. In my last Letter I gave your 
Ladyship a short Account of the preceedings at the Orphan 
House on the Anniversary (Last Lady Day) which having 
met with the general ^Approbation of the Company present 
on that occsion, and some of them having expressed a de- 
sire to see the Sermon &c in print, I requested Mr Elling- 
ton, who went to his Parish in So Carolina the next morning, 
to leave me the copy, which I have revised and dedicated to 
our Governor, and added what I published in our gazette 
of the 27th March respecting that Solemnity as an appendix, 
but before the printer had fully completed it, I received a 
Letter from your Ladyship and another from Mr Keen, also 
several Publick Papers from my Son in London whereby I 
found the deceased's will was published, and therefore I 
thought I was at Liberty to add it as a further Appendix. 
In my last I acquainted your Ladyship, that I could not pre- 
sume to make mention of your Ladyship's name on this Oc- 
casion, or even publish the will without hearing from, and 
knowing your Ladyships Pleasure thereupon, otherwise it 
must have occurred, that our first and most gratefuU Ac- 
knowledgements were only due to your Ladyship for your 
very extraordinary Countenance shewn to your late much 
esteemed Chaplain. I do not truly think, that this Publica- 
tion (which was done at my Expense, and the copy's given 
away) Merits the Honour of your Ladyships Name, or the 
name of the Gentleman prefixed to it, considered as a Liter- 
ary Production. It can claim no other merit, than a sincere 
endeavour, to testify the most gratefull respect to, the Mem- 
ory of the Founder of the Institution, and, on the spot to 
evince to the whole World, its reality and intended useful- 
ness ; I was therefore happy, that the Governor so readily 
permitted it to be dedicated to him, and was not ashamed, 
as too many would have been to countenance the Truth of 
what is there said of our once despised, but now happy 

J28 The Letters of 

Friend. Few, very few indeed will, like your Ladyship, go 
without the Camp, and bear the reproach of the cross of 
Christ, either in his Church or in his faithfull servants. I 
must beg your Ladyships Acceptance of 4 of Mr Ellingtons 
Sermons, which I am afraid will not be worth reprinting in 
London, so as to afford a small Profit to the Orphan House. 
If they should, it will give me a pleasure ; I did not chuse to 
sell them in this province, that I may appeal to the Testi- 
mony of every ones conscience for the truth of the Facts 
related, without the expense of paying a Shilling or Eigh- 
teen Pence for a Copy and for the same Reason, I did not 
suffer any public Collection on the Anniversary, altho' I have 
since understood, that many went prepared to give. The 
addition of an Academy was a new thing, and on a future 
Anniversary, those who will freely ofifer, shall have an Op- 
portunity of putting in their Mite. By several of the Lon- 
don Prints sent me by my Son, I find Mr Whitfields Works 
to be published by Subscription. I am afraid it will be diffi- 
cult to collect some of them, and doubt not, but a judicious 
Person is employed to revise and compile them. Mr Wright 
found some printed Publications and Manuscripts in the 
deceased's Bureau, which I now send your Ladyship. 
Amongst the latter are two Letters to the Inhabitants of 
this Town, of which, he was Minister, and I think, the only 
P:.rish, he had Statedly in charge. The 8th May 1738, he 
and I first landed here, and the same day he entered on his 
ministerial charge, which he faithfully and diligently attended 
to about four Months, but being only in Deacons Orders, 
and not qualifyed to perform all divine Ordinances, he 
thought it necessary to go to England for Priest's Orders, 
and left me to carry on the stated Worship, there being then 
no English Minister of any Denomination here. These two 
Letters were written during his Absence, that of the 2nd Oc- 
tober 1738 on Board the ship, he went to England in, which 
I publickly read to the Congregation, in the usual place of 
worship, and the other the 18th of January following, I do 
not recollect whether I publickly communicated, as about 
that Time, I think there was a Minister here, tho' I believe 
not for this Parish, but Frederica. Those Letters tho' writ- 
ten in his very young years, breathed the same spirit, he 
unalterably maintained to his dying Hour, and perhaps they 
may be thought to deserve a Place amongst his work in- 
tended to be published. It appears also by the Manuscripts 
that he proposed to publish the Homilies of the Established 
Church with a Preface &c herewith enclosed. Since the first 

Hon. Javies Habersham. i2p 

Letter, I had the Honour of writing to your Ladyship, I 
have taken in four Orphan Children, and one is taken away 
by his relatives. I was so pressed to take them, that, tho' 
very unwillingly, I could not resist the Importunity of their 
Friends ; however your Ladyship may depend, I will on no 
Account admit any more, without your Ladyships express 
directions, entirely coinciding with your Ladyship, that no 
addition of Expense should be made, 'till a fund on the spot 
will clearly defray it. There are now i6 Children on the 
Charity and lo boarders. These latter will fully defray their 
Expense of Board and Tuition, and as many more will bring 
in something considerable towards the support of the Insti- 
tution in general. I entirely agree with your Ladyship, that 
the grand Object of all public Seminary's should be the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel, and every means made Use of to 
make men more knowing, should be ultimately directed to 
make them better, without which, I mean unsanctified learn- 
ing will probably do more Harm than good. I very heartily 
wish that none were trained up for the Ministry, but such 
as discovered a gracious Disposition, and and ardent de- 
sire to promote the Gospel of the Grace of God in the Hearts 
of fallen men, and that from an experimental knowledge of 
its inestimable value in their Own Hearts, without which, 
little or perhaps no good can be expected What is an un- 
converted Minister but a concealed and therefore more dan- 
gerous Enemy to the Cross of Christ. I am extremely re- 
joiced that your Ladyship hopes to prevail with a suitable 
President to come over to the Orphan House, without which, 
I am afraid matters will not go on as well as they should, 
and as your Ladyship has permitted me to give my opinion, 
I would by all means recommend, that he should be of the 
established church, as he will in that particular capacity be 
most acceptable, and his Influence and Usefullness will be 
more extensive, especially as he will, as often as conveniency 
admits, have access to the Pulpit in the Church in this Town, 
and indeed in every other Parish in this Province ; and as to 
any other Ministers, be they of the Presbyterian or Inde- 
pendent persuasion they will find a hearty welcome. The 
People in general on this Continent are very far from being- 
Bigots, and confined to Sectarian notions. If the Gospel 
is preached in the Church most of the dissenters will go there, 
and if in the meeting, great Numbers of the Church People 
will go there likewise. In short we hear very little compara- 
tively with England about Church or Meeting, and your 
Ladyship may be assured, America affords a large Field for 

130 The Letters of 

the propagation of the Gospel, where they are many thousand 
of Souls who have no teaching Priest of any kind, and would 
be glad to hear of a free Pardon offered to their Poor Hearts. 
I must therefore entreat your Ladyship to encourage some 
evangelical Ministers to come over, and then they will be 
able to make their own report, which will probably be to 
use their Influence to get others over to join them. Those 
of the established Church will necessaryly have the usual 
Credentials and if such who are Dissenters have Testimon- 
ials, they will be better received by Ministers of both parties, 
who are too often greater Bigots than their Hearers. I 
would however advise the President, and, if it can be, the tu- 
tors to be professedly of the Establishment, notwithstanding 
they may as is now practiced at the Orphan House, use free 
prayer in their public daily devotions, agreable to the plan 
the Founder proposed, of which I sent your Ladyship a copy 
among several other enclosures by Mr Winter for although 
professed Dissenters may not suit there, I am persuaded 
narrow minded, formal, and high flying churchmen would 
be equally disliked. I am very sorry to learn by a letter from 
Mr Winter, that he has been refused ordination by the Bish- 
op of London, as I had anticipated great satisfaction in the 
prospect of his usefulness among the poor Negroes for which 
service I think he was better qualifyed, than any Person I 
have yet known. As far as I was able to discover he appear- 
ed to have a single Eye to promote the honour of God, was 
of a humble and condescending Disposition, and with great 
Patience stooped to the unimproved capacity of this be- 
nighted people. He was extremely well and justly recom- 
mended from hence was handsomely provided for, and want- 
ed no other assistance than of being put in a capacity by or- 
dination to render his ministry usefull. If Mr Winter does 
not return as I fear he will not unless he gets Ordained, I 
shall be obliged to your Ladyship to have some conversation 
with him on this subject. He is fully possessed of every cir- 
custance relative thereto, and I have Authority to say if your 
Ladyship would prevail on a serious Clergyman (I think by 
the Donors Will he must be of the church of England) to 
engage in this work, he would be kindly received and count- 
enanced by the Trustees of this disinterested charity. As 
your Ladyship has particularly required my sentiments 
about Ministers being sent here I have freely given them, 
and upon the whole they are perhaps no where more wanted 
than in America, or in general better received, especially 
those of the church of England. I have tendered your Lady- 

Hon. James Habersham. 131 

ships respects to the Governor and family and acquainted 
him of your intention to visit them on their arrival in Lon- 
don. If a ship arrives which is expected, I think they will 
embark about the last of next month, when I propose to 
write again to your Ladyship. I hope Richard Smith has 
waited on your Ladyship, and delivered the Papers &c he 
found at his Masters at the Time of his Death. I am at a 
loss in what manner to express the gratefuU Sentiments, I 
entertain of your Ladyship's kind offer to render me your 
Services in my public Capacity, for which I hope your Lady- 
ship will accept, what is only in my Power, my most sincere 
Thanks. I have not yet had the Orphan House Accounts 
settled. Owing entirely to a constant hurry of Business, but 
if I do not send them, by this opportunity I shall send them 
by the next. And remain with the utmost Respect and Truth 
Your Ladyships most obedient and faithfuU Servant 

J. H. 

P. S. As I have frequently heard my late Friend speak of 
many of the following Gentlemen and Ladys in a singularly 
respectfull manner, and besides observing by the Orphan 
House Accounts, that they have respectively been consider- 
able Benefactors to that Institution, I have taken the Liberty 
to send to Mr Keen, a copy for each, which I have no doubt 
of his taking the trouble, to have conveyed to them, and if 
this well meant Freedom to Persons I have no personal 
knowledge of, should need any apology, I hope your Lady- 
ship, as oportunity offers, will make it for me namely 
The Earl of Darmouth 
John Thornton Esqr 
Samuel Rofley Esqr 
Revd Mr John Wesley 
Revd Mr Charles Wesley 
Charles Hardy Esqr 
Daniel West Esqr 
Mr Robert Keen 
Lady Gertrude Hotham 
Lady Frances Shirley 
Mrs' Bethel, Tottenham Court Chappell 
Mrs Brown, Tabernacle 
Mrs Cavendish 
Mrs Carteret 
And some other friends known to me 

JJ-? The Letters of 

To Henry Laurens-Esq- Charlestown 

Savannah in Georgia the 3d June 1771 

Dear Sir. 

On Saturday the ist Inst, the moment I received 
your Latters of the 28th and 29th Ult, I wrote the enclosed 
hasty, short Hne, hoping it might reach Mr Inglis to convey 
to you, but he was sent off for Charlestown, when it was sent 
to him- He went some miles up the river, but an uncom- 
monly high Fresh coming down prevented his preceeding 
by land, and gives me this opportunity of writing, intending, 
as he tells me, to go this Evening in a Canoe by water.- 

X X X X Tomorrow being the Kings birth day, and our 
land day, as its called, the latter Business must be deferred 
'till Wednesday, when I shall put in for a Town Lott or two 
at Brunswick or Point, and a water Lott for you, and 

I shall probably engage, that you will do as much on them, 
as any that may apply 

You see how free I am with your Pocket- Our Governor 
really thinks at some Period, that it will be the Capital of 
this fine Country, but if I was publicly to say so here, I do 
not know, but I might almost run the risque of being hanged 
I have shewn our Friend John Graham 
your letter respecting his being one of your Attorneys, he 
says, as I do, that we have already engaged in more Busi- 
ness, than we can do Justice to- I told him I thought so too, 
but a Friend must not want a legal representative, in case 
of Necessity- I joined him, that we could not personally visit 
your Plantations, and you did not expect it, but we might 
hear of them, advise, and be a Check- you will therefore in- 
clude his name with Friend Lachlan and myself in your Let- 
ter of Attorney, if you expressly give us Power only to dis- 
pose of your Crop and Property as you may direct, turn 
away any Worthless men from your Plantations, and perhaps 
replace others as bad, you may do right, tho' your Intention 
may not be fully answered by your being deceived, which 
must and will happen in this imperfect State- Your disorder 
is the Gout, if I know what it is- Before the knawing Pain, 
you describe, comes on me, I find a sickness at my Stomach, 
and a heaviness and listlessness to Business for Days and 
Weeks. — The rain you mention last Friday week was I 
believe general- I had about 350 Acres rice planted, and I 
suppose I have not now more than 150 acres, that will come 
to perfection- The Craw fish has swept away almost the whole 
of my rice on one of my best Plantations, and the Floods have 
been equally as destructive on all of them. There is perhaps 

Hon. James Habersham. ijj 

the highest Fresh now in this river known in the Memory 
of man, and all the Plantations 4 or 5 miles above this Town, 
are under Water- At my Friend Knox's, there is 7 feet 
water, and I dont expect he will raise a grain of rice in his 
Swamp- The Governor at Ogeechee from six Plantations has 
not more, than 100 acres rice, that stands, and that is ragged 
and much hurt- His rice on his Plantations near this Town 
look extremely fine and very promising- They are fully in 
the Tides way, and free from any Damage by Freshes- This 
Circumstance makes your Broughton Island, and the lands 
on the South opposite of more value, than I dare to estimate, 
and if you do not make Crops there, you or your overseer 
deserve severe Censure, and not your Negroes- You must 
excuse me — I more than thank you, for all your more than ' 
good wishes to my family, and I am not afraid of their turn- 
ing out tolerably well- When your Boys come more on the 
State of Life, you will probably feel what I have done, and I 
doubt not, but the seed, you have sown in their unwary 
Hearts, will shoot out ultimately to your Comfort, and you 
must not be discouraged, if you meet with some rubs in the 
way, but patiently go on, and expect the best- Experientia 
Docet- Johnny has got your Consignment He is upon the 
whole a good Boy- I will with pleasure wear your Ten Cra- 
vats, and say, with equal Pleasure, These my Friend Laurens 
gave me - 

Your agreement with Gambell is judicious and proper- 
No Overseer or Manager ought to have any right to dispose 
of Property- I do not like Shares, tho' the Governor has got 
a man, he cannot well refuse and I have another growing 
fast in this way in my hands. Our gratitude leads us into 
DifBculties, and we meet with so few subjects to exercise 
it upon that when we think we do, we too often are deceived, 
after as much experience, as most of our fellow Men, our 
only resource is a conscientiousness of appealing to God, that 
we have meant well, and if we expect any other permanent 
applause, I will venture to determine, we shall be mistaken- 
This is the single Eye, and if I am not mistaken, the Philoso- 
phers Stone, that turns all into Gold- I was going to con- 
clude, but just cast my eye on your letter of the 29th Ulto- 
I certainly never saw your Carolina grants for your South- 
ern Lands- I sent to Mr Moodie for a list of those in the 
registers ofiBce, registered and not registered, which is en- 

Mr Hoptons shall be done forth with-Pray let me have yours- 
If it was mine, perhaps I should think it almost a fortune 

134^ The Letters of 

with a daughter, if I was happy enough to have one, to give 
to a good man- - It is ii Oclock at night and if Mr Inglis 
goes before morning, I shall miss the favourable opportunity 
of declaring, that I am unfeignedly, Dear Sir 

Your real friend and Servant 
Pray make my best wishes acceptable to good Mr Maniguatt, 
his Lady and Family, 

Savannah in Georgia June 5. 1771. 
To the right Honourable the Earl of Darmouth 
My Lord 

This day I had the Honour of receiving your 
Lordships Letter of the 15th March last, and the respectfull 
and very kind sentiments, your Lordship pleased to express 
for the Memory of my deceased Friend, must be very grate- 
full to me, would to God there were more of your Lordships 
disposition and exalted Station, that would go without the 
Camp, and bear so Honourable a testimony for the Cross 
of Christ in his despised Servants. I will do everything in 
my Power to promote the true interest of the Orphan House, 
agreable to the pius intention of the Founder, and as Gov- 
ernor Wright, from his own Observation, entertained a high 
opinion of the Integrity and undisguised Honesty of it's de- 
ceased Patron, I can make no doubt of his interesting him- 
self in it's Favour, when he returns to England, which I 
think will be in about a Month. I return your Lordship my 
most humble Thanks for your kind wishes to serve my 
Friend, Mr Johnson and I have hinted to the Governor, that 
his recommendation of him to the Board of Treasury for 
the collectors Place, will probably have weight and from the 
Regard, he has ever expressed for him, I must suppose it 
will not be wanting. I have now only to entreat your Lord- 
ship to excuse the Liberty, I have taken in requesting your 
Lordship's Acceptance of this plain tho' well meant Publi- 
cation, and am with the greatest defiference and respect, 
My Lord 

Your Lordship's 

Most Obedient and very 
Humble Servant 

Hon. Jajnes Habersham. /j^ 

Savannah in Georgia June 6th. 1771 
To Mr Cornelius Winter at the Tabernacle House near 
Moorfiekls London 
Dear Sir 

I received your two Letters of the 26th Feb- 
ruary and 20 March last, the former by Capt Colville, and 
the Latter by Capt Anderson, and by some Hints in the lat- 
ter, I find you have received my Letter of the 3d January. 
Perhaps few of your friends think themselves more inter- 
ested in your success in getting Ordination, than myself, and 
T think, I may also truly say, that few, if any of your Friends 
jiave higher Esteem and more real Friendship for your Per- 
son, than I have, and therefore your disappointment has 
given me much concern, and I cannot help viewing it as a 
Frown from Divine Providence. I had raised my expecta- 
tions of seeing a Church of Africans, and had fiixed on you, 
as the intrument under God, to bring it about, and that you 
would have been the happy Man to present many of them 
to your Father and their Father, with, here am 1, and the 
children thou hast given me. I have seen the last Annual 
sermon preached by the Bishop of Oxford before the So- 
ciety at Bow Church and I think the following very sensible 
and truly Apostolick remark deserves the most serious At- 
tention of all, who are possessed of Negroes. 
"If their Masters, tyrannizing over this wretched People 
"with a despotism beyond, example, are determined to keep 
"their minds in a state of Bondage still more grievous, than 
"that in which they hold their Bodies ; if they will not allow 
"them Time and opportunity for acquiring religious Knowl- 
"edge and attending to the Worship of God ; if instead of pro- 
"viding Instruction for them, they will not even sufTer them 
"to be instructed, these seeming Advantages (referring to 
"the introduction of the paragraph from whence this is taken) 
"Will become the greatest obstacle to their Conversion ; and 
"all Endeavours towards it, however earnestly soever ex- 
"erted by others, must fail of their desired effects. Should 
"this be in reality a common practice among their Masters ; 
"should it in any Instance be the Case ; Wo ! unto that Man, 
"from whom the Offence cometh ! it were better for him, 
"that a mill stone were hanged abovit his neck, and he were 
"cast into the sea, than that he should thus offend one of 
"the least of these, the most abject of Mankind, yet his Breth- 
"ren and God's Servants, let such a one know, that he him- 
"self hath a Master in Heaven, and that he that is higher 
"than the highest regardeth it. Surely he will avenge the 

/j<5 The Letters of 

"meanest of these his injured Servants ; And the Souls which 
"are thus kept back from him, will God require at the Hands 
" of their cruel Masters." These words deserve to be written 
in Letters of Gold, they breath a truly primitive Spirit ; The 
observation is just, and the admonition to those, who deserve 
it (and God knows there are too many of this number) is 
equally so. You know however, that there are a few, and 
of no inconsiderable property, who would be glad to have 
their Black Servants become fellow Heirs, and partakers 
with them of an Inheritance undefiled, and that fadeth not 
away. Is it then possible that the Guardians and Fathers 
of our excellent Church should refuse Orders to a Man, 
every way qualified, amply provided for, unexceptionable 
in his moral Character and heartily desirous from a motive 
of Love to God, to engage in and promote, so ardous, so 
painful and difficult a Work as the Conversion of these neg- 
lected and benighted people from (what shall I call it) Preju- 
dice or Mistake. I could say more, but shall forbear, not 
doubting, but God will vindicate his own cause. I have by 
this conveyance written to good Lady Huntingdon, and have 
desired her to have some conversation with you on this sub- 
ject as you are circumstantially acquainted with the State 
and Provision made for this Mission here ; and in case, you 
do not see your way clear, to return to us. Providence may 
possibly point out some Person properly qualified, agreable 
to the will of the Donor of this Charity, to succeed you, who, 
I may venture to say, will be heartily received by those in- 
trusted with the execution of it. I would willingly enlarge 
but you have some knowledge of the extent of my corres- 
pondence, the Multiplicity of Affairs on my Hands, and how 
fast they are growing upon me, and therefore you will ex- 
cuse me. I have lately written a Letter to my old Friend 
Mrs Wood, to whom you will present my hearty Love. I 
enclosed my Letter to her to Mr Keen 

Believe me dear Sir 
Your Affectionate Friend and Servant 

P. S. I cannot commend Mr Ellington's Imprudent Con- 
duct, I think in many respects. Accept his sermon enclosed. 
I thank you for the Buckles and Medal. My Son Johnny, 
Franky Harris, and Mrs Clay have got their presents. My 
kind respects to all Friends. 

Hon. James Habersham. ijy 

Savannah in Georgia June lo. 1771. 
Mr Robt Keen 

Dear sir 

Since my last of the 20th Ultimo, which you 
will receive with this, I have been favoured with your Letter 
of the 18 of March by Capt Anderson, by whom I received 
my Cloths. 

The cloth, you were so kind as to provide is of a good colour 
and appears to be of the best quality, and the Taylors work 
is well done but I find it difficult for a Person at a distance, 
to make cloths to fit so easy or so well as may be done when 
he takes Personal measures, especially with a person grow- 
ing in years. Of late I have grown fat, I think too much, 
and too quickly so, which is not very pleasing to me, tho' 1 
cannot say, I yet feel much inconvenience from it, however 
the cloths I had made 6 months ago, I cannot now bear on 
my back, tho' Mr Duncan has lucklily allowed me room 
enough, and with some small alterations I think they will 
do very well, and for the Friendly trouble you have taken 
about them I very heartily thank you. The 28th of March 
last, I acquainted you, that my Friends, the Messieurs 
Wrights and Mr Crane had sent Letters of Attorney to my 
Friend Mr John Clark of Billiter Square to receive their re- 
spective Legacy's, and fully to acquit you and the other 
worthy executors, of which they acquainted you by their 
joint Letter, and for which I was to account with them here. 
At the same time I desired you to pay Mr Clark my legacy 
of fio, and take his receipt in full discharge for it, which I 
would more than repay to the Orphan House, which I have 
already done, and hope to do more. I was advised to this 
mode of settling with the Georgia Legatees, as the most 
proper for you, by a good Lawyer and Friend, by whom I 
hope to write, to you, and other Friends, in about a month, 
he intending by that time to embark for England with his 
family, but as you have mentioned my deducting my Legacy 
of Ten Pounds, and accounting with Mr Ambrose Wright 
for the ballance of my account with you, being £21. 12. 55^, 
I shall do it, and accordingly have enclosed you my Receipt 
for said Legacy, the Gold Repeating watch, you have sent 
me, and for which I thank you, and the mourning ring I hope 
to receive, as every memorial from my deceased friend must 

Governor Wright was to sail for England on July 10 on a leave of absence, and during 
this time the responsible duties of his office was to f.-vll upon James Habersham, the Presi- 
dent of the Council. 

Richard Smith, mentioned here, was the servant of Whitefleld who was with him at his 
death in Massachusetts. 

ijS The Letters of 

be and is extremely dear to me- I cannot however think 
that receipts from the Legatees here, witnessed by Persons, 
who may never be in the way when called upon, should there 
be occasion, which I am sure will not be the case, is so regu- 
lar, as a Person legally empowered by them in London to 
receive and acquit, especially, if the sealing or delivery of 
such Deeds or Power, is proved as it should be, by an Afifi- 
davitt on such Deed by a viva voce Witness on the spot 
where such Power is to operate. To this End the Letters 
of Attorney, sent Mr Clark were witnessed by three Persons 
going to London, and I desired Mr Clark to get one of them 
to make a Probate on each of them. I only mention this, 
as it appeared the most authentic way of transacting this 
business, and not that the Legatees receipts, who you know 
are honest and good men, in the manner I have done, wovild 
not be satisfactory to you. I am no lawyer but perhaps your 
lawyer may join me in opinion. You will, I know, excuse 
this Freedom. Mr Ambrose Wright has, within this half 
Hour, left me to go to the Orphan House, tho' ii or 12 
miles from this Town, and past 9 O'clock at night. He is 
a good and faithfull Creature, and without him, I could not 
possibly carry on the business of that Institution, with 
twenty times as much, as will soon devolve on my poor 
shoulders. God help me, I tremble at the prospect, and 
could you have any Idea of my situation, you would not only 
pity, but pray for an infirm Old man, labouring under many 
distresses of body and mind. From my first setting out with 
my late deceased friend, I have been like him, continually 
in a Press, but not so well and usefully employed, and tho' 
I have truly endeavoured to retire from Care and Tumult, it 
has thrust itself upon me, whether I will or no, and I have 
no way of shunning it, but must simply go on in the fear and 
strength of God and if all ends to his honour I shall be satis- 

I am very glad to have received my late Friend's con- 
fidential letter to you, and that your worthy Friends Mes- 
sieurs Hardy and West are satisfied, of which I shall say no 
more. Pray make my sincere Regards acceptable to these 
gentlemen. Friend Wright tells me, the watch our late dear 
deceased intended for me, he had with him, when he died, 
and the plain gold case of it, I have now in my Possession. 
The dear man had a shagreen case to it, besides the one I 
have, not choosing to be seen with a gold Case, a Delicacy 
not to ofifend, which he had no right to compliment a snar- 
ling, censorious world about, and if I had been with him I 

Hon. James Habersham. 139 

would have tried to prevent such unnecessary condescension. 
There has been a time and a place, and at a great distance 
from hence, where I have accidently met him in America, 
where I have not suffered him to be dependent on, or to re- 
ceive coolness from the most precise prefessor, either for 
want of money or respect, and I bless God, who gave me a 
heart to do it, tho' I Avas by no means on a footing with those, 
who I think let him want iDOth Christians who are continually 
nibbling at Trifles in their Brethern's conduct, I generally 
suspect know very little of their own Hearts, and 1 speak 
it with concern, that I have too often seen more Honor, more 
charity, and more Candour among the real men of the World, 
than among some shining Professors. You will pardon this 
digression, which the Memory, of my, late, first, and Old 
Friend, and this silly incident has insensibly drawn from me. 
You do not say whether Richard Smith has delivered you 
the Watch of which I have the case. I hope he does not 
claim it under the idea of the deceased's wearing apparel, and 
if, as I believe, it was intended for me, you will observe my 
Legacy in the Will is prior to Smiths, and I suppose in Law 
and Equity must first take place. Pray observe that in my 
Letter by Mr Winter to Lady Huntingdon, and in another 
since to you I mentioned your getting the watch as mine 
from Mr Smith, which I could only know from Mr Wright 
and in consequence he delivered me the gold case. Mr 
Wright on seeing the repeating watch, observed, what I 
have mentioned, and desired I would notice it to you. I am 
perfectly satisfied, and very heartily thank you for that you 
have sent me, which is perhaps more valuable, than the other, 
a consideration, I hope you believe of no moment with me. 
The Giver stamps the real value on the Gift. The case in 
my hands does not belong to me, tho' I hope to some better 
friend of the deceased's than Richard Smith. Be that as it 
may it rests with me at your disposal : I may have said too 
much on this trifling matter, and I will not say, but my dis- 
like to Smith prompted me to do it. I have received a copy 
of the Plan of the intended Act of Assembly for the Orphan 
House Bethesda College, but have not had time to peruse 
it. I am not clear whether the time is not yet come to make 
such an establishment. I hope God will direct. I have by 
this Conveyance sent Lady Huntingdon some Manuscripts 
and printed Publications done by the Worthy deceased in 
his early years, supposing something may be picked out to 
add to his works, you are publishing. I hope you have got 
a judicious compiler. If it may not be improper, I shall be 

I4-0 The Letters of 

glad to know, who the person is. I think many sets may be 
sold in America, perhaps some thousands, but it appears to 
me, the w^ork must be sent out on this side complete and 
neatly bound. 1 shall consider about a subscription in this 
province. Have the printed Proposals been sent to Charles- 
town in So Carolina, Virginia, Philadelphia, New York 
Rhode Island, Boston &c? In those places I am persuaded 
there will be a number of Willing Subscribers. I am afraid 
I have tired your patience, and am. Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Humble Servant 
Signed J Habersham 

To Mr John Clark London 

Savannah in Georgia June 15. 1771 
Dear Sir 

I am now to reply to your favours of the 22d and 
29th of March, both which I received by the Georgia Packet 
Capt Anderson, and the contents of the latter epecially, have 
given us no small concern. 

I find our Friend Graham has written to you about my in- 
tention of being concerned with my Eldest Son in Trade, of 
which I have, since he wrote to you on that subject fully in- 
formed you, in several Letters, of my motives for so doing. 
You must suppose such a step, at my time of Life and in my 
stiaution, must arise from necessity, and not from 
Choice. My Son is at present out of all kind of Business, 
and as he is Marryed, and is likelv to have (word omitted in 
manuscript), he should on that as well as on every other 
consideration be usefully employed, and be in a way of pro- 
viding for them. I likewise considered that if he was con- 
nected with any person out of my Family, or rather with 
any one except My self, common Prudence would direct, 
that any assitance, I gave him either in Money or credit 
must be limited, for altho' I have every reason to believe, 
that he will be as diligent and prudent in the Management 
of his afifairs, as I can wish, yet I should not chuse to put 
my Estate, which I have laboured for, in the Power of any- 
one to deprive me of. 

What I mean is, I am determined to support my Son with 
all my Interest and Estate, and to make that the Ground 
of his Credit, but in order to do it prudently, I become a 
Principal Party with him in all his Transactions, by which 
means, I have a contract or enlarge, to advise and consent 
to sales or Purchases, so that nothing can be done materi- 

Hon. Javies Habersham. 14.1 

ally predjudicial, and whatever Benefit may arise, will rest 
with my Family, where it ought to be, and not with Strangers, 
for God knows, I have no personal views of Profit, and in- 
deed do not want any, only for their Sakes. I likewise hope 
thereby to lay a good fomidation, to connect my Son Joe 
with his Brother, before I withdraw my concern with him, 
and as I do not intend to enlarge my planting scheme, I in- 
tend to appropriate every Shilling I make from that, or any 
other income I possess after Expenses are paid, which I hope 
will not be inconsiderable, untill I have furnished this House 
with sufficient Capital to carry on Business with Ease and Prof- 
it, which I have no doubt of soon effecting. I have before 
acquainted you, that we propose making but small Impor- 
tations, not only because we will make our Correspondence 
perfectly agreable, with those who may supply us, but be- 
cause, I am clearly of opinion, that large Importations, es- 
pecially where there has been no considerable Capital to sup- 
port them, has been generally the real and true cause of the 
embarrassed, and too often ruined Circumstances of Many 
of our American Merchants. I am very sorry that it does 
not suit you to supply us, because I truly respect you, and 
hoped to shew my gratefuU sense of the favours, you have 
done me by making this correspondence in particular every 
way agreable to you, however from the reasons, you have 
urged, and also from the Conversation, I have had with Mr 
Graham, I must approve of your motive for contracting un- 
till you have wound up your Affairs in to Narrower Com- 
pass, and got them in to the hands of punctual Correspond- 
ents ; and as your resolution on this Point is generally known 
here, and others may take unbrage unless it is universally 
Extended, I would by no means urge your further engaging, 
than to have the order sent you by James Habersham Jr & 
Co shipped either by yourself or Mr Nutt, who I should 
prefer after you, to undertake our Business, and you may 
rely on my Veracity, and Honour, in assuring him, that he 
shall have no reason of Complaint in transacting for me, or 
my Children, for believe me, I neither must, nor will be em- 
barrassed, ana if my Children are so, I must be so too. I 
have desired my Son to write you for Insurance on 102 bbls 
Rice we are shipping by Anderson, and if you cannot con- 
veniently undertake for us, you will please deliver over what 
Effects vou may have for James Habersham Junr & Compy 
to Mr Nutt 

We could not address to him, untill we had your Answer 
to our Letter of February last, by the Prince Frederick 

1^2 The Letters of 

Capt Watt covering our order. As Mr Graham and I are on 

a friendly footing, he has communicated to me your Letter 
to him, vvhere you desire him to go to England next Spring, 
but from the State of your joint Affairs here if I undertand 
them, and perhaps from the Situation of his private Affairs, 
I think he cannot possibly leave this country so soon. My 
Son John has been, I think, tardy in his payments, but when 
he can get Rice, or a Bill and the Latter, I hope, will soon 
fall in his way, he will pay you. I am 

Dear Sir, with great Truth 
Your Obliged and humble Servant 

P. S. I am shipping some Rice for Mr Knox to Mr Nutt, 
and have wrote to him per this conveyance to make Insur- 
ance, and at the same Time to furnish our order, in case it 
should not be convenient for you to do it. 

To Messrs Graham and Clark London 

Savannah in Georgia June 15. 1847 (?) 

I must desire the favour of you to ship me, 
when a vessel offers direct for this Port, about 5 Ct of the 
best single loaf sugar. If the loaves are small, they will prob- 
ably be hard and keep dry, and not, as the Grocers say, give 
or rather turn moist, by which there is often great waste on 
the arrival here, and as it is solely for my own use, I shall 
not regard i. 2. or 3s pr Ct extraordinary to have them firm 
and good. In the year 1736 and 1737, I had the care of two 
refining Houses in Good-mans-fields- We have had the 
most extraordinary wet spring, perhaps ever known in the 
Memory of any Person in this and the neighboring prov- 
ince, which has kept our Rice Fields almost continually un- 
der Water and prevented our planting them. I think our 
Governor will make but little better than half a crop. He 
and I and most planters have sown our Lands two or three 
times over, and have been as often drowned, I am afraid by 
friend Knox, will not make a barrel of Rice in his rich 
Swamp, and upon the whole, I really expect our present 
years crop of Rice will fall short one third at least of what 
was made the past year, and some say more. The proper 
Season for sowing Rice is over, and altho' some People are 
now planting I am persuaded when the crop comes to be 

In the manuscript the date of this letter is June 15, 1847, evidently an error in copying. 
See preface. 

Hon. James Habersham. i^j 

reaped, the Rice planted now, will not yield half as much, as 
the Rice planted 6 weeks or 2 months ago and neither will 
it be as good. This is truly our situation, and I understand 
it is equally as bad in So Carolina, and I believe People in 
general do not estimate upon an Average, more than half a 
crop, tho' I think there will be something more. Rice is 
now selling Current and brisk in Charlestown at 55s but the 
Factors ask 60s pr ct, and some say it is given, and tho' they 
are endeavouring to get 60s it was thought they would not 
be able to acomplish their views. 

If you should Charter a vessel to be here in August or Sep- 
tember, agreable to our request, to be loaded by J H Junr & 
Comy, your John Graham and the Governor each one third, 
I am afraid we shall be put to great difficulty to load her. 
The Governor laid by his whole quota, about 250 barrels, 
to glean out in August, as did Mr Graham and myself, but 
the Governor lost he reckons, 200 bbls in the Stacks in his 
Barn Yard by floods, and Mr Graham and I have expended 
so much Grain by so often replanting, and supplying our 
Neighbors with Seed to, Sow, they having lost what they 
saved for that purpose, that we shall rather fall short ; if 
therefore this Letter should reach you to prevent this in- 
tended Charter coming out, I must desire you will do it. In 
which request both the Governor ard Mr Graham join me, 
however if you have chartered a vessel and cannot help her 
coming upon us, we must do the best we can. If we could 
purchase rice in the fall, which we cannot do here, we should 
not regard her coming, but when we wrote to you, our re- 
source was from our own Plantations, which onlv from the 
causes I have mentioned, have in part failed us, and is what 
we neither did nor had the least Reason to expect, and per- 
haps may never happen again 

I am Gentlemen 

Your very Humble Servant 

Revd Mr Jacob Duche in Philadelphia 

Savannah in Georgia June 19. 1771 
Revd and Dear Sir 

I thank you for your Sermon on the Death of 
one of your Proprietors, which I have read with pleasure, 
but I intend to take a retired hour to peruse it again, as I 
think there is something new in the manner of treating the 
Text, which, for a particular reason I could mention to you. 

144- '^h^ Letters of 

I prefer before any, except on e, in all Davids Melodious 
Notes. This will be handed you by my valuable Friend, 
Henry Laurens Esqr of Charlestown, who proposes going 
to England with his Eldest Son, but intends to visit his rela- 
tions at Philadelphia and New York on his way, and I beg 
leave to recommend him to your acquaintance, because when 
you know him, I am sure you will Esteem him. I shall also 
be obliged to you, to give him a line to our friend the Revd 
Mr Inglis, in New York. Our Minister the Revd Mr Frink 
delivered me your Sermon, and I desire your acceptance of 
another preached on opening our new and neat Chapel at the 
Orphan House. It is the day of small things with us, but 
we do not despise it, knowing that God generally effects his 
purposes, by the most contemptable means, because he will 
have the Honour, I am 

Revd and Dear Sir 
Your Affectionate humble Svt 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Cockspur 

Savannah July 9. 1771 
Dear Sir 

As I have heard from Charlestown, that good 
Lady Huntingdon is deaa, It has made such an impression 
on my Spirits, that I cannot force myself to write or direct 
a Line to her. If your Excellency should find her alive, as 
I hope you will, please to deliver her the enclosed Memor- 
andum of Mr Keens, respecting all the late Mr Whitefields 
great Money matters, as she will want it to deliver over to 
Mr Keen in London, when she settles with him, but if the 
good Lady is removed to a better World, I must entreat 
Excellency to keep it untill you hear further from me. I 
return your Excellency the most hearty thanks for all fa- 
vours confered on me, and do with great sincerety wish you 
and all your Family, a happy and comfortable voyage and 
a joyfull meeting with all your Friends in England, unin- 
terrupted Health and every degree of Felicity for Time and 
Eternity, and if my poor prayers and Endeavours may con- 
tribute the least to attain these Valuable Blessings, you will 
not want either. 

I am Dear Sir 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obedient humble Servant 

Governor Wright had just embarked on a leave of absence for England. This ruinor 
of the death of the Countess of Huntingdon was false. She died in London June 17, 1791, 
aged 84 years. 

Hon. James Habersham. 14.5 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Governor of Georgia 
In London 

rOriginal post the 4th Oct 

Dear Sir. \ 

[Duphcate pr Snow providence Capt Davies 
Savannah in Geo the 3d October 1771- 
I find I have been under a Mistake in regard to cor- 
responding with Government,- I thought the packett, who 
brought the public Letters waited the return of the post 
from St Augustine to carry answers from that Place and this, 
but I have only to-day been informed, that the packett does 
not wait, but Sails in a few days after her Arrival with what 
Letters ofifer- 

This mistake made me think, it was only necessary to 
have my public Letters ready to forward by the return of 
the Post from St Augustine, otherwise I shoud certainly 
have wrote to Lord Hillsborough in answer to his last Let- 
ter, by Capt Haywood, who sailed a few days after I re- 
ceived it- I think however I have not omitted one oppor- 
tunity of writing to you and for the future I shall not wait 
for the Post but answer any Public Letters, as soon as a Con- 
veyance ofifers- 

Gay was with me yesterday, said he had 
done cutting Rice at his Place, and (illegible word here) 
woud have done today, and finished tying to morrow- at 
Cedar Hill, the Rice in the River Swamps ripened uneven, 
which they were cutting in Spots, and tho' it does not grow 
so luxuriant, as at the other Places, the Ears are very long 
and the grain large, and Abraham supposes, there will be 
considerably more Rice there than hitherto-We have had no 
Rain, till to day, and it falls heavy, since about the middle 
of the last Month. I suppose you mav have about 40, or 
50, Acres not cut down here, of which a few Acres at the 
Farm, and the rest at Cedar Hill Upon the whole you have 
had a fine Harvest and have got more of your crop, in pro- 
portion secured, than I believe any of your Neighbors, and 
I am not Afraid of yr making a pleasing Crop on these Plan- 
tations- We have had the Mill at Laurel Grove altered- 
Burgess was present and assisted at the Alteration but I 
woud not trust him to have the Direction, and got another 
man to do it- Gay thinks she may now perform pretty well- 
I hope soon to see her tryed- 

After the rainy Weather broke up/ 
about the middle of last Month, we had several very cold, 
days, rather I think uncommon and unseasonable, and after- 

14^6 The Letters of 

wards it became very hot and sultry which brought on Fevers, 
and I am sorry to inform you, that Several of our Friends 
are sick- Mr Graham has within a few days, had a smart at- 
tack of the Fever, and is now contined, and cannot attend 
to any Business, and I must say, that I would rather hear 
of a great Number, I could name, being so, than this wortiiy 
man. Dr Johnson can scarcely keep up to visit his patients 
Mr Hall and the Parson have the Fever- Mr Harris is still 
alive, but Dr Johnson and indeed all his Friends think he 
cannot survive Many Days- There are likewise several others 
complaining, and perhaps very few suffer more pain, than 

1 do, Day and Night, but I thank God, scarcely any die, ex- 
cept transient People- Indeed I know of none, that are dead, 
that you had any acquaintance with- 

Mr Wertsch tells me, he has shipt on board 
the Snow Industry Capt Davies, 438 lbs Raw Silk, all made 
aid reeled at Ebenezer- It goes consigned to Mr Lloyd- I 
have had a long Conversation with Mr Wertsch on the Sub- 
ject, and he seems very positive, that it cannot fail of be- 
coming a considerable article of produce at Ebenezer- You 
know him to be a worthy, prudent and Cautious Man, and 
he says, he has fully considered this Matter, and he has not 
the least doubt of its Succeeding, and as he has gone on for 

2 years past without any Assistance, he has so far given 
proof, that it is practicable, without the Expence and parade 
of a public Filature- He says he only wants a few Basons 
and Reels, and requests the use of those here, to which I 
can see no objections, as they are at present of no kind of 
use, and I think Mr Baillie told me some of the Basons were 
stolen- As the Culture of Raw Silk is an object of so great 
National Importance, I have thought proper to mention 
this matter to Lord Hillsborough- I would send you a Copy 
of my Letter to his Lordship, but I have none but my Son 
John, that I can trust to copy for me, and he is very busy 
preparing for the Post- I have given my Reasons to Lord 
Hillsborough why there should be more Basons and Reels- 
You will doubtless have mv Letter Communicated to you- 

The Ship the Betsev and Polly, Capt 
Waiste which we are to load, did not arrive here, till the 17th 
LHto- She sailed from London the 9th July and might rea- 
sonably be expected about the last of August, and as there 
was very little Rice to be had, and it would soon be shipt off 
Freight being so low as 20 twenty i £ to London 32 /6 to 
a market- Mr Graham and I thought proper to engage up' 
wards of 200 barrels, and to pay the then Current price i p 

Hon. James Habersham. i^y 

loo lb (being 70 in Charlestown) or to take it on Freight. 
The Guiney Ship, by Which Mr Wertsch's silk goes, and 
which will sail in 3 or 4 days, has taken in Rice at 20 p Ten 
for London- I shall write to you again by her, and mention 
what Insurance to get made. I wanted to Settle this Mat- 
ter to Day with Mr Graham, but he is so bad and so very 
low Spirited, that he would not hear a Word about any 
Business, and said there was time to write for Insurance- 
I know not how we Shall manage, but I foresee, that there 
will be a loss to you and me, which I am sorry for, Gay has 
beat out 40 barrells and Weatherly 303/^ and that is all you 
have remaining of the last years Crop- I have 115 Barrels 
here, and have about 50 more, my overseer says to clear out 
which he is doing- There has scarcely been any thing but 
Disappointment in the planting and produce way for 9 
Months past- I am Dr Sir 

Yours Excellencys, 
Most Obedt, humble Servant 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Governor of Georgia. 
In London. 

Savannah in Georgia the 8th October 1771 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of writing you two Letters of the 
28th Ulto, and the third Instant, which I forwarded under 
cover to Mr Knox, by the Post to Charles-town, to go by 
a Packett, of which I now send you duplicates. 

My old Friend Col Harris dyed this morning, after 
a very lingring and painfull Sickness, and as there was not 
the least prospect of his recovery, I look upon his death as 
a happy Release. You will join me that we have lost an 
honest man, and a good member of Society, He will be 
buryed tomorrow, with every Honor and Mark of Respect 
in our power. 

Mr Hall called upon me this morn- 
ing. He has had a short but smart Attack of Fever, and 
looks very thin. He is going to Tybie to try to get strength, 
and recover his appitite, and desires I will make his respect- 
full Compliments to you and your Family. I have got my 
last Letters to Lord Hillsborough duplicated, and thought 
of writing a Line and sending them by this opportunity, but 
my spirits are so hurryed by numberless Consultations, and 

Col. Harris was a member of the firm of Harris & Habersham. 

14^ The Letters of 

applications about the Funerals &c of my old Friend, that 
I am afraid, I cannot do it, and indeed I have but little to 
say to his Lordship Mr Harris has left his Estate pretty 
equally divided between his Son and Daughter 

Wishing you and 
yours all Happiness, and consequently more Health than 
I enjoy, I remain very Sincerely, Dear Sir 

Your Excellency's 
Most obedient and very humble Servant 

Extract of a letter from president Habersham to Govnr 
Wright dated 20th October 1771- 

In my last letter of the 6th August from a friend of ours 
in London, he writes the following- In your letters to Lord 
H- be very explicit & full, as they will be read by the K — g, 
take occasion to speak of the Loyalty of the people and your 
own, and give accurate accounts of the State of the Province, 
of the several classes of people in it- Their numbers, relig- 
ion and occupation,- The situation. Climate and products, 
and other branches of Natural History — These matters in 
separate letters unmixed with business — If you can procure 
any curious Birds, any Vegetable Honey (N. B. I do not 
know what this is) or preserved Water Melons or other rare 
or useful things L — d H — will be pleased with them, and in- 
form His L — d — p of them in a letter written private on the 
cover — You know this friend wishes me well, and perhaps 
it may be proper not to mention to him, that I have trans- 
cribed this paragraph to you, as I would not on any account 
oflfend him, because I believe, he would not willingly ofifend 

me — As to Loyalty, if the idea is confined to his M ys 

person and family, I know of no person disaffected here, but 
as to opposition to Measures of government, there are some 
mistaken person here, as there are in other places, of which 
I have taken some notice in my letter to Lord Hillsborough 
of the 23d Inst — the contents of which, and of all my letters 
to his Lordship I conclude you will be acquainted with ; and 
as to the other matters recommended by my friend, I shall 
doubtless take notice of them, as occasion oflfers and inci- 
dents arise, but I have no leisure to sit down, and collect 
matter to write on natural history &Ca- I find my public 
and private business require more time and attention than 
I am well able to give, and if in the end, I can acquit myself 
so as to give tolerable satisfaction, it is all I expect and wish- 
I have truly no views of preferment- I have enough to live 

Hon. James Habersham. 149 

comfortably, and to make me pass the remainder of my days 
without troublesome care and anxiety, however I can as- 
sure you, I miss and really grudge every half hour, I spend 
from my proper business, and scarcely ever put my foot out 
of doors- I find that I collect my ideas much slower, and 
my abilities for business of any kind, are not so ready and 
quick as formerly, a plain proof, that I am growing an old 
man very fast- If I can, I shall write to you again before 
I close this letter, and am, very truly. Dear Sir Your excel- 

affectionate friend & Servant 

To Samuel IJoyd Esq in London 

Extracts Savannah in Georgia the 21st Nov 1771. 

Dear Sir. 

A few days past, I received from one John Daniel 
Hammerer a letter from you, dated so long agoe as the nth 
February 1765, recommending him at the instance of Dr 
Fothergill to me- He writes me, that he has been some years 
among the Cherokee Indians, where he taught some of their 
youth to read, write &c, in which they made a surprising 
progress ; but supplys beginning to fail, and promised sup- 
port not being granted, after strugling in vain with DifB- 
culties- he was obliged to abandon a laudable undertaking, 
happily begun and in a fair way of doing well, and to with- 
draw into Long lane * settlement in So Carolina, where he re- 
ceived an invitation from the gentlemen at Augusta to keep 
a School, which he had'complyed with. The Magistrates and 
Church Wardens there recommended him to me in very 
strong terms, which I shall pay a due regard to, and serve 
him, when in my power. Mr Spencer is almost past Busi- 
ness, but has got a sensible and discreet man (his son in law) 
to act for him- My present various and complicated pri- 
vate and public Business is almost too much for me, and 
it keeps me so closely and constantly employed, that I find 
it affects my Health, and I wish I may be enabled to support 
the Burden. 

I think it rather late in Life for Mr John Wesley 
to revisit America, but if he comes, I shall be happy in shew- 
ing him all the respect in my power-Be pleased to present 
my best regards to him-AU the hands belonging to the Or- 

•••Long Lane Settlement" should probably be Ijong Cane Settlement. 

John Wesley was 68 years old at this time, and he lived twenty years longer. He lived 
In Georgia in 1786 and 1737. The discouragement here given to Wesley's proposed visit was 
doubtless based upon his troubles in Savannah in 1737. 

j^o The Letters of 

phan House are granted in Trust by His Majesty for that 
use, and cannot be alienated to any other Purpose, and that 
Trust is strongly implyed to Lady Huntingdon in regard to 
the Assets- It would have been better if the dear deceased 
had consulted Friends, in making his will and made that 
matter clearer- I know he thought he had done it effectu- 
ally, as he often told me so, but I did not see the will, 'till 
after his Death- If any claims should here after appear, 
contrary to the real Intention of the deceased, a Court of 
Chancery will put it all right, however that had better be 
avoided- I have written fully to Lady H- on this subject, 
and now do the same to you in confidence, and let it be in- 
ter nos, being, very dear Sir, 

Your affectionate friend and Servant 

To Wm Knox Esq Under Secretary of State to the Rt Hon- 
ourable the Earl of Hillsborough Whitehall P the Betsy 
and Polly Capt Haiste 

Savannah in Georgia 26th Nov 1771 
Dr Sir 

I think my last letter to you was dated about the 
beginning of this Month, of which I have no copy, and have 
therefore forgot the date, and since then, I have received 
yr 3 letters No i, 2, and 3 all dated the 4th September last- 
If you mean to Number yr Letters, I shall do the same, and 
it may save some trouble to acknowledge Receipts of Letters 
by Numbers instead of Dates - 

I shall hrst reply to your political Letter No i, for 
which I am much obliged to you, as such Hints must always 
be useful especially to a Person in my Situation- You will 
see by My letters to Lord Hillsborough, that I have not yet 
called an Assembly, and that I do not think of doing it un- 
till I know his Majestys Pleasure on the Conduct of the 
Last, and I believe not only the Council but the People in 
General do not expect it- In regard to the Suspension of 
the Powers of Legislation, being a means to bring a Peo- 
ple to feel the advantage of possessing them, it must have 
Such effect in every Government, where the body of the Peo- 
ple Suffer for the Want of it, but at present none here seem 
to feel that want- but those who either from Interest or 
Principle are Friends of Government, for I cannot hear of 

The exercise of the rljjht of the ActinK Governor to negative a Speaker, here dwelt 
upon at length, forms one of the most rlramai ic incuients in the history of these stirring 
times. It illustrates alike the moral courage of Habersham in his loyalty to his King and 
the Increasing determination of the people to resist the arbitrary power of England. 

Hon. James Habersham. i^i 

a single Person, who has hitherto appeared in opposition, 
that has said one Syllable about it- We are in a perfect 
state of Tranquillity, and have no Alarms either from within 
or without us, that require any extraordinary Expense, or 
other assistance from the Legislature ; but was it otherwise, 
I suppose the People wou'd universally cry out for an As- 
sembly- You say it will be left to yourself to call an Assem- 
bly or not, but it wou'd be my advice to you not to call one, 
untill the Province calls aloud for one, and feels the want 
of it &c. 

Governor Wright Says "It is expected that no Assembly is 
called 'till that matter (the conduct of the last Assembly on 
his rejecting the Speaker) is taken Notice of, and Directions 
given to call me, and this will not be done, till Lord Hills- 
borough returns and sees me". I entirely agree in opinion 
with the letter, and have long since wrote the same to the 
Governor. The case is Clear, was I to call an Assembly 
Mr J-S wou'd be chose Speaker, a rejection must follow and 
probably resolutions of a more extraordinary Nature, then 
the former, wou'd ensue and the Consequence wou'd be that 
a disagreable stop would be put to Public Business and the 
Province thrown into Confusion, whereas was I to receive 
such Directions, as I, and perhaps some other persons, ex- 
pect all this would probably be avoided, and Business go on 
as usual, which is much to be wished- 

I look upon myself to be intrusted by His Majesty 
with the execution of His Authority in the Government of 
this Province, which I shall endeavor to preserve it inviol- 
able because by so doing I am persuaded, I shall best pro- 
mote the Interest of the People here- If I err, it will not 
be with Intention or Design, and I know you and my Friends 
will think so cordially of me, and you cannot oblige me more 
than by pointing out the Conduct it may be proper for me 
to pursue. 

My Son Joe arrived Safe and in Health the 17th ins, after 
a tedious passage. I began to be in Pain for him, and so 
were some of my Friends. He was upwards of 11 weeks 
from his Embarking- As far as I can see he is sensible and 
clever for which I am obliged to you and my other good 
Friends in England and am Dr Sir- Your affectionate 
Friend and Servant 

152 The Letters of 

To jVIr John Nutt in London 

Savannah in Georgia the 28 Nov- 1 771 
Dear Sir 

I am much obliged to you for your very kind Fa- 
vour of the 31st of August last, which I received by my Son 
Joe, who arrived here in good Health on the i/lh Instant. 
He is grown tall, and appears manly, and I think he is equally 
improved in his Understanding, for which, 1 shall ever es- 
teem myself indebted to my good Friend Mr Clark. He is 
naturally of an aimiable, open, and candid Disposition, but 
not more so than his Eldest Brother James, with whom, I 
would wish you were personally acquainted, because from 
the opinion I have entertained of your Candour, I think he 
would appear to deserve that Esteem, which can only consti- 
tute a substantial and confidential correspondence, which I 
hope wull ever subsist between you. 

I am indeed much concerned to hear from Every Quarter, 
that my Friend Knox wants Health, and I am afraid that his 
Indisposition is, of a more Alarming nature, than he cbuses 
to mention to me. Our Friendship has subsisted for many 
years without Interruption, and I must be, as I really am, 
much interested in his welfare. He has been greatly disap- 
pointed in his planting Business here, which has lately in- 
duced Friend Graham and I to take charge of it, and from 
the improvement we are making on his Lands, we hope to 
make him a tolerable Crop of Rice next year. Last Spring, 
the season was extremely unfavourable for his plantation 
where he had no Field in any kind of Order to plant Rice. 
What little is made this year will be shipt you, of which you 
will be advised. 

The Rice now shipt you by J H Junr & Co is of my own 
Growth, and as it was all cleaned out since some time in Sep- 
tember last, I hope you will find it every way equal to new 
Rice. It is the remains of last years Crop from two planta- 
tions, and I think the casks branded on the head with a Gun 
barrel o or 00 is some-thing better, than the other Casks 
blindly branded J o H, of the former there is about 80 bar- 
rels, and of the latter about 50. Capt Haist did not arrive 
till about the latter End of September, and his ship being 
leaky and unfit for the Sea, he was a long time refitting, 
which was a very unfavourable circumstance to the Shippers, 
especially as it was so late in the Season, and they had pro- 
vided a full cargoe of Rice at a very high Price, that they 

Concerning a temporary breach in the friendship between Habersham and Knox, see 
letter dated Dec. 1, 1770. 

Hon. James Habersham. 153 

might give her dispatch, i thiuls: Mr Curhng the owner must 
look upon hiniseh obhged to the Shippers, for their having 
made no compiamt about the Delay of his Vessel in refitting, 
and thereby depriving thtm of a good market, and also for 
their having procured a good deal of light Freight, which 
has made his Ship light and Bouyant, and more fit to en- 
counter a Winter's Voyage. 

I belive 1 have before acquainted you, that I mean to con- 
nect my Son Joe with his Brother James, who I will sup- 
port to the utmost of my Power, and as 1 do not want my 
Children to wish my Death, I will do v/hat 1 can for them, 
while I live, and they are under my ov/n Eye ; and to that 
End, 1 am determined to make no new purchases to add to 
my Estate, which is suflicient for them and me with care, but 
give them the whole Produce of it (after the necessary ex- 
penses are paid) which I hope will not be very inconsider- 
able, until I make their Capital respectable, and put them on 
such a footing, as may render their Correspondence easy 
and agreable, and when it shall please God to call me out of 
this world, what I die possessed of, they will have. 
The very kind sentiments you are pleased to entertain of 
me, are very gratefull, and indeed much more than I de- 
serve, however they will stimulate me to use my utmost en- 
deavours, to make my future conduct engage the continu- 
ance of the Regard, you and my other Friends express for 
me, which I value above every consideration. I do not ex- 
pect, either in my private or public capacity, to please the 
petulant or envious, and such there are here, as well as in 
other Places, but if I can give content to the wise and De- 
serving, my utmost wishes and Intentions will be fully 
answered. You cannot think more highly, of Governor 
Wright than I do. During his Administration here, I had 
the Honor of an Intimate acquaintance with him, and from 
my own Knowledge can attest the goodness and upright- 
ness of his Heart, and I am persuaded, that every cool and 
dispassionate man must join me in Sentiment, and that his 
Enemies, if he reallv has any here, which I almost doubt, 
because he gave no Occasion, that I know of, to make any 
one so, will at some future day be ashamed to be thought so. 
I am with great Sincerety 

Dear Sir Your much obli2:ed and verv humble Servant 

J54- The Letters of 

To Mr John Clark in London 

Savannah in Georgia the 29 November 1771 
Dear Sir 

Your very obliging Favour of the 31st August 
last, I received by my Son Joe, who arrived here in Health 
on the 17 Inst after a tedious Passage. I began to be in Pain 
for his safety, as were some of my Friends, and was very 
happy in being relieved from my anxiety. He is much 
grown in Stature, and appears manly, and from the Judge- 
ment, I have been able to form in the short Time, he has 
been with me, I think he is sensible and Judicious for his 
years, for which I am, and hope I shall ever think myself 
greatly indebted to you, who have acted a Fathers part by 

He says, he will write to you by this conveyance, as also to 
Mrs Milligan to whom I beg to be remembered in the kind- 
est manner, and request you will return her and Mr Milligan 
my most sincere thanks for the favours they have shown 
him. He speaks of you and them in the most affectionate 
terms, and be pleased to believe that, I shall not be wanting, 
whenever in my power to evince on evry Occasion my Grati- 

I find you must be evidently in Advance for me, particularly 
on Account of my Son, which in adding to my many obliga- 
tions, and you may depend, I will the first opportunity of 
shipping Rice of the first of my new Crop, to reimburse you 
fully for Joe, my Son John, and myself. There is no getting 
Bills here, and I cannot draw till June, otherwise, you should 
be immediately paid, with many, very many thanks, however 
I shall lay out to get Freight for Rice by the first going 

I do not mean that the House I am establishing for my Sons 
should have any Connection at all in England but with Mr 
Nutt, of whose Honor and Worth, I have the highest opin- 
ion, and am very happy in the connection, which I hope to 
convince him of ; but that cannot hinder my continuing my 
correspondence with you, for the few Trifles I may want 
for my private Use, unless it may be inconvenient for you 
to do it. 

Tomorrow I am to dine with a merry Saint, St Andrew, I 
am a member of the Society, and as I am told our Friend 
John Graham will preside there, I am of Opinion, he will 
send many of the Saints Votaries away with Sare Heads. I 

The St. Andrew's Society of Savannah was organized In 1750, and Its annual banquets 
are still among the most enjoyable features of the city's social life. 

Hon. James Habersham. 155 

do not mean that our Friend John likes Sare Heads, be- 
cause I know him to be one of the most temperate and at the 
same time one of the best Hearted Men in this Province, but 
for the Honor of his Saint and Country, I think he will on 
this Occasion particularly exert himself, in my letter of the 
2nd January last, I desired you to send me a Floor cloth 13 
feet by 14 painted plain on both Sides with a dark brown 
or chocolate colour for a Parlour. 

a Ditto ^Yz feet by 14 feet] These are for three small Pass- 
a Ditto 3 feet by 10 (-ages and are to be painted plain 

a Ditto 4 feet by ii Jon both Sides as the foreg-oing. 

My Son Joe says, he is sure the order for these Cloths, was 
given out, but does not recollect the Reason of their not be- 
ing sent, unless that they were not ready at the time my other 
Goods were Shipped. Please to send them by the first Ves- 
sel, as I am much in want of them. I am hurried out of 
measure, and Haiste waites for my Letter. I am Dear Sir 
Your much Obliged and humble Servant. 

To His Excellency James Wright Governor of Georgia In 

Savannah in Georgia the 30 November 1771 
Dear Sir 

I received your kind favour of the 30th August, 
and also your Letter to Mr Graham and me, of the 29 of said 
month, by my Son Joe, who arrived safe and in good Health, 
the 17th Instant, after a tedious Passage. I think I must 
have filled a Quire of Paper in my Letters to you, since your 
Departure, which were forwarded from hence and Charles- 
town, through the hands of Mr Lambton, who is a punctual 
correspondent. When I have Letters ready, I do not wait 
for a Conveyance from hence, but send them to Charles- 
town, as you will find by the Letters I have written to you. 
I am really at a Loss to acquaint you with the Disposition of 
the People, who may attempt to get into the Assembly. Not 
one of those who have been in opposition come near me, ex- 
cept Mr Bryan, and that is very seldom, and we both care- 
fully avoid entering into Politics. About a week agoe, he 
called upon me, and as I had no Company but my two Sons, 
he said he woud dine with me, which he did, and dropt a Hint, 
that I should meet with no Trouble in my Administration, 

This letter indicates the deep, quiet feelinp of opposition to the English Government, 
which was soon to burst into the whirlwind of revolution. James Habersham seems always 
to have underestimated the true sit;niflcance of this feeling. 

1^6 The Letters of 

and so did the Chief Justice, and another Person, but be- 
Heve me, I expect otherwise. These Hints may be thrown 
out as a Pleasing Bait, and I cannot but consider them, as 
tending to flatter me at your Expense, and whenever any- 
thing of the kind has been said, that I thought had that tend- 
ency, my answer has been, that I wish I may acquit myself, 
in my Public Capacity, as Honourably and Uprightly as you 
have done. I have no By-Ends to serve, and will not curry 
Favour dishonorably, and I hope you will find that my Pro- 
fessions of Friendships to you did not cease on your leav- 
ing Savannah BlufT, and if an Honest and upright Conduct, 
as far as my Abilities will extend, will carry me through the 
almost intolerable Load of Business, I labour under you 
may depend I will give no cause of complaint either to Friend 
or Foe. I think I have observed to you in some of my 
Former Letters, that those, who have appeared in Oppo- 
sition keep a profound Silence. Not a whisper, that I can 
hear of, about calling an Assembly, nor a word of complaint 
of any kind. This has been remarked by many of my numer- 
ous Friends, and I look upon it as a Political Manoeuvre in 
the Opposite Party, if it should prove otherwise, it will be 
more agreable. 

You will find by my letters to Lord Hillsborough, that I have 
called an Assembly, tho' the Necessity of doing it has been 
hinted at, Sundry Times, especially by our good Friend the 
Doctor. I know he means well, and truly respect him, and 
as he has seen me averse to it. He has avoided urging that 
measure, and you may depend I will not do it, untill I re- 
ceive Instructions from the Ministry. I conclude you will 
see all my Letters to Lord Hillsborough, otherwise I woud 
send 3'ou copys, and my Son John who is my Amanuensis, 
is so fully employed, that I wish to spare him, as much as 
I can. Indeed so few Incidents have arose, that I scarcely 
know how to form a letter to his Lordship, but you will find, 
that I omit no plausible Opportunity of urging the Necessity 
of extending our back Country. I wish to know your Sen- 
timents of what I have written to his Lordship. In regard 
to the mode of electing Representatives for this Parish, I 
have not yet consulted any one on that Subject, tho' our 
Friends Johnson and Graham, have seen what you have 
wrote to me thereupon, but as it strikes me, I think the 
whole Eight members for this Parish, may be chose at Sa- 
vannah, namely 4 for the Town, i for the Sea Islands, i for 
Acton, I for ^^ernons-bourgh, and one for the Little Ogee- 
chee ; I do not mean that these respective Places should 

Hon. James Habersham. i^"/, 

elect separately , but that the whole should be elected at Sa- 
vannah by One Writt for the Parish of Christ Church. This 
I think is your meaning, tho' you mention Goshen to be 
Represented in the Parish, which belongs to the Parish of 
St Mathews. I think Mr Wertsch mentioned to me, that 
he had represented to you, the Convenience of having the 
Parish of St Mathews divided into two Parishes. You know 
Ebenezer now sends three members to the Assembly, and 
if a Division should be thought necessary, which I think 
would be proper, and very gratefull to the People of Ebene- 
zer, who I should be glad to oblige, then the lower part of 
the Parish, which includes Ebenezer might send two Mem- 
bers, and the upper part two more. This Parish with Goshen, 
now sends four Representatives and if this Regulation should 
take place, there would be no addition of Members, and I 
know the People of Ebenezer, or the German Congregation 
there, want no connection with the People in the upper Part 
of that Parish, who neither mend their morals nor their 
Political Sentiments. 

I am extremely sorry to hear our Friend Knox is in so bad 
a state of Health, and I am afraid his Complaint is of a more 
alarming Nature than he chuses to mention to me. My Son 
tells me, I should scarcely know him, being so much emaci- 
ated which gives me great Concern, as I truly respect, and 
wish him every Degree of Happiness. I have by this Oppor- 
tunity wrote two Letters to him, which I desired him, to 
shew you. His Remarks in regard to Assembly's, may be 
right in Theory, but are not conclusive in regard to this 
Province, of which you are a proper Judge, and I must re- 
quest your Sentiments of what I have written to him on that 

On two or three Invitations I have given to the Chief Jus- 
tice, to dine with me, since your Departure, he has excused 
himself, that it was not convenient, and therefore I shall not 
probably repeat my Invitations, but he has lately called upon 
me frequently, and professes great Friendship. I find it is 
said in our Gazette that he is appointed one of the Council, 
but that the Intelligence did not come from me. I have a 
long Letter from him about the dancing Assembly having 
the use of the Court-Room. The Managers applied to me, 
and as it has been usual for the Assembly to meet there, I 
readily granted their Request, however, I have Obviated, 
his Objections, by directing the Managers to employ the 
keeper of the Court-house to shut up the House and put 
every-thing in Order, for which they will pay him. This a 

158 The Letters of 

trifling Affair and I think the Gentleman is mistaken in his 
Pursuit of popularity, if that is his Object, He does not dis- 
pute my Authority, in Granting the use of any Public Build- 
ing, and if he did I should not admit it, and be assured, that 
I will not suffer the Kings Authority invested in me, to be 
trampled upon, in any Instance, He has publickly quarrelled 
with the Lawyers, who complain heavily, as do their Friends, 
in which I have, and will have no concern, altho he desired 
I wou'd speak to Mr Hume in particular, who wou'd have 
made it a Public matter, but at my Request he will not. His 
Father and Mrs Hume are here, and doubtless, you will hear 
from them. Chancery Business Multiplies very fast, and you 
can scarcely believe how many Bills are filed, some say ow- 
ing to the Chief Justice, which however I do not believe. I 
have lately referred a Point of Law to him, which was argued 
some Hours in the Council Chamber, and for which I made a 
little Apology, and he told me, I had no Occasion to do it, 
as it was the Duty of the Judges to give me their Opinion 
when required, and I have now a sheet of Paper on the Sub- 
ject which I have not had time to consider. I have now a 
matter in the Court of Ordinary depending, rather difficult 
to determine, but I take time to do it, and in the End do not 
find much difficulty. 

In a late Case, in which the Proctors aooeared, in two Courts ; 
The Lawyers and the Chief Justice said I determined very 
properly, but the Chancery Business will probably give me 
much anxiety, and my Fear of Erring gives me inexpressible 
Trouble and Concern. 

Mr Ellis has wrote to me from Florence about the Payment 
of the Governor's House, much in the Strain, I formerly 
shewed you, in which you can have no concern. I have sold 
his Lands on St Simon's Island, and shall have soon done 
with his Business, except his Annuity, I am with great Sin- 
cerety, my Dear Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and Servant 

Pray excuse this blundering Letter. 

To His Excellency James Wright Governor of Georgia. In 

Savannah in Georgia the 29 December 1771 
Dear Sir 

Yesterday I received 3 Letters from you by the 
Ship Wolfe Capt Kemp, one dated the 15 and two the 16 of 

Hon. James Habersham. i^p 

October last. The i6th Instant I wrote you pretty fully, 
which I sent to Mr Lambton to forward from Charlestown, 
I believe I mentioned in my last, that we had had 4 or 5 
days of the most severe weather, I ever knew in Georgia, 
and perhaps anywhere else, however, I am sure, I found it 
so. It began with a cold rain, which soon turned into a fro- 
zen sleet, afterwards snow, and which froze so intensely, that 
for 2 or 3 days, the Boys were sliding upon the sandy Streets 
and Squares of this Town. You will say this was an unusual 
Phenomenon in this Climate, and if it had continued much 
longer, it wou'd probably have produced fatal consequences 
among our Negroes. 

Mr Yonge has given me a Plat of Brunswick Town, and an- 
other with a prospect of St Simon's Bar on a smaller scale, 
in which he has been assisted by Capt Joiner, and thinks you 
may depend on it, but I am to let him have the Scout Boat, 
in order to make an actual Survey, which he hopes to finish 
to go by z\nderson, with the Plat of your Savannah Planta- 
tions. Capt Inglis will deliver you the Plans now sent. St 
Simons Bar appears to be the best on this Continent on this 
Side Virginia, and Mr Yonge ha^ proposed a dock yard near 
Brunswick, which perhaps may be worthy the (attention of 
Government. I know a 40 gun Ship came into St Simons 
Harbour and was there some time. I forgot her name, but 
I think she was also at Port Royal, and that our James 
Mackays Brother was an Officer on Board her. 

With my best Respects to your Family I remain 
Dear Sir 
Your Excellency's 

Faithfull Friend and Servant 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Governor of Georgia 
in Berney Street London 

Savannah in Georgia 31st December 1771 
Dear Sir 

Tomorrow Capt Inglis is to call for my Letters &c, 
and yesterday and today, I have been so much hurryed with 
various Business, that I sit down to write you another Letter 
at 9 O'clock at night. Enclosed I have sent you a certificate 
of Mrs Shoubsoles* Death and Burial ; I must beg you will 
excuse my not writing to your Son James, who I really re- 
spect, and if I can serve him, in what you mentioned about 
him, you may depend I will do it. No Person knows any- 

*Thl8 ■word is indistinct in the manuscript. 

j6o The Letters of 

thing about it, but Mr Graham and myself, and we shall con- 
sult about the best method of making the Proposition in due 
Time. I do not know, that I can write to Friend Knox by 
this Ship, but pray tell him, I will not be in his Debt, either 
in acts of Friendship or Correspondence. His Overseer has 
this moment been with me and all is well. 
The opposition are perfectly silent, except that some of them, 
I hear, begin to growl, about the want of an Assembly. Dont 
be afraid of me, I will not sufifer myself to be trampled on 
or the Kings Authority to be invaded. At present we are 
all in Peace, and have no Disputes of any kind. I en- 
deavour to do equal Justice and to be friendly to every one, 
high and low, and I do not hear any complaints of my Ad- 
ministration from any Quarter. In one of your former Let- 
ters you mentioned, that you did not know, but you could 
get me a Lieutenants Governor's Commission, which I made 
no reply to in my last Letters, being entirely satisfyed with 
your Friendship, and I really want no Preferment otherwise 
than it may enable me to discharge my Duty in a Public 
Capacity with more weight and may give me more Influence. 
I mention this, as our Friend J. G- some time agoe told me, 
that a Person in high Ofifice here said, that I was only Com- 
mander in Chief by Succession, and by no particular Favour 
from the Crown. This carried a Reflection I need not point 
out. I am hurryed out of Measure, and my Friends the Doc- 
tor and Mr Graham say, my close Application to Business 
will kill me. If the Indian Cession of the Lands should take 
place, and commissioners or any such should be necessary, 
Mr Graham has desired me, to mention Mr John Jamieson 
to you. He is an honest and Good man, and I am persuaded 
will not be forgot by you, tho' I suppose the Power of grant- 
ing those Lands, must, and cannot rest anywhere but in the 
Governor and Council. I mention this in compliance with 
my Friends request I am Dear Sir Your Excellency's Af- 
fectionate Friend and Servant — 

New Years day Morning 1772. I very heartily wish you and 
your Family many, very many happy Years. 

Hon. James Habersham. i6i 

To William Knox Esq Under Secretary of State to the rigiit 

Hon, The Earl of Hillsborough 

Savannah in Georgia the 15 Jany 1772 

Dear Sir. 

When I tell you, that you have not a Friend, who 
wishes your Welfare more, than I do, I must be truly con- 
cerned to hear of your want of health, and very sincerely 
wish it was in my power to relieve you. Since I received 
your letter of the 29th Septr last, I have not seen Mr Martin 
to deliver him your letter- In my late letters, I have written 
to you very fully about your office of Provost Marshall, in 
one of which, I enclose you a letter from Mr Simpson where- 
in he proposes to comply in every respect with the Terms 
ofifered you by Mr T- namely to give security to pay you an- 
nually in London £200 Sterling I have been told, that T- says, 
he is glad you did not accept his offer, but whether it may 
not be a Finess, I cannot say. 

Mr Graham has taken some pains to possess me with a fa- 
vourable opinion of your overseer, but I believe his late con- 
duct has made him think otherwise, and if I had had some- 
body proper to take his Place, I believe, I should yesterday 
have turned him away- He is very plausible and talkative, 
keeps a Journal of every days work, as he says, and from it, 
he gave me an account of 60 or 70,000 shingles more, than 
he had to deliver, which made me look very foolish, after 
having engaged them, The fact was, he had taken the Ne- 
groes Account of their daily work without further examina- 
tion, which he owned, after he found me determined to re- 
sent his imposing a Falsity upon me ; however I have for- 
given him, and have told him, if ever I find him again the 
least Prevaricating, I will instantly turn him adrift- He is 
Matthew R's own dear Townsman, x x x I shall write you 
again next week, and more fully answer your Letters, and 
am. Dear Sir 

Your Affectionate Friend and Servant 

To Henry Ellis in London 

Savannah In Georgia the 27 January 1772 
Dear Sir 

I have before me your Letter of the 20th July last, 
dated from Florence, and a copy, with a short line from Leg- 
horn the 1st of August following, and have now to acquaint 
you that I have finished the sales of all your Lands here. I 
suppose you know that the aid from Parliament for the En- 

i62 The Letters of 

couragement of the Silk Culture here is withdrawn, and that 
the Governor has no way of drawing on the Agent, except 
for his own Salary, which from the Law for purchasing your 
House, I cannot see, that he is under any obligations to do, 
and therefore I could not desire it. I have not now time to 
state your account, but it shall be soon done, and I shall to 
get your money in my Hands in England in the best manner 
I can, which I have ever done. I did not undertake your 
Business with any View of Profit, and I shall not now do it. 
I suppose you have heard of the Death of our Friend Col 
Harris about three months agoe. 

We have now near 40 square rigged Vessells 
before the Town, and this Province is making a rapid pro- 
gress in her Commerce, Wealth and Population, and from 
the Situation I am now in, you must suppose, I am loaded 
with Business. Indeed it increases daily and is really too 
much for me, however I shall endeavour to rub through it as 
well as I can. In the course of the ensueing Spring and Sum- 
mer, I will use every means to invest your Money in Lon- 
don. And am 

Dear Sir 

For some days past I have been most sorely afflicted 
with incessant cold, and it's with Difficulty, I hold up my 
head to write this Scrawl) 

To Messieurs Graham & Clark Savannah in Georgia 

Merchants in London the nth February 1772 

pr the Unanimity Capt Fox 


With this you will re- 
ceive Invoice and Bill of Lading for 200 whole and 18 half 
barrels Rice ship'd on board the Unanimity Capt Fox 
amounting to Six Hundred seventy six pounds three Shill- 
ings and one penny, which you will dispose of for my Ac- 
count- I think you will find it in general a very good parcel 
of Rice- It is principally of my own Growth, but there is 30 
barrells I borrowed, till I cou'd replace it, from 71 to 100, 
that I think is a little Dull, and slovenly put out of Hand, 
but the Grain is good and not broke- 

I desire you to charge 
me with the Ballance of my Son John's Account, and also 
to pay to my Sister Mrs Mary Bagwith of Whitby One Hun- 

Hon. James Habersham. i6j 

dred Pounds, when you are in Cash for my Rice- I have 
drawn no Bill on you, and I am afraid I shall not have even 
Time to write her by this Conveyance, tho' I much wish to 
do it- Capt Fox will deliver you two Miniature Pictures, 
one designed for me and the other for my Daughter-in Law, 
which I beg the favour of you to have conveyed to my Sister 
Bagwith, as its more than probable, that she may never see 
either of the Originals- I am told thay are both very in- 
dififerent Likenesses- My Daughter has a Delicacy about her 
Face that no Painter has yet hit upon, altho' attempted by 
different Persons in half lengths and Miniature, and mine 
has certainly a very gruff and surly Appearance, especially 
about the Mouth, which my Friends say is not like me, and 
I should be very sorry, that it was an Indication of my Heart 

To William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in London the nth February 1772 

pr the Unanimity Capt Fox 

Dear Sir 

I thought to have written to 
you a long letter by this opportunity, but a very shocking 
Circumstance has happened in my Family, that I could wish 
at present to be excused from putting Pen to Paper, as I 
am so much troubled and affected, that I can scarcely hold 
up my Head- A Mulatto Boy, who, with his Mother, I had 
given to my Son John, was bit with a Dog in the Cheek, 
about 14 Days before Xtmas, which shewed its Effect about 
2 days agoe, with more Horror, than I can express, and is, 
I believe, the first Instance of canine Madness, that has hap- 
pened in this Province- The Boy was in every respect worthy 
of regard, but that is of small Consideration with the Circum- 
stances of his Death, which has made such an Impression 
upon me, that I believe, will never be blotted out of my mem- 
ory- I have buryed near 80 Negroes, little and big, but their 
Deaths, I have received as common Accidents, and have ac- 
quiessed in the Dispensation of divine Providence, as I hope 
I do in this, but I cannot divest myself of Humanity- The 
Cries and Intreaties of the Mother begging her Child to be 
put to Death, the dreadfull shreiks of the Boy, and his more 
than pretty Behaviour in his taking leave of all around him, 
has rung such a Peal in my Ears, that I never can forget, 
and which it is impossible for me to describe, and hope never 

This letter further shows the sympathetic regard with which James Habersham held 
his slaves. He considers them here as elsewhere as "In my family." 

i6if. The Letters of 

to meet with the hke again- Dr Johnson, who attended him 
and called in the Faculty, was so distressed after the second 
Visit, that he was obliged to go to Bed- You know his 
Humanity and feelings- Our Friend John Graham and some 
others bore a very sensible part in the distressing Scene, and 
God knows, where it may end- I hope it may stop in my 
Family- There are some other People said to be bit by mad 
Dogs in Town, and the Council met at my House yesterday 
and this Morning, and by their advice ; and on consulting 
the Chief Justice and the Attorney General, I have issued 
a Proclamation and offered a Reward for every Dog that 
shall be killed within this Town, Hamlets and common for 
one month to come- It was published to-day, and will be 
in the Gazette to Morrow, which I wish I could send you- 
After mentioning this melanchody Affair, I am 
to acquaint you that I have shipt to Mr Nutt on Board the 
Unanimity Capt Fox 42 barrels of your rice amounting to 
£124.13. 4- I desired Mr Nutt to insure £125 on your ac- 
count, but as your Rice at the now Current Price does not 
amount to that Sum, I have charged Commissions which you 
know, I do not mean to take, in order to cover that Sum in 
case of loss, which you have a just right to ; and as I con- 
sider you not only as a Planter, but a Shipper, I have added 
the usual shipping Charge of 6d pr barrel, which you will 
not find in your account Current, but the real Charges I may 
pay such as Freight, Wharfage, weighing. Cooperage &c- 
This you will recollect on future occasions in similar In- 
stances- You know all Charges untill weighed are paid by 
the Planter, and the Charges afterwards to the Shipper is 
about 6d pr barrel, which is an established Rule among the 
Merchants to Charge 

I have purchased for you 50 barrels Rice at 
iiS pr ct, which I shall ship to Mr Nutt by a fine new Ship, 
the Friendship Capt Wm Carter, and shall desire Mr Nutt 
to insure £160 on the same- God bless you- I am my dear 

Yours &c 

Hon. James Habersham. 165 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Savannah. 

in Berner's Street London the 15th Febry 1772 

pr the Providence Capt Linthorne * 

Dear Sir 

Linthorne hurrys me so 
much to be gone, the Wind indeed being very fair, that I 
have only time to tell you, that the foregoing is Copy of my 
Letter of the nth Instant pr Capt Fox- I thought of writ- 
ing your Son Jemme a Line, but it is impossible- Nothing 
material has occurred since the foregoing- Doubtless Mr 
Graham will write you- We perfectly accord in every thing, 
and I am very happy in having him my Coadjutor, but you 
may see, that all your Business passes through my Hands, 
and indeed it must be, that one of us undertake to do it 
wholly, especially in Matters of Accounts, otherwise it would 
occasion Confusion- I much want to hear from you- My 
hearty respects to my young Friends in your Family- We 
almost daily drink all your Flealths- I am far from being 
well in Health, 1 think, I omit no Opportunity of writing to 
you, and I wish I could give more Attention to your Busi- 
ness, as I think I could make you a better Attorney, than I 
probably do a Commander in Chief of a Province, tho' I hope 
I shall not be charged with want of Attention to the latter- 
At present all Parties seem Contented with my Administra- 
tion, and I am persuaded, that on cool recollection, they must 
and do think you the best Governor, that ever Georgia has 
had, or probably may have in our Day- You know me above 

I am with great Sincerety, Dear Sir 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obed, humble Servt 

To James Wright Junr. Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in London the 17th February 1772 

enclosed in Govr Wright's letter 
of the 1st March following 

Dear Sir 

I have your two Fa- 
vours of the 31st August and i6th October last, both dated 
from London, now before me, and must request you will ex- 
cuse my not answering them sooner, wholly owing to a Load 

*James Habersham, as President of the Council, was Acting Governor in the absence of 
Governor Wright. Besides, as is here shown, he looked after Governor Wright's private 
business, which was extensive. 

i66 The Letters of 

of Business, which I find ahnost too heavy for me, and do 
with great Difficulty rub through, and I think it daily mul- 
tiplies- If I can do my Duty to my Sovereign, give Con- 
tent to my Friends and equal Justice to every one, Friend or 
Foe, I care not what any envious Snarlers may say or do, 
and such I suppose there are, tho' they do not at present 
appear- I should not make these Excuses for my not answer- 
ing your Letters sooner, if I did not believe, that you have 
a real Friendship for me, and pray believe that I have the 
same for you, and consequently that I value your Corres- 
pondence, which I hope you will continue to favour me with 

present I hear of no party Disputes in this Province, tho I 
am persuaded there is too much of the old Leaven of ran- 
cour remains with some People, which, tho' at present con- 
cealed, may and probably will hereafter shew itself, I am glad 
to understand from yourself, as well as from the public 
Prints, that the unnatural opposition to Government in Eng- 
land is daily losing Ground, which must always be the Event, 
when the Administration, as I believe ours is, is conducted 
with Candour and Justice- Every good Man must however 
lament, that at the same Time we are distroying our own 
Internal Peace, and like Vultures tearing out our own 
Bowels, we are weakening our Importance, if not rendering 
ourselves contemptible with every foreign Power, we are 
connected with 

In regard to what the Governor has wrote to me about a 
Future Agent, I am persuaded of the hearty Concurrence 
of the Council with me in the Nomination of the Person , but 
what a future Assembly may think of that Matter, it is im- 
possible for me even to conjecture, untill I know of whom 
it may consist, and I can only say, that every thing on my 
Part shall be done to bring about, what I most sincerely 
wish, however I think, that a Majority of the last Assembly 
may get reelected, if they chuse it, as the common People, 
who are the principal Electors are too easily blinded and 
imposed upon by the specious Pretence of Liberty and Pa- 

Mr Banks and Doctor Solander are Men of Character, it is 
no wonder the curious and inquisitive are impatient to see 
their remarks on their Voyage, which you say are in the 
Press, and as you are so kind as to say, you will send them 
to me, they must be very acceptable- And now, what am 
I to say to you about the News of Georgia?- We have no 

Hon. James Habersham. i6y 

Plays, Operas, or public Exhibitions, either in point of Lit- 
erature or Amusements, to animadvert upon- No Marri- 
ages, Deaths, or Births, that can afford you Entertainment 
or Pleasure, except that we have had some brilliant, Assem- 
blys, which I can assure gave me Pleasure to see, especially 
as those I was at, were conducted with Harmony and De- 
cency- The Chief Justice wrote me a long Letter on the 
Impropriety of their having the use of the Court Room, but 
his Objections did not strike me sufficiently to prevent their 
meeting there and I have yet seen no reason to alter my 

Our Harbor has made a very considerable Figure in ship- 
ping for about 6 Weeks past, and it has really surprised me 
to see so many of them so readily dispatched, and more are 
daily arriving- This is a very pleasing Consideration with 
me, as it affords a Prospect of our soon becoming a rich, 
commercial People- We have had severe Colds very gen- 
eral amongst us,- but I have not heard of it's having proved 
fatal in one Instance- 
Mr William Williamson Intely from Charleston told me this 
afternoon, that he believed, there were 2 or 3000 People there 
afflicted with it, but it was not fatal- I was one of the first, 
that had it here, and perhaps more severe, than any I have 
heard of- 

Be pleased to make me acceptable to your whole Family 
I am Dr Sir 
Your most Obedient, humble Servant 

To Miss Bella Wright in London Savannah in Georgia 

enclosed in her Father's Letter 27th February 1772 

My dear Miss Bella 

As I have no Prospect 
of seeing you again in Georgia, I cannot insist on the Per- 
formance of your Promise to me any where else, and do very 
heartily wish you every Degree of Happiness in any Engage- 
ment, you may enter into in England; but that I may have 
the Pleasure of frequently remembering you, I will take it 
as a Favour, if you will send me a Gold Finch, and a Linnet 
or two, and by these little feathered Innocents, I may fancy 
myself conversing with you- Pray send them in Iron Wire, 
and not brass Wire Cages, as I am told, the latter are apt 
to contract a Rust, or perhaps a kind of Verdigrease, which 
proves fatal to the Birds, who frequently ruli their Bills 

See letter dated Sept. 13, 1772, acknowledgin;; the receipt of the birds. 

i68 The Letters of 

against the Wire, and at the same Time, I must request you 
to send some Food for them ; and for this Favour, I will send 
you and Miss Nancy half a barrel of rice, and another to the 
Governor for him to present to his Friends, either from the 
Farm or Laurel Grove, which I will have nicely put out of 
Hand- You see I am very kind to make you a Present with 
your Father's Property- I am put in Mind of this by a re- 
quest of my Son Joe's to give him 3 or 4 barrels of my Rice 
to send to some of his Friends- Pray say every thing that is 
kind on my Behalf to Miss Nancy, who I truly respect, and 
if you will accept of an old Man's best wishes, you have them 
with great Sincerety, from, Dear Miss 

Your affectionate Friend and Servant 

I am told that Capt Anderson's Steward is a good 
Hand to send over Birds by, as he can give more attention 
to them, than the Captain- I think his Name is Thomas 
Mills, and if they are given in Charge to him, I am persuaded, 
he will oblige me bv taking Care of them 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Savannah in 
Governor of Georgia in Berners Street London Georgia 
pr the Industry Capt Furse for Cowes 12th March 1772 
Dear Sir 

This is the ist attempt 
I have made, to write a single Line for at least 14 days past, 
and I begin to think I shall hardly get through it, however 
my Son John will help me out- Last Monday the 9th The 
Election for this Town was held, when the former represen- 
tatives were chosen, without the least opposition, only 19 
Votes were given, and from the quiet appearance, as I am 
told throughout the Town, A man must have been at some 
Pains to know, that such a Transaction was on Foot- It is 
said the opposition were surprised, that none was made, and 
doubtless, they had room for many Conjectures- Had any 
opposition been made, its my opinion, that many of those, 
who formerly voted for the present Members would have de- 
signedly not appeared, as I am persuaded, that many of those 
poor People begin to suspect, that thay have been made 
Cats- Paws to carry on the sinister Views of a few design- 
ing Men- But it will take Time to eradicate the Prejudices, 

George Galphin was an Indian trader, living at Silver Bluff on the Savannah River be- 
low Augusta. He was one of the most influential and enterprising men of his times. See 
Jones' History of Georgia, Vol. 2, p. 137. 

Hon. James Habersham. i6g 

that they have imbibed, and has been so industriously pro- 
pagated among them for near 7 years past- I would not be 
understood, that if the Friends of Government had exerted 
their utmost Efforts, that they would have carried the Elec- 
tion here- I think they wou'd not, and a great Majority 
of the representatives will probably be of the same Texture- 
I have not said a Word about it, and neither will I interfere 
in the least 

March 14th 1772 
Here my Father stopped, not being able to go any farther, 
having had a fresh Attack of the Gout in his left arm and 
Hand, which is very painfull to him, and he is weaker and 
more unable to do Business than ever I saw him, however 
I shall go on as he may dictate 

I have sat as long as possible, and I hope 
you will excuse the loose Hints I have dictated to my Son- 
You know that I am not deficient in writing, and if I have 
one or tw^o such Attacks more as I now labour under, I am 
afraid I shall not be able to serve you, my other Friends, my 
Family, and the Public much longer- There is a Period to 
every thing 

March i6th 
I am still painfully confined, and my Doctor and my other 
Friends say that I must not think of Business of any kind, 
that my Disorder principally lays on my Stomach and Spirits, 
and till they are at rest, I cannot expect to get better- To 
day I was carried into a Chair and rode about 3 Miles, back- 
ward and forward- Confinement is the most dreadfuU Pun- 
ishment that can be inflicted on me, and I begin to suspect 
that I must be content to drag out a painfull Life in the best 
Manner I can Just as I was writing this, your Letters of 
the 1st and 10 Inst came to Hand while Mr Graham was 

I have not yet Collated Mr Lowten, as the Parish 
are so very much divided in their Opinion of him- He is cer- 
tainly a very smooth and pleasing Preacher, deals In general 
Truths, and makes the road smooth to another Country- 
In private his Conduct is unexceptionable, and I think he 
labours to promote Peace and Harmony with all around him, 
and to assist Government, both In Word and Doctrine- 
After the last Murder of one of the Irish Setlers by an In- 
dian, I was informed, that the Sons of the deceased had pub- 
lickly given out, that they wou'd kill the first Indian, that 
come into their Settlement, And in the Manner it was told 
me, I was sure such a Declaration had been made, and it 

ijo The Letters of 

made such an Impression upon me, that I did not lose a 
Moment to write to Mr Galphin, which I sent by an Express, 
expatiating in the strongest Terms Words cou'd paint the 
bad Consequence of such a Conduct, and requested him in 
the most earnest Manner to go among them, and advise 
them to desist from any such rash step, and that if they did 
not and any Murder happened, I wou'd use every means in 
my power to have them hanged- I Hkewise wrote the same 
to the Magistrates of Augusta in Language, I suppose, thev 
well understood, I only meant for the lower People among 

I had one of the People down here, who killed the Indian 
at the Ocoones, and I sent him to the Chief Justice to bind 
him over to the Session, but he was allowed to go out and 
seek for Bail for his Appearance, but instead of returning, 
he went away, and I believe left the Province for some Time- 
I have since heard of him, but had he been brought to a Tryal, 
I am persuaded, he wou'd have been acquitted 
It seems hard to bind over People by a Treaty the Indians 
have paid no regard to in any one Instance, and to punish 
them for defending their Property against Savages, who with 
Arms and Violence rob them at Noon Day- This is the real 
state of the Case, and to speak plainly, it is a matter of Won- 
der that no more Mischief is done by our Injured People to 
these Savage Robbers, and shews that our People have some 
regard to the general W^elfare- In a well regulated Govern- 
ment Justice should be equally administered, and Property 
equally protected- Our People have com.plained, but I do 
not know in one Instance that ever any redress was obtained 
for them from the Indians by Talks and representations 
from Government- What Relief thay have ever got has been 
by pursuing the Indians, and recovering their stolen Prop- 
erty- This is certainly not Government, and I can see no 
way to prevent this Conduct, but our being in a Situation 
not only to demand but to enforce Justice from the Indians- 
Every thing is very quiet in the back Country, and our Set- 
lers perhaps were never more orderly, and I am led to men- 
tion these Matters from some Hints in your last Letters 
which you know to be true- I am getting easier, and as soon 
as I can, I will write to Lord H- h- I cannot say to him, what 
comes uppermost, as I do you- Could you excuse me to His 
L- d- p- I am sure, if he knew the Distress I have been in 
he wou'd readily do it- I am obliged to Friend K- x for his 
Friendly and candid Letters, which I shall pay a proper re- 
gard to- I shall see Weatherly to-morrow- 

Hon, James Habersham. lyz 

I fancy he will begin to plant sooner, than I can, and as soon 
as Gray can- I am, Dr Sir 

Your mo : Ob't Servt 

To His Excellency James Wright. Esqr 
in London, pr the Friendship, Capt Carter 

Savannah in Georgia 

the 28th Mar 1772 
Dear Sir 

Yesterday Morning Lord 
and Lady Charles Montagu left this Town, after a Visit of 
5 days- They took up their Quarters with me and were, 
very agreeable and easy Guests. We had a most brilliant 
Assembly on Wednesday last and a genteel Supper, and they 
both told me, they should not forget their visit to Georgia, 
which had been the most agreeable of any Tour they had made, 
since they knew America- Mr Graham and some others did 
everything they cou'd to shew them Respect, and altho' I 
was unable to rise from or sit down without help on a Chair, 
they wou'd have me with them, notwithstanding I was oblig- 
ed to be lifted about with no little Trouble to myself and 
others- I am now getting better, after almost 2 Months 
trying Sickness, first, with the most severe Cold, I ever ex- 
perienced, which probably brought on and was succeeded 
iDy a most violent Attack of the Gout- I had it to a prodig- 
ious degree in both my Hands, Arms, Shoulders, and almost 
every joint about me, and I think such another Fit will fin- 
ish me- It was very afflicting to me to be obliged to put ofif 
signing official Papers, which however were left with me, 
and at every easy Moment, I made a shift to sign them, and 
what Letters, T was obliged to write, I did by dictating to my 
Son John- I wish you was here to take the Government 
from me, as I am afraid my infirm state of Health will make 
it, with my other Business, too much for me to get credit- 
ably through, 

To the Right Honorable the Earl of Hillsborough one of his 
Maicsties Principal Secretaries of State- Whitehall- 
Savannah 24th April 1772- 

My Lord 

I have the pleasure to inform your Lordship, that I 
have received a Talk from the lower Creek Indians, which 
with my answer is enclosed, wherein they acquaint me, that 

IJ2 The Letters of 

agreeable to my requisition in a talk, I sent them the 9th 
Day of December last, a Copy of which I enclosed in my let- 
ter N. 7, to your Lordship, they have put to Death the In- 
dian, who murdered John Carey, a late inhabitant of Queens- 
borough ; a circumstance, that is extremely favorable, as it 
clearly demonstrates their friendly disposition to live in 
peace with us, and, from their conduct on such occasions, 
since I have known the province is more than I flattered my- 
self, they would have done, being I believe the first instance 
of the kind, in consequence of a requisition from this gov- 
ernment- In justice to Mr Galphin, who has undoubtedly 
very great influence, especially with the lower Creeks, I 
must acquaint your Lordship that he has greatly assisted 
in bringing about this instance of justice from the Indians, 
and I hope it will have the happy consequence of making 
their stragling people who are the principle cause of all the 
disturbances, that happen between us and the Creeks, more 
careful how they attempt to kill, insult and rob our inhabi- 
tants- I must further observe to your Lordship that it ap- 
pears to me, the Indians are afifraid of our stopping the 
Trade with them^ and that is very probable the hint, I threw 
out in my Talk on that head, was the principle motive for 
their giving the satisfaction I required- I have wrote to Mr 
Galphin, and have also requested some of the Magistrates of 
Augusta, who are now in this Town, to admonish our in- 
habitants in the strongest terms to avoid every occasion of 
giving the least ofifence to the Indians, by doing them any 
injury ; that if they did, I would do everything in my power 
to have them punished with the utmost severity the law will 
inflict ; that the Indians had now set us an example of strict 
Justice, and we must do the same, otherwise we should give 
them just cause to insult & despise us, and in that case, I 
could not with the least propriety require satisfaction for 
any injury done by them to our people. 

In my last letter No 9 I had the honor of writing 
to your Lordship, I observed that I expected in a few days 
to see some of the principle Merchants concerned in supply- 
ing the Indian Trade from Augusta, when I should have a 
full conversation with them about the lands proposed to be 
ceded by the Indians, but as this very momentous afifair to 
the welfair of this province, and I think I may justly add to 
our commercial interest with our parent country, took it's 
rise before the Administration of this Government devolved 
upon me, I thought I might mistake in not being so fully 
possessed of the matter from the beginning, and therefore 

Hon. James Habersham. lyj 

I desired these Gentlemen to state it in writing, which they 
have done and 1 now transmit a copy of it to your Lordship, 
and from the best information, 1 can get, it appears to me, 
that if Mr Stuart was to to have a meeting with the Creeks 
at Augusta, especially those of the lower Towns, they would 
readily join in the Cession of those valuable lands which are 
of the greatest importance to this Colony, altho of very little, 
if any to them- 

I beg leave to observe to your Lordship, that besides 
the very material Articles of Commerce, Hemp & Tobacco, 
these lands are peculiarly adapted to produce, I am persuad- 
ed, they are equally, if not more so in regard to Indigo & 
Silk, which are portable at a very easy expence at a great 
distance, but this is not the case with the former bulky and 
less valuable articles, and it has many years been my opinion, 
that if ever the Silk Culture becomes a considerable Branch 
of Commerce here, it must be done in the back country, 
where the lands from their fertility and healthy situation, can 
be profitably cultivated by, and admit of a great number of 
white people without the assistance of Negroes, which can- 
not be done for a considerable distance from the Sea Coast, 
where rice is the principal staple commodity, and the lands 
being flat and moist, and especially those that are proper for 
the Cultivation of rice, on which stagnated water is some- 
times necessarily kept, causes the white inhabitants in par- 
ticular to be subject to severe Autumnal Fevers, and con- 
sequently shortens their lives, and as they canont be advan- 
tageously improved, but by people, who can purchase a num- 
ber of Negroes, and many plantations from their peculiar 
situation require a large extent of land for reservoirs to 
water their fields, and other purposes, they are neither fa- 
vourable to population, nor suitable to people in middling 
circumstances to cultivate- These inconveniences, the back 
country is not liable to, which is evident from the great in- 
crease of people there, both in this and the neighboring prov- 
ince of So Carolina where the white inhabitants are perhaps 
Ten fold the number on the same compass of land, than they 
are near the Sea Coast- Upwards of Twenty years ago, if 
my memory does not fail me, Samuel Lloyd Esqr of London, 
who was one of the late Trustees for establishing this Colony, 
and was fourteen years in Italy, and very largely concerned 
in the Silk business, wrote to me, that the best silk was pro- 
duced at a distance from the Sea Coast, owing I suppose to 
the richness of the soil, which made the Mulberry leaf more 
glutinous, nutritive and healthy to the silk worm, also to 

ly^- The Letters of 

their not being obnoxious to Musketoes & Sandflies in these 
parts to annoy them, and likewise probably to the weather 
being more equal and less liable to sudden transitions from 
heat to cold ; and on a conversation this day with Mr Bar- 
nard of Augusta, he assures me, that from two years exper- 
ience in raising Cocoons there, he lost none from sickness, 
which frequently destroys two thirds of the worms here, and 
that the Cocoons he sent down to be reeled here, having no 
conveniency of doing it there, Mr Attolenghe told him, the' 
they were baked to kill the Chrysalis, which is a great disad- 
vantage to the Silk, that it made the strongest and most wiry 
thread of any raised in these parts- I hope I shall be ex- 
cused for troubling your Lordship with these remarks, which 
I have thrown together from a desire of promoting this valu- 
able culture, and I am persuaded it can only be done, where 
there are a number of white people of middling circum- 
stances, and if these observations are found to be true in 
Italy, the same cause must doubtless produce the same ef- 
fects, and will consequently point out the value of our back 
country for the production of silk and other articles 1 have 
mentioned, and many more might be added. I have the 
honor to be 

Mv Lord &c- &c 

J. H. 

To the Right Honourable the Earl of Savannah in 

Hillsborough one of His Majesty's Georgia the 30th 

Principal Secretarys of State Whitehall April 1772 

pr Brig Industry Capt Kenny 

Duplicate pr Mr Hall in the Union Capt Coombes 

My Lord 

The 2 1st Inst, I met the 
General Assembly, and am very sorry to inform your Lord- 
ship, that after a fruitless Attempt on my Part to make the 
Commons House sensible of their Duty to the King, in ac- 
knowledging His Majesty's just, undoubted and indisputable 
Right to negative a Speaker and their Folly in attempting to 
violate our happy Constitution, I failed, and was obliged to 
dissolve them as your Lordship will observe by a Copy of 
the Journals of both Houses, which I now transmit to your 

This letter records in detail one of those si^tnitloant events which was prophetic of the 
Revolution soon to follow. At this critical time the courage of Habersham and the rising 
spirit of self-KOvernment on the part of the common people equally compel our admiration. 
See Jones' History of Georgia, Vol. 2, pp. 122-126. 

Hon. Jatnes Habersham. ly^ 

On the clay the Assembly met, they 
elected Mr Noble Wimberly Jones their Speaker, of which 
about noon two of their Members as usual were sent to in- 
form me, and I acquainted them, that I should again be in 
the Council Chamber at 5 O'clock in the Afternoon, when 
they should have my answer, accordingly I went there, and 
two of their Members being sent to receive my answer, I 
did, in obedience to His Majesty's Commands, put a nega- 
tive on him and directed them to proceed to the Choice of 
another- Soon after, I was informed they had re-elected said 
Mr Jones, upon whom I put a second Negative- The fol- 
lowing day I went to the Council Chamber with intention 
to dissolve the Assembly, if they persisted in their Choice, 
and was informed, that they had elected Mr Archibald Bul- 
loch their Speaker, and on his being presented, I approved 
of him and made my Speech- In the Evening. I sent for 
their Journals, and observing, that immediately before their 
election of Mr Bulloch, they had reelected Mr Jones a third 
time, and that only in consequence of his resigning, they 
had chose Mr Bulloch, I sent for him the next morning, and 
told him, that I could not proceed on Business with the 
house while that Minute was suffered to remain on their 
Journals- This being St George's day, and an Anniversary 
of a Society, of which many of the Assembly were Members, 
the House did not meet to do Business, and at the Request 
of the Speaker I did not go to the Council Chamber untill . 
the next day in the Evening, as he wished to have sufficient 
Time to inform the Members of my Objections-The follow- 
ing day, I sent the House a written Message, that if they 
would not recede from this Minute, I would proceed to a 
Dissolution, and require their immediate answer, to which 
they sent me, what they called a Message, which T woud 
not receive, that they had appointed a Committee to meet 
in the Afternoon to draw up an Address in answer thereto, 
which they did not doubt woud be satisfactory- Soon after 
two of the Members waited upon me at my House, desiring 
as usual to know when I would be waited upon by the House 
with their Address in answer to my Speech, and at the same 
time offered me a Copy, I told them I neither could nor 
would proceed to Business with them untill I had an answer 
to my Message of this morning-My answer I find is omitted 
to be entered on their Journals- I went to the Council 
Chamber in the Afternoon, when the Assembly presented 
me with an Address in answer to my Message, which I 
thought evasive, and accordingly I dissolved them, and my 

1^6 The Letters of 

reasons, your Lordship will find at large in the Journals 
of the Upper House- This I think my Lord is a full and 
clear state of the Transactions 1 had with the Assembly 

I must now crave your Lordship's Indul- 
gence, while I relate the Motives for my Conduct on this 
Occasion- It appeared to me, that my putting a Negative 
on the Speaker elected by the Assembly, without their know- 
ing the Reason, woud have thrown them into a Flame, and 
by no means answered the Intention of His Majesty, which 
I considered as a Test of their Obedience to the just and 
indisputable Right of the King's Representative to put such 
Negative, and therefore after I was acquainted with their 
Election of a Speaker, I gave the answer I have before men- 
tioned, that I should be in the Council Chamber at 5 O'clock, 
when they should have my answer, that in the meantime, I 
might have an opportunity of informing several of the Mem- 
bers, that I had it in Command from His Majesty to nega- 
tive the Person, they should elect for Speaker, which I did, 
and in particular I informed Mr Jones that I was ordered 
to do so in consequence of the unwarrentable and rash Reso- 
lution the late House entered into in April 1771. which not 
only called in Question but in fact denyed the right of the 
King's Representative to negative a Speaker, hoping it 
woud have the desired Effect, accordingly I put a Negative 
on Mr Jones and like wise I did it a Second Time on his re- 
election, when perhaps I ought to have immediately proceed- 
ed to a Dissolution but as I knew, there were several new 
Members, who might be unacquainted with the true purport 
of the Kings Instructions to me, I ventured to do it- The 
following day Mr Bulloch was presented to me as Speaker, 
and I truly understood it was to acknowledge His Majesty's 
undoubted right to negative a Speaker, I approved of him, 
but on perusing their Journals in the Evening, and finding, 
they had re-elected Mr Jones a third Time, and that in con- 
sequence of his resignation of the Chair, they elected Mr 
Bulloch, I proceeded, as I have before related to your Lord- 
ship, and I further beg leave to observe to your Lordship, 
that I proceeded on no Business with the Assembly, except 
making my Speech to them after their presenting and my 
Approbation of Mr Bulloch as their Speaker, sending them 
a written Message on Saturday morning to rescind the Min- 
ute, I had objected to, and my Speech on dissolving them 

Permit me to assure your Lord- 
ship, that if I have committed any Error in my Conduct with 
this Assembly, by endeavouring to bring them to a sense 

Hon. James Habersham. lyy 

of their Duty, it has proceeded from the purest Motives to 
promote His Majesty's Service, and the Welfare of this Prov- 
ince, and if it should meet with His Majesty's Disapproba- 
tion, I shall most dutifully submit- Your Lordship will ob- 
serve, that in my Speech, I was rather general in recommend- 
ing Business to the Assembly, wishing to make the Session 
as agreable and consequently as short as possible, at this 
very hot and inconvenient Season of the Year, altho' I had 
some important Things to communicate to them, which I pro- 
posed to do by Message, and of which they could not be un- 
acquainted, hoping that some Means might be fallen upon 
to afford some temporary Relief, untill those Matters could 
be maturely considered, and more effectually provided for, 
and I beg leave to mention a few of them, which I hope from 
their apparent Importance to the immediate Safety and wel- 
fare of the Province will apologize for the Conduct I persued 
to avoid if possible a Dissolution 

A few days before the Assembly met, I received 
a Letter from the Chief Justice, informing me, that two no- 
torious Offenders committed to the public Goal had broke 
out and made their Escape, and that one of them had broke 
out before last December Sessions, and by that means prob- 
ably escaped being hanged, of which he thought I ought to 
have the earliest Notice, in Case I should think proper to 
call a Council, and issue a Proclamation offering a Reward 
to apprehend them, which I did, that such was the ruinous 
state of the Goal, that he did not expect any Criminal woud 
be brought to Justice, untill a place of more safety was pro- 
vided, that therefore this Province must necessarily become 
a rendevous for all Horse Stealers and Criminals from the 
neighboring Provinces, and such Offenders woud undoubt- 
edly fly to that Country, where they were safe from Punish- 
ment, that the present Wooden Hutt, improperly called a 
Goal, was not secure enough to confine an Infant, and if the 
Legislature woud not build a Goal they must thank them- 
selves for the Consequences of it, that he was concerned to 
think that all criminal Justice was at an End, since, notwith- 
standing the number of Commitments, no Criminal can be 
brought to Justice for want of a proper Place to confine 
them- This, My Lord, is a true state of the present Place, 
called a Goal, and the consequences mentioned must naturally 
follow and I thought of urging it in my Speech, but. on con- 
sidering it, as a Matter of Expence, and probably that woud 
occasion Altercation, which I thought some of the Assembly 
woud improve to inflame on setting out, and wishing to re- 

iy8 The Letters of 

move every Obstacle in my Power, that might impede my 
entering on Business with them, I desired the Chief Justice 
to state it in a Memorial to me, and the same I desired the 
Acting Provost Marshall to do, both which I intended to 
send by Message to the Assembly, if I had gone upon Busi- 
ness with them, and for the same Reason I omitted to take 
notice in my Speech of the state of Fort George at Coxspur, 
now in total Ruin, tho' so necessary for the Protection of this 
Port and Shipping, and especially to inforce some of our 
very national Laws, which Capt Powell who commanded 
there, woud have set forth in a Memorial to me, which I like- 
wise propose to communicate to the House by Message- 
The Work House, another matter of Expence, and a very 
necessary one, for confining and punishing fugitive and Crim- 
inal Slaves, is also in the same Condition with the Goal, and 
lately a number of them twice broke out and escaped, and 
one of them was under sentence of Death, charged with a 
most attorcious Robery- The watch Duty in this Town, the 
Continuence of which, I particularly recommended in my 
Speech, must for anything I can see, very soon cease, as I 
have no way of supporting the Expence, and from the great 
Resort, of Negroes here, the want of it, may be attended 
with very serious Consequences- I need not mention the 
very great Hardship the public Creditors labour under for 
want of Payment, which I believe many of them very sen- 
sibly feel, and complain of- Besides these apparent incon- 
veniences to the Province it is propagated, and I am certain 
believed by a great Number of the Inhabitants, that several 
of our capital local Laws are expired, and not in Force, and 
particularly the Militia which I am informed is the language 
of some of the Officers, and others are afraid of ordering the 
usual Musters, for fear of being troubled with vexatious 
Suits in case of refusal or Contumacy of Persons not ap- 
pearing, and as it has been usual to have a General Muster 
on the King's birth day, of the first Regiment of Foot Mili- 
tia, in this Town, it has been mentioned to me by all the 
Field Officers, that it woud be inconvenient to have a General 
Muster on that day, on Account of the Sultry heat of the 
Weather, which might prejudice the People's Health, and 
therefore submitting, whether it might not be postponed 
to a more temperate Season, but as I think, I am not mis- 
taken in their Motives for this Hint, I shall put it to the Test, 
and order a general Muster as usual 

I have, My Lord, mentioned these Cir- 
cumstances, and more might be added to account for my 

Hon. James Habershatn. lyp 

Tenderness in not hastily preceding to a Dissolution, as I 
clearly foresaw the Consequences, that would attend it- Your 
Lordship will please to observe by the Journals of the As- 
semly, that Mr Jones was unanimously elected Speaker the 
first time, in which those Members, who were Friends of 
Government must have concurred, and I may perhaps with 
certainty say, from an Opinion, that I should at any Rate 
put a Negative upon him, in which they were not mistaken, 
on his being elected a second time, it appears not to be unani- 
mous, and the third Election being so I understand, proceed- 
ed from their being made to believe, that on Mr Jones' re- 
signing, the Point woud be settled, but in this they were 
deceived as Mr Jones insisted on his private Reasons for 
such Resignation being entered on their Journals, which I 
am informed, those, who opposed his second Election, did 
not expect 

I much suspect My Lord, that Mr Jones and the 
few Persons, who are immediately connected with him in op- 
posing the Public Business, are actuated to do it from self- 
interested and malevolent Motives, which they are ashamed 
publickly to avow, and notwithstanding they have had the 
influence to get a Majority of, I must think, ignorant altho' 
honest Men in the late Assembly to join them, under the 
specious pretence of Liberty and Privilege, yet I am per- 
suaded, that the wisest and best Men in the Province do not 
entertain an Idea, that the King's Representative has not 
an undoubted right to negative a Speaker, and I have not 
heard that Mr Jones and his Party say the same in direct 
Terms, and your Lordship will please to observe by the Jour- 
nals of the Assembly, that they have artfully endeavoured to 
leave the Matter doubtfull so as not to make a precedent 
in future of their having acknowledge his Majesty's just right 
of Negative 

My Lord it is very painfull to me to 
say or even to insinuate a disrespectfull Word of any one, 
and every Person, who knows me, will acknowledge, that it 
is contrary to my Disposition to dip my Pen in Gall, but I 
cannot help considering Mr Jones's Conduct for some time 
past in oposing Public Business, as very ungratefuU and un- 
worthy of a good Man, as his Family have reaped more Ad- 
vantages from Government, than any I know in this Prov- 
ince, xxxxxxxxxxxxx Governor Wright in his 
Speech to the Assembly in October 1770 recommended our 
Finances and public Accounts to be examined into, but that 
Assembly was dissolved in February following, and no Step 

i8o The Letters of 

taken therein, and many People suspect, that this very neces- 
sary Examination operates with some to retard and impede 
Business- I certainly meant to recommend this Inquiry to 
the late Assembly in the strongest Terms, and as we have 
now no Assembly, I shall require the Treasurer to lay before 
me in Council a clear Account of the Produce of our Funds, 
also of the Certificates, that have been issued for dififerent 
Services, and of every Account, that may be necessary to 
possess me with a State of the Treasury, and after that is 
done, I shall persue such Measures as I may see necessary 
for the Service of His Majesty and the Province, and may 
be advised to by the Council, of which I shall inform your 

Upon the Whole, My lord, I hope 
my not hastily proceding to a Dissolution will have the happy 
Effect of opening the People's Eyes, and shew them that 
Mr Jones and the few who are connected with him, and who 
unhapily for this Province, have for a considerable time past 
misled a Majority of the Assembly, must have some private 
and interested purposes to serve, by thus repeatedly impeding 
public business, which they cloak under the pretence of pub- 
lic good, and I have reason to believe that the people in gen- 
eral are very much dissatisfied with their Conduct. I have 
the Honor to be with the highest Respect, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

Most Obedt and very humble Servt 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr 

pr Mr Hall in the Union, Capt Coombes Savannah in 

Georgia 30th May 1772 
Dear Sir 

I thank you for un- 
dertaking the Cause of the Orphan House, now truly an 
Orphan, which I find by your Letters, as also another from 
Lord and Lady Huntingdon, lately received- It was some- 
time ago industriously rumoured here, that it was to go to 
Mr Whitefield's Heirs, and indeed by a Letter I received 
from Her Ladyship, about the same time she wrote to me 
almost in the same Terms, and in a Strain, I did not relish, 
and understand, and have not answered it, but Pier Ladyship's 
last Letter is kind and affectionate, and therefore I shall as 
kindly reply- I am between 2 and £300 in Advance for that 
House- When this report first prevailed, there were about 
16 Boarders, and every thing appeared to go on agreeably. 

Hon. James Habershatn. i8i 

but on Mr Lowten's proposing to keep a School, and it be- 
ing propagated, that the Scheme of a College or School 
wou'd come to nothing, the Children were by Degrees with- 
drawn, untill reduced to Mr Graham's and Clay's Sons, and 
Mr Langworthy concluding, that he could not at present be 
of use, came to Town, and has now opened a School with 
Mr Holmes, in which I believe, they meet with Success, and 
the Parson has also another in his Library- As it at present 
appears to me, I think Lady Huntingdon wou'd promote its 
Interest best, by giving it up to be the Public, as the best 
means of its meeting with Support, and rendering it usefull- 
In this I only give my Opinion, and by no means wish or 
intend to dictate. Mr Lowten gains the Aflfections of his 
Parishioners more and more- He is confessedly clever in 
the Pulpit, and has perhaps not many Equals- His private 
Conduct is, I believe, unexceptionable, both as a Gentleman 
and a Christian, and the Tongues of his Opposers seem to be 
stoped- In his Public Exhibitions, he does not touch, on 
matters of Government, and in private, if he mentions his 
Opinion, it has been as far as I have seen, in its Favour and 
Support, and at the request of a great Majority of the Ves- 
try, and the general Sense of the best of his Parishioners, 
I have collated him, something in the Manner you did Mr 
Frink, and some weeks after at his own request, he subscrib- 
ed what is prescribed by Law, which he did and declared be- 
fore me in writing at my House, which I have in my Pos- 
session, and afterwards went to Church, and read the 39 
Articles, and publickly declared his Assent and Consent to 
them, and then read the written Declaration made before 
me, which he signed, and my Certificate that he had so done- 
This latter Transaction was of a Sunday- At first I was at a 
loss to know the meaning of this, which he explained that 
N. W. J. and some few of his secret Friends had got Burns 
Eclesiastical Law, and given out, that his Living was ipso 
facto void, without he complyed with these requisites within 
a certain Time, so that you see, every thing is to be made 
a party Affair- I am now glad it is done, because it has put 
an End to all further Intrigues in this matter, and I have not 
the least doubt of Mr Lowtens giving Content, even to 
those, who first Opposed him- 

I know not what 
we can do with your Coach and Charriott, and think they 
cannot be sold here- If they were to be put up at Public 
Sale, it wou'd be treated as a Burlesque The precaution I 
took, and caused to be strickly adhered to about the small 

i82 The Letters of 

Pox, had answered the purpose, and there is not the least 
Appearance of it in this Province 

You seem to be surprized, that I 
should complain of being so much hurryed with Business and 
that I had nothing- to do but A. B. C, common Business- I 
believe it is so with you, but with me it is indeed far other- 
wise- You had been long practised in the usual Business, 
that necessarily arises in Government, and every thing was 
plain and easy to you- It is not so with me, for conscious 
of my falling far very far short of your Abilities, I act, in 
every step I take with doubt and fear- You say you grow 
old, but I feel I do so, and while you was here, I scarcely 
knew any one, who enjoyed a better state of Health, which 
is not my Case, and you cannot well conceive with what 
Difficulty, I write this Letter- My last fit of the Gout has, 
I am afraid, given an irreparable Shock to my Constitution, 
and I know of nothing, that wou'd alleviate my Complaint 
more, than being freed from the honorable Cares of Govern- 
ment, and taking a Trip perhaps to England, or being in 
less carefull Business, than Government for which one is 
particularly answerable- I have in one of my former Letters 
told you, that I could make you a better Attorney, than a 
Commander in Chief of Georgia, and as I am afraid my 
Health will not allow me to discharge the latter, in a manner 
I wish to do, I do most heartily wish you wou'd come over, 
and take the Reins from me, and if you will accept of the Ac- 
comodations of my House, during your stay here, I shall 
think myself obliged, and in that Case, you need not bring 
over any Furniture, or plague yourself with House-keeping, 
and if my trifling Carriages may not suit you, which shall 
always be at your Command, you need only bring over a very 
light post Charriott- I mention this on a Supposition, that 
you will not bring your Family from England, and that con- 
sequently your stay here will not be long, say six, nine, or 
twelve Months- You know I have Servants, that know how 
to spread a Table handsomely- I give you this Invitation, 
not as a Matter of Form, but from the bottom of my Heart- 

I have received the 
Fish Hooks and Lines you sent- I gave Peter one Line and 
six of each of the Hooks, and the rest I sent to Weatherly,- 
I do not recollect seeing any of your Georgia Laws, and 
Johny has examined among all the loose Papers &c, I picked 
up in your Study, and I cannot find one- 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Your Excellency's & C 

Hon. James Habersham. i8^ 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr Savannah in 
Governor of Georgia, in Berners Street Georgia the 6th 
London, pr Mr Hall in the Union June 1772 

Capt Coombes Dear Sir 

The 1st In- 
stant Mr Graham and Mr Hall returned from Charlestown, 
where they had been about 14 days, and the former brought 
me two Packetts from Lord Hillsborough- 
His Lordship's Letters were dated the 5th & 8th February, 
and both the Original and Duplicates with the several In- 
closures came all together- I suppose my Letters from the 
Secretary of State are enclosed to the Governor of Carolina, 
and Stevens the Post Master, who I hear is since dead, told 
Mr Graham, that the Governor did not send my Packett to 
Office, untill after the Southern Post was dispatched, and 
that he did not think himself authorized to send it by a pri- 
vate Hand the Post came here the 26th April, and by the 
Carolina Papers, I find Lord Charles notifyed the Princess 
Dowager's death the 23d said Month, but I could not do it 
here, untill I received public Orders- The Detention of 
Public Letters is very disagreeable, and may be attended 
with bad Consequences 

The 3rd Instant Capt 
Anderson arrived, and brought me your Letters of the loth 
of said Month- They both sailed from the Downes together 
and arrived here within a day of each other- I am extremely 
sorry to hear of your late severe Illness, and am truly thank- 
full to God to hear of your recovery- Mr Nutt, Mr Clark 
and Mr Knox have very strikingly mentioned vour late dan- 
gerous Situation in their Letters to me 

The King's birth day proved very favorable, 
the Sun being overcast, and the Weather rather cool and 
pleasant- The light Infantry made a good Appearance as 
usual, and went through their Exercise to the Satisfaction 
of myself and many present- Coll Delegall said, they per- 
formed as well as the Regulars- 

Afterwards I went to the Council Chamber, and then to the 
usual place of Parade, where I was surprised to see so re- 
spectable an Appearance, I believe as many as you have 
commonly seen in the Field, to the very great disappoint- 
ment of those, who had given out, that we had no Military 
Law, altho' more than one half of them, who should have 
appeared were absent- Afterwards I had a Meeting with 

The failure of many of the people to turn out upon the King's birthday is another sign 
of the times. 

184. The Letters of 

the Officers at my House and desired them to hold a Court 
Marital, and to fine all the Absentees, whose Excuse they 
could not admit, which they promised to do, and as some had 
declared that they woud stand Trial, rather than pay the Fine, 
I desired thay woud fix on some Person, who was able to 
bear the Expence, and I woud support the defence of the 
Officers out of my own Pockett, that we may know upon 
what Ground we stand, which I was also promised should 
be done- At dinner in the Court House, which Mrs Minis 
provided, there were 73 or 74 Persons- I invited as you did 
last Year, the Members of the late Assembly, and I saw none 
of them absent, that were within the reach of Mr Bolton to 
invite, but Doctor Jones, Bryan, Bulloch, & Leconte, who 
were in Town & the day was spent with great good Humour 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr 
Governor of Georgia, in Berners Street Savannah in 
London, pr Mr Hall in the Union Georgia the 

Capt Coombes 13th June 1772 

Dear Sir 

I sit down with great pleas- 
ure to acquaint you, that after a long drought, we have now 
very fine Rains, and an Appearance of their continuing, they 
are gentle, and the parched Earth must drink them up, with- 
out running off- Your Fields look well here- I thought I 
had fully answered all your Letters in mine of the 20th and 
30th Ulto, and 6th Instant, but find I have omitted to answer 
a Question you put, whether there woud be setlers enough 
offer to take up and purchase the Lands, if ceded,- I answer 
in the affirmative, as I am well informed, there are hundreds 
of reputable and industrious Families waiting to settle, when 
the Cession may take place- I had on Application in writ- 
ing from two Presbyterian Congregations in North Carolina, 
and signed by 360 Men, principally Heads of Families, who 
will bring undoubted Testimonials of their good Characters, 
requesting a reserve of those Lands of 20 Miles square, to 
settle at least two Large Congregations- Three of the Heads 
of them were with me, and appeared to be decent, sensible 
Men, but I could only promise to give them early Informa- 
tion, if the Cession should take place 

I think Mr Jackson told me, there were upwards of 600 
Families on the North side of Savannah River waiting that 

The lands referred to here were ceded in 1773 by the Indians for debts incurred in trad- 
ing with the whites. They are chiefly embraced in the present counties of Lincoln, Wilkes, 
Oglethorpe, McUuttie and Talliaferro. See Jones' History of Georgia, Vol. 2, p. 127. 

Hon. James Habersham. 185 

Event, an Indication, that those Lands are of the richest 
Quality, which I beheve is the Case, and from the Account, 
I have had of their Fertility and healthy Situation, one woud 
be tempted to reside there- I have lately received a Letter 
from Mr Stuart, a Copy of which I send you, and in truth 
I scarcely understand some part of it, and if he thinks he 
has contributed to bring about the Satisfaction, obtained 
from the Creeks, I have no Objection to his, or any other 
Person claiming any Merit, in accomplishing that very ma- 
terial Business, which however, I am clear was done in my 
Parlour, and in Consequence of my positive Demand- If 
this Community is served, I have my utmost wish, and I de- 
sire no other Motto, than I serve - I think I have wrote to 
Lord Hillsborough, that if his Lordship woud instruct Mr 
Stuart to hold a Congress with the Creeks at Augusta, there 
woud be no Difificulty in bringing them over voluntarily to 
accede to the Cession, and nobody else it seems can inter- 
fere in this Matter 

By the Industry Capt Charles 
Kenny, who sailed about the first of this Month for Cowes, 
I sent Lord Hillsborough a Copy of the Journals of the up- 
per and lower House of Assembly and a clear state of my 
proceedings with the Assembly, and my reasons for my 
Conduct, also a long Letter about the Indian Lands, with 
a Copy of another to me from the Merchants concerned in 
the Indian Trade- 

They were contained in a Box ; which I desired Messrs 
James McKensie & Co immediately to put in the Post Ofifice 
to be forwarded to London- I hope Capt Kenny will arrive 
safe, as I am now prevented sending Duplicates by Mr 
Crookes being out of Town, and I cannot get a Copy of the 
Journals of the Assembly 

I send you our Gazettes for more, than two Months past- 
The Publications under the Signature of G B. you may de- 
pend are the Chief Justices, and those signed Per Lock «& 
Co somebody Per and B G are doubtless Mr Zubly's- The 
Author of the foolish stuf¥ signed Planter, I dont know- I 
hope in two or three days to get my Packett ready to for- 
ward to Lord Hillsborough, when I shall answer Mr Pow- 
nal and Mr Knox's official Letters- Zubly's peices are mere 
Sophistry, and a jingle of Words without meaning, unless 
to puzzle and blind the Minds of the People, who are not 
capable of Judging the Subject- The Chief Justice's are 
esteemed clever- Rice I hear is at 90s pr Ct in Charles 

i86 The Letters of 

My reasons for desiring to be freed 
from the Cares of Government does not arise from any dis- 
gustfull Personal Treatment to me, for I have reason to be- 
lieve the People universally do not find any Fault with my 
Administration, but from my want of Health, which is hurt 
by the Application I must give, and too close Confinement- 
I have enclosed you a Copy of an Order, I sent the Treas- 
urer to settle all his public Accounts, and produce a state 
of them to me- When that is done, He must produce all the 
Certificates he has in hand to me, which I will put under my 
Seal, and deliver them back to him as his Vouches for taking 
Credit, however my saying so is rather premature as I in- 
tend regularly to proceed in this Inquiry, as the Council may 
advise me- 

I am, Dear Sir 

Your Excellency's 
Most Obedt humble Servant 

I hope you will think, I have by this Conveyance made 
up for long Silence- I have sent you the Account Sales of 
your Furniture, Plate &c- of the Furniture Mr Lambton 
had the easy Chair worked bottom Chairs, Turkey Carpet, 
and I think the worked Screen- The Shoe Buckles you left 
in the Beaureau in the Study, your Son or Mr Lambton took, 
with some other Trifles 

To William Knox Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

under Secretary of State to the 13th June 1772 

the Right Plon : the Earl 

of Hillsborough 
pr the Georgia Planter Capt Inglis 

Dear Sir 

I have been looking over 
your Letters of the 4th December, nth January, 5th P'eb- 
ruary and ist April last in order to make such remarks on 
them as I have omitted- 

The Denmark Affair ap- 
pears too shocking to think of, and I do from my inmost 
Soul pity the King, and if I could I woud willingly bear a 
part in the distress of his feeling heart- God knows, what 
is to become of us, but the large strides, which People of all 
ranks are making to throw of the pleasing Path of Virtue 
and Goodness, and to substitute in their room Luxury and 
Dissipation, portend the worst Consequences- 

Hon. James Habersham. i8y 

I do not see the least pros- 
pect of the Public purchasing your Office of P : M :, and for 
any thing I can see you must make the best of it for your- 
self and Family, under its present Situation- Mr Lowten 
our Minister will be no loser by the Society withdrawing 
their Salary of £50 pr Annum, as his Parishioners, I have 
no doubt, will make it good, and I hope more- I have not 
yet got all your Money for Bulloch and Martin's Bill, but 
I hope I shall secure the whole with Damages and Interest- 
I am. Dear Sir, vv'ith great Esteem 

Your Friend and Obedt Servant 
P S 

the foolish Gimcrack of a Machine for pounding Rice, 
put up at no small Expence at Knoxborough, is good for 
nothing, and has besides greatly injured the Barn which ap- 
pears to have been well put together and of good Materials- 
The Barn must be supported wdth Brick, and, I suppose a 
new Machine made, which will be attended with some Ex- 

To William Knox Esqr, Under Savannah in Georgia 

Secretary of State to the Right Hon: the 15th June 1772 
the Earl of Hillsborough- Whitehall 
pr Mr Hall in the Union Capt Coombes 


I have received your Let- 
ter of the i8th February last, and have duly published the 
King's Instructions, respecting the Alteration of the Public 
Service of the Church, where the Royal Family are particu- 
larly pra3^ed for, I sincerely condole with His Majesty in the 
afflicting Event of the Death of His Royal Mother, am with 
Esteem, Sir, 

Your mo : Obedt humble Servt 

To the Right Hon : the Earl of Hillsborough Savannah 
one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of in Georgia 

State- Whitehall, pr Mr Hall in the Union 15th June 

Capt Coombes, Duplicate sent pr Post 27th August 1772 

My Lord, 

I had the Honor of re- 
ceiving your Lordship's Letter No 43 the 9th Instant, and 

Wrightsboro is in McDuffle county and was named for Governor Wright. 
Silk culture in Georgia was wholly suspended in 1772. 

i88 The Letters of 

your Lordship will be please to observe by my Letter No lo, 
that I have obtained the Satisfaction I demanded for the 
Murder of Carey at Queensborou^h, and every thing seems 
to be quiet between us and the Indians- Our back Setlers 
are encreasing very fast, and as I understand, are making 
great Progress in improving their Lands, and behave cir- 
cumspectly with the Indians 

I have the pleasure to inform 
your Lordship, that the Measures I took to prevent the 
spreading of the small Pox by the Ship from Belfast, has 
had the desired Effect, and there is not the least Appearance 
of it in this Province, which I think is making a rapid Pro- 
gress to Wealth and Importance, and I can see nothing, that 
operates against our growing Prosperity, but the foolish 
Conduct of our late Assemblys, which I must believe, they 
are ashamed of, and woud be glad to retract 

I have received a Copy of the Estimate of the 
Sum granted by Parliament for the civil Establishment of 
this Colony, and shall accordingly conduct myself in the Ap- 
plication thereof 

Your Lordship's paternal Care 
of the Advancement of His Majestys Colonys, especially of 
this young Country, deserves the most gratefull acknowl- 
edgement, and the One Hundred Pounds, your Lordship 
obtained from Parliament for purchasing Reels and Basons 
for the Poor, who are desiring to propagate the valuable 
Article of Silk, I hope will have a very good Effect, and as 
I have mentioned in my Letter No lo, I am persuaded the 
Silk Culture must become an Object of Importance in the 
back Country, especially if we get the Lands, now under con- 
sideration, ceded by the Indians- Mr Maddock a worthy 
Magistrate at Wrightsborough, is now here, and proposes 
taking up on his Return a quantity of Mulberry Seed, in or- 
der to propogate that usefull Tree in that Township, con- 
vinced, from some Conversation, I have had with him, that 
Silk may be made a beneficial Article of Commerce in those 
parts- When I see Mr Wertsch of Ebenezer, I shall con- 
sult him about the best Method of supplying the Poor, who 
heartily engage in raising Silk with Basons and Reels- I beg 
leave to subscribe 

My Lord 

Your Lordships' 
Most Obedt humble Servt 

Hon. James Habersham. i8g 

To the Right Honorable the Earl Savannah in Georgia 

of Hillsborough, one of His Majesty's the 15th June 

Principal Secretaries of State- Whitehall 1772 

pr Mr Hall in the Union, Capt Coombes 
Duplicate sent pr Post 27th August 1772 

My Lord 

The 1st Inst. I had the Honor 
of receiving your Lordship's Letters No 41 and 42, and a 
Circular Letter all dated the 5th February last, also another 
Circular Letter notifying the Death of Her Royal Highness 
the Princess Dowager of Wales of the 8th February, and 
several Inclosures- The Originals of these Letters &:c (for 
I received the Duplicates at the same time) had lain in the 
Post Office in Charlestown from about the 23d of April last, 
as on that day I have seen the Governor's printed Notifica- 
tion of the Death of the Princess Dowager, and the Post 
came here the 26th of said Month, which should have 
brought me your Lordship's Letters, and had not Mr Gra- 
ham, one of the Council here, been in Charles Town, and 
brought me your Lordship's Dispatches, I should not have 
received them untill the 9th Instant, when the last Post came 
in- The Detension of Public Letters is extremely disagre- 
able, and may in some Instances prove highly detrimental 
to His Majesty's Service- I cannot say, where the blame 
lays in this Instance, and I thought of writing to the Deputy 
Post Master about it, but I have heard he is since dead 

I have in Obedience to His Majesty's Com- 
mand, signifyed in your Lordship's Letter No 41, notifyed 
the Royal Disallowance of the Act, and four Ordinances ap- 
pointing executive Officers, and have ordered His Majesty's 
Instructions thereupon to be entered in the Council Books, 
as a standing Rule in all Cases of the like Nature, and as a 
Bar to any future Claim of the Assembly on that Head 

In regard to the Matter enjoined me in your 
Lordship's Letter No 42 respecting the back Setlers, I have 
sometime agoe, as your Lordship will please to observe by 
my Letter No 10, admonished them in the strongest Terms, 
to avoid giving the least Ofifence to the Indians, especially 
as they had now set us an uncommon Example of Justice, 
by putting the Indians to Death, who murdered John Carey 
at Queensborough, which I hope will have the desired Effect, 
and prevent their taking private Satisfaction for public In- 

I shall take care to pay 
due Obedience to His Majesty's Instructions with regard to 

190 The Letters of 

passing of Laws relative to the Attachment of Lands, Goods 
and Chattels belonging to Persons, who have never re- 
sided in this Colony 

I have published His Majes- 
ty's Instruction in regard to the Alteration of the public Ser- 
vice of the Church, where the Royal Family are particularly 
prayed for, and have also publickly notifyed, that it is ex- 
pected upon the present Occasion of the Death of Her Royal 
Highness the Princess Dowager of Wales, all persons do 
put themselves in deep Mourning, and in consequence, the 
Inhabitants of this Province, who are of Ability, have com- 
plyed therewith, and shewn that they console with His Ma- 
jesty under so afflicting an Event, and for my own Part, I do 
most sensibly sympathise with the Royal Heart- I have the 
Honor to be, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most Obedt and very humble Servt 

Savannah in Georgia 
To His Excellency James Wright Esqr the i6th 

Governor of Georgia in London July 1772 

pr the Georgia, Capt Anderson 

Dear Sir 

X - My last Letters to you were dated the 22d and 24th Ulto 
and 9th Instant, which were forwarded by Capt Inglis, who 
sailed two days agoe- In the latter, I acknowledged the re- 
ceipt of yours of the 23d 24th and 25th April by Capt Aitkin, 
since which I have received your Letter of the 6th May pr 
the Packett, to which I propose now to reply xxxxxxx- 
I hope you have 160 or 170 barrells of last year's Rice to 
clean out, and I proposed in about ten days, that your Mills 
should be put to work to beat one Round in the Morning, 
and another in Evening, especially as Rice I hear bears a 
high price in Charlestown, the News Papers say 90s, but 
some say more, and if so, and 13/6 cou'd not be had here, I 
should propose to send it to Charlestown to be sold, and go 
in payment of Mr Freers Demand- I suppose Freer wou'd 
allow i8 pr Ct Exchange, which woud more than pay all 
Charges, but then this should be done, soon, and be ready 
to ship 4 or 6 weeks before new Rice comes in. x x x x x x x 
I sent for Gay, who was very uneasy about sending any of 
his People to Ogeechee, urging the Work he had to do- Mr 
Graham was present, and we then concluded to send only 

Hon. James Habersham. igi 

20 good Hands for a complete Week, and to make them 
cheerfully go, we proposed to give them half a Crown a 
Piece for the two Sundays, accordingly last Sunday carried 
20 picked Hands, and when they got to Weatherly's, he gave 
them a Dram Each, and on Monday Morning Gay says, they 
went manfully to work at Cochran's, determined to do a 
good week's work- On Sunday next, they are to return so 
that there will be no working day lost, when they sliall be 
paid, what we have promised- the 5 o/ I hope you will think 
well and prudently bestowed, as it will make the People hap- 
py, and probably save you a great many barrells of Rice x x 
The People of this Province are greatly obliged to you for 
the Pains you have taken to serve them, as well on Account 
of the Indian Cession, as for looking out for proper Means 
to deepen this River, but probably the only Reward you and 
every one, who wishes really to serve this Country, must 
result from a consciousness of doing their utmost to serve 
it, and I am persuaded there will a time come when the real 
Friends of the Province will be known- you will see by the 
silly and childish Productions in our Gazette, that the same 
Spirit remains among some, as formerly subsisted, which 
truly grieves me, as I know it hurts, and must make us look 
ridiculous in the Eyes of every wise and good Man,- In the 
last Gazette of the 15th Instant, the Peice Non quis, sed 
quid is supposed to be Mr Zubly's, and is directly applied to 
the Chief Justice- The Planter is said to be patronized by 
Mr Edward Telfair, for I think, he cannot write, but the 
Author of Amicus Province, I do not know, which I think 
sensible- I wish all this stuff was laid aside x x x x x x xxx 
I have received the Treasurer's Accounts settled by Mr 
Elliott in his writing- I have not had time to look into them, 
except the General Account of our Taxes, Funds &Ca and 
if I do not mistake, he brings the Province in Debt £3983, 
4, ^Yz for Deficiency's in the general Tax, that is, that the 
Tax received in 1768 — 1769 and 1770, was less by that Sum, 
than the Grants- This seems to be very extraordinary, es- 
pecially as our Taxable Property has very much encreased, 
and I should suppose, if the Treasur found £1200 or £1400 
deficient to pay the Grants in each of these respective Years, 
he ought to have laid such Deficiency before the Assembly, 
agreeable to the Governor's Order to be provided for in the 
succeeding Year, but as this Matter will take mature Con- 
sideration, I will now say no more upon it, that I may not 
bewilder and misguide, only that if this is really our Situa- 

ig2 The Letters of 

tion, the Province with two Years Arrears is in Debt a Sum, 
I know not how can be paid 

The Weather is now, and has 
been for three or four days past terribly hott, perhaps I never 
knew it more so, which is very distressing to me- Mr Wylly 
applyed to me for leave to go to England to endeavour to 
recover a Legacy due from his Wife's Uncle Mr Cunning- 
ham, but I persuaded him to desist from the design- The 
Emoluments to the Clerk of the Council is now very consid- 
erable, at least £30 pr Month, I mean it has averaged that 
Sum for 4 months past for Petitions and other Applications 
to the Board Only , besides his Demand for public Business, 
and if he lets it slip thro' his Hands, he might perhaps never 
regain it- Mr Pryce has offered to do his Business, and ac- 
cordingly he has empowered him, and Wylly desires me to 
request you to give Mr Pryce your Advice in this AfTair, con- 
vinced, as he says, that if you will please to do it, no one 
in England can do it better 

You will observe by the Credits in your account 
Current, that our Fees for the months of April and May 
from the Secretary's Office, were nearly double, what they 
have been since you left the Province, and I am much mis- 
taken, if the last and present Months fall short, from which 
you may see, how much Business encreases xxxxxxxx 
The most considerable part of the Crop of this Province has 
been sold at 9/6 10/ and 11/ - In short this Article has been 
so fluctuating the whole Year, that no Man knew when he 
was going to fast or too slow- 

I sold the 
greatest part of my own at 11/- Upon the whole had yours 
been kept a little longer, you woud have been some what a 
Gainer, and it would have given me more Satisfaction, but 
as we did for the best, I shall say no more about it- I am, 
Dear Sir 

Your Excell's 

Most Obedt & Ct 

To William Knox Esqr, Under Savannah in Georgia 

Secretary of State, to the Right the i8th July 1772 

Hon : the Earl of Hillsborough- 

Whitehall-pr the Geo : Packet 

Capt Anderson Dear Sir 

The 13th Ultimo I wrote 
you a pretty long Letter, which was forwarded by the 

Hon. James Habersham. ip^ 

Georgia Planter Capt Inglis, who sailed the 14th Instant, 
since which your Overseer (Griffin) has been with me, and 
informs me, That on Tuesday Evening the 14th Instant 
about 8 oclock, the chimney of the dwelling House at Knox- 
borough was struck with Lightning, which brought it down 
even with the Eves of the House, and killed one of the 2 
Boys, last bought for you, who was near the Chimney- This 
was a very fine Lad, and I suppose wou'd have sold for 50 
or £60- Grififin with an old Man and Woman was just sitting 
down to Supper, which was spoiled by the Room being filled 
with Smoak and Dust with which, as he says, they were al- 
most suffocated- I am very sorry for this Accident, at which 
I hope and believe you will not repine as Providence has 
highly favoured you hitherto in the preservation of your 
People- Your Crop is in a very flourishing state, I am afraid 
too much so, as I dread the Rice lodging- I have been very 
busy in making up Gov: Wright's Accounts, and probably 
your Account may be the next I settle- The Weather is 
extremely hott, and fatigues me very much, Doctor Johnson 
has been out to one of my Plantations, and tell me, that a 
most valuable Negro and excellent Planter named Jacob, 
is very ill and he thinks will scarcely recover his Attack of 
a Fever, The fellow is my Driver at Dean Forest, and cou'd 
I preserve his Life I wou'd not take any Money for him, 
not even £150 Sterl'g, but I have been used to these Losses, 
and am Dear Sir 

Your mo : Obedt humble Servt 
P. S. 

I have but two or three Minutes to write this Line 

Savannah in Georgia 
the 24th July 1772 
To, William Knox, Esqr. Under Secretary 
of State to the Right Hon : the Earl 
of Hillsborough- Whitehall 
Sent to Mr Lambton to forward pr Mr Kincard 

Dear Sir 

I wrote to you 
fully by the Georgia Planter Capt Inglis, and the Georgia 
Packett Capt Anderson, the former sailed the 14th and the 
latter the 20 Instant, in whom went our Friend Charles 
Pryce and Mr Mossman 

Your Overseer was with 
me 2 or 3 days past, and told me, that your 115 Acre field 

194- The Letters of 

has as much Water upon it, as he wanted, and looked very 
promising, but he was afraid of its growing too rank- you 
have been acquainted, that he plants 140 Acres of Rice, and 
that 25 Acres are without Banks- In my last I was sorry 
to inform you, that the Lightning has struck your House 
at Knoxsborough, broke down the Chimney level with the 
Eaves of the House, shattered one of the Posts, and killed 
one of your fine Lads, who was near the Chimney the Lad 
was worth 50 or £60, and since then a Negro Man, who has 
been a long time sick named Edinburgh dyed- He was one 
Mr Martin put on your Plantation, however you have hither- 
to been very fortunate in having your People preserved, and 
if I mistake not have lately had two or three Children born- 
It has not been so with me, and untill a year or two past, the 
Births in my Family fell considerably short of the Number 
I bought and dyed, which has not been your Case. 

The foolish Gimcrack of a Ma- 
chine that was put up at Knoxborough to pound your Rice 
was not only expensive and useless, but has greatly hurt 
your Barn by undermining it, which must be supported with 
Brick, and your House Chimney repaired, and another Chim- 
ney put up at a Kitchen and sick Plouse now erecting at 
Knoxborough from the Materials of Bourman's House, 
which are removed there, and I have accordingly directed 
your Overseer to set a few hands to make some Bricks- The 
Barn I think a good one appears to be well put together, and 
to be built of good Materials, but the Machine has hurt it- 
Governor Wright saw it, and can tell you, that it is a silly 
Affair- Mr Graham is at Tybee with his Family, which pre- 
vents my consulting him about several Matters, especially 
about getting a Rice Mill at Knoxborough 

I have not 
received a Line from Govr Ellis for a long time past, and 
as I know not whether he is in England, France, Italy, Ger- 
many, or Ireland, I am at a loss, where to direct to him, and 
as in one of your late Letters you mentioned signing a Lease 
to some Person in London of his Office of Provost Marshall 
(I think) in Dominica I must suppose vou are empowered 
to transact his Business, and therefore I have enclosed two 
Letters to him one covering two Bills for iioo each for 
Moneys I have received for him, and the other which is seal- 
ed, is of a private Nature, which I beg you will have safely 
conveyed to him- My Letter enclosing the two Bills, is open 
that you may do the needfuU, if he is not in England 

Hon. James Habersham. ip^ 

I have enclosed our last week's 
Gazette wherein you will find the Accident that happened 
to you at Knoxborough, mentioned- The Letter signed 
G. B. is undoubtedly the Chief Justice's, and intends for its 
Object Mr Zubly- The Subject Matter in Dispite is now 
lost in personality, and I wish that was dropped also- I am, 
Dear Sir 

Yours & C- 

To John Nutt Esqr Merchant Savannah in Georgia 

In London, sent Mr Lambton the 31st July 1772 

to forward from Charlestown 
Dear Sir 

I have been just looking over your 
late very kind and obliging Favours, and have now before me, 
those of the 6th February, 19th March and nth and 25th 
April- I am indeed obliged to you for the very respectfull 
regard, you are pleased to express for my Sons, as the pro- 
moting their Happiness in every respect is my present grand 
Object- I have been labouring for them in this debilitating 
Climate very near 35 years, and as 1 find from Experience 
that Complaints and Infirmities of Body keep Pace with 
growing Years, for next Janry I think I shall have reached 
Sixty, I should not hestitate to make a visit to England, hop- 
ing my native Air woud brace me up, if they were firmly es- 
tablished, I mean with a sufficient Fund to carry on Busi- 
ness in a respectable Manner- My Intention is to give them, 
I mean the eldest, James and Joseph, your Correspondents, 
a clear £5000 Sterling to begin with, which I hope fully to 
accomplish within a year or two, and in the meantime, they 
cannot besides my Money, fail to make considerable Pay- 
ments from their Sales- When I have done this, my youngest 
Son John will require my Attention to provide equally for- 
I suppose you know, that my immediate Family only con- 
sists of these three Sons, who I can doubtless do better for 
here, than any where else and therefore I willingly sacrifice 
a few more years if please God I live, to their immediate ser- 
vice- My intention is, and I hope I shall accomplish it, to 
give them sufficient to begin with, without embarrassing my 
Estate, and leave it clear to be divided among them, which 
will not be inconsiderable- My annual Income has been for 

Here we have a statement of Habersham's income. He was an extensive rice planter, 
ownins? at one time, as he states, one hundred and ninety-eight slaves and several farms. 
See letter dated Feb. 4, 1774. 

1^6 The Letters of 

some years past about £2000 Sterling, and lately more, out of 
which my private and plantation Expenses are paid, and 
every Farthing of the Residue, I cheerfully give to my Chil- 
dren- This makes them really love and respect me, and the 
gratefull returns I have of their Smiles, and Prayres for the 
Continuation of my Health, convinced that I am their best 
Friend and most faithfull Steward, more than compensates 
for all my Trouble and Care for them- You are not mis- 
taken in the good Opinion you have been made to entertain 
of my Son James- He is a youth of strict Honor and vera- 
city, and of uncommon sweetness of Temper, perhaps too 
much so, however I am not afraid but Experience and a 
knowledge of Mankind, of which he is very capable of judg- 
ing, will prevent his being drawn into Inconveniences from 
it- You see I am very free and open in my Correspondence 
with you, as I mean it to be on the most confidential Foot- 
ing, and you will excuse the warm Expressions of the Heart 
of an indulgent Parent, devoted to the Welfare of his Chil- 

I am very glad to find, that 
our Friend Knox is getting better in Health, and as I wish 
to serve him I give all the Attention in my Power to his Af- 
fairs here- I cannot visit his Plantation, altho' I perfectly 
know its' State, but our Friend John Graham does, and he 
has now about 140 Acres of Rice in a very flourishing Con- 
dition, tho' not sufficient for his Hands, but it is as much, as 
we could get done this year, and my Fears are, that it will 
grow too luxuriant to produce a full Crop His Lands are 
very rich, and not sufficiently in Order to command a cer- 
tain Crop, however I hope w^e shall get some Rice to send 
to you, His Plantation Affairs are daily growing better- I 
received the white Plains, you ship'd to clothe his Negroes, 
and I know of nothing His Plantation wants besides, but 
Trifles, which may be got here 

It gives me great pleasure to hear that Govr 
Wright is recovering from his late dangerous Illness- I 
think he ought to return to Georgia for the recovery of his 
Health, which I very heartily wish, as well on his own Ac- 
count, as mine being tired of the Honorable Cares of Gov- 
ernment, and I think I have heard him say, he never had his 
Health better, than in Georgia- In regard to the Creeks 
joining in the Cession of the Lands, which the Cherokees 
have given up, it is, as far as respects the Creeks, in Statu 
Quo, and it seems no Person can interfere in that Matter, 
but the Superintendant, Mr Stuart, who has hitherto, as I 

Hon. James Habersham. igy 

understand, had no good will to promote that Business, and 
perhaps nothing but an Instruction from the Crown, will in- 
duce him to do it- This I hope he will receive, when, if heart- 
ily entered into I think all Difficulty will be removed- If Govr 
Wright was here, and left to persue such Measures, as he 
might think proper, I believe he woud effect our Wishes, and 
under such Circumstances, I will not say, that I could not do 

You have 
doubtless been informed, that I was under a Necessity of 
dissolving the Assembly, I lately called- The Example of the 
Assembly of Carolina has I am afraid infatuated our People 
here- I took all the pains, that Man could do, to go upon 
Business with our late Assembly, and perhaps more, than I 
ought to have done, as I well knew the Consequences, that 
woud ensue on a Dissolution, which I pointed out to them 
in the strongest light in my Power- Some People since have 
fed our Gazette with inflammatory Doctrines, in order to 
keep up the Spirit of Party and Opposition, altho the Prov- 
ince in spite of these wrong headed People, is growing and 
will grow to Wealth and Importance- 

Since I last wrote to you, I have been 
confined near two Months, first with a violent Cold, which 
brought on a terrible fit of the Gout, and almost rendered 
me incapable of any kind of Business- Last week, I had an- 
other touch of the latter, but it is gone ofT, and I am now 
pretty well- I am, Dear Sir, 

Your most Obt, himible Servt 

To Mr Jeremiah Theus Savannah in Georgia the 

Charlestown pr Mr Kincard 31st July 1772 


I received your Letter of the 
8th Instant by Capt Churchill, with all mv Family Pictures, 
besides Mr Wylly's, Mrs Crookes, Coll Jones' Grandchild, 
and two for Mr Clay, which are all delivered- I have also 
your Account for my 7 Pictures, amounting to Three Hun- 
dred and twenty Pounds South Carolina Currency, which I 
shall soon order to be paid you- 
Perhaps I shall get Mr Kincard to do it- I am Sir, 

Your most humble Servt 
P S 

I have sent the three Cases by Capt Churchill 

Jeremiah Theus was a well-known portrait painter living in Charleston, S. C. 

ig8 The Letter's of 

To Collo James Jackson at Augusta Savannah the 

Sent to Pooler & Parkinson, to forward 8th August 1772 
and enclosed to Mr Barnard to deliever 


When you was last here, 
I requested of you a Return of the Officers, and the Number 
of Companys in your Regiment, that any vacancies might be 
filled up, also to be informed, whether it was necessary to 
constitute any new Companys, and if so who would be prop- 
er to appoint Officers- Mr Maddock mentioned the v/ant 
of two Companys at Wrightsborough, and named the fol- 
lowing People as fit for Officers, namely, 
For the upper Company- James Mcfarland, Captain 
Zecariah Phillips Lieutenant, and Samuel Hart 
Ensign, and for the lower Company, Thos Watson 
Captain- Richard Austen Lieutenant and Isaac Jackson 

I do not know any of these People sufficiently to give 
them Commissions, and if I was better acquainted with them 
I should certainly consult you, before I gave them any Ap- 
pointment, as I wish to have the Officers of your Regiment 
agreable to you- 

I have also had an Application 
in writing from Captains Man and Thomas for a new Com- 
pany in St George's Parish, of which I now send you a Copy- 
I do not understand what is meant by the Names mentioned 
of the 3d 5th and 6th Companys, unless it may be to fill up 
Vacancys in them- Has not Mr Thomas a Company? In 
short I am unacquainted with the state of your Regiment, 
and should be glad to have it so regulated, that if there 
should be Occasion to call them out on particular Service 
they may be ready to appear without Confusion, and we do 
not know, how soon they may be wanted- I do not mention 
this from any present apprehension of our Peace being dis- 
turbed, but as alarming Events sometimes suddenly and un- 
expectedly happen, we ought to be prepared- I shall trouble 
you with another Letter in Respect to the Indian Cession 
of Lands, and am 

Your most Obedt Servt 
N. B. 

Just as I had concluded this Letter Mr Storr m- 
formed me, that Coll Jackson was gone to Charlestown to 
embark for the Northward for the recovery of His Health, 
being verv sick, therf^fore I directed this Letter in Co Jack- 
son's absence to the Officer commanding the 2d Regiment 

Hon. James Habersham. /pp 

To George Galphin Esqr, at Silver Bluff 
sent to Pooler and Parkinson to forward 

the 1 2th August 1772 
Dear Sir 

I received your Favour 
of the 25th Ultimo my Mr Pooler, and you have my Thanks 
for the Trouble, you have taken to get the Consent of the 
young Lieutenant and Symphihephy to join the Cherokees 
in the Cession of the Lands, which, when effected will be a 
great Acquisition to the Province, and I doubt not but by 
your prudent Management you will bring about Sellegee- 
I have lately had one Tallegee, I think, of the Cheehaws with 
me, who I have understood is a Man of some Consideration 
among the lower Creeks, but I thought it proper not to men- 
tion a Word about the Lands to him 

I have been informed 
that a percel of stragling northward People have seated 
themselves on the Indians Lands, and that they are likely to 
gather, and if suffered to continue and encrease, it may be 
difficult to drive them away ; I have therefore been advised 
bv the Council to issue a Proclamation, of which 1 send you 
a Copy, commanding them to immediately to remove away, 
and requiring the Magistrates to cause it to be done- I have 
wrote to Mr Barnard fully on this Subject, which I have de- 
sired him to communicate to the Alagistrates on any other 
Persons he may think proper- I have strongly pointed out 
the Inconveniences that may attend the suffuring these idle 
Straglers to remain on those Lands, and the Necessity of 
driving them off, otherwise it may defeat the true Intention 
of the Indians ceeding them to the King for Payment of 
their Debts, and their Creditors from receiving their just 
Demands, for these Runagates are by no means the sort ot 
People that are wanted to settle them- I have desired Mr 
Barnard to communicate what I have written to him to you 
in particular 

I have no Objection to your 
giving Miller five Pounds Sterl'g, and observe you have sup- 
plyed some Indians with 14 Gallons Rum- Pray send me 
an Account of your whole Demand, for what you have ad- 
vanced for the Service of the Province to the Indians, and 

George Galphin (pronounced Gol-fln) was one of the most influential and enterprising 
citizens of the early history of Georgia. He was an extensive Indian trader, with his home 
and depot of supplies at Silver Bluff on the Carolina side of the Savannah River below 
Augusta. His claims were not paid by Governor Wright because he sympathized with 
America, and it was not until 1848 that these claims which had been transferred to the 
United States were paid to his heirs. 

200 The Letters of 

shall try to get you paid, either here or in England, where 
I will certainly represent your Services, of which I can as- 
sure you, Lord Hillsborough is not unacquainted- Dont, 
therefore neglect to send me your Account 

I have heard about the Cherokees killing some 
white People, but it was reported to be done in Carolina, but 
I find by you it was done on the Mississippi- We have al- 
ways esteemed the Chickesaws as our fast Friends, and a 
peaceable People, especially to the English, and I am sorry, 
to hear, that they have in their drunken Fits been guilty of 
any Outrage on out People at the Illinois 

I do not understand, what Mr Stuart 
means by swearing Forrester to interpret no Talks, but his 
and I should think it very strange, if I should have Occasion 
to send a Talk to the Indians, that any Person capable of 
interpreting it, should refuse to do it, because enjoined, by, 
what I must think an unwarrantable Oath- His Majesty's 
Governor or Commander in Chief is solemnly enjoined to 
preserve Peace, and the Lives and Properties of His Sub- 
jects in their respective Governments, and I know of no 
Power, that any Person commissioned by the Crown has to 
circumvent their making use of every lawfull Means to do it, 
and I should be very sorry, that Mr Forrester's, or any other 
Trader among the Creeks should refuse to obey my Orders 
while I have the Honor of the Administration of this Gov- 

I begin to think, that we shall have the 
Pleasure of seeing Governor Wright in Georgia about Christ- 
mas next, but of this he does not speak with an}' Degree of 
Certainty, and therefore I cannot do it, altho' its my private 
Opinion, he will return- But this may as well rest with 
yourself- I am, Dear Sir, with true regard 

Your most obedient, humble Servt 

To the Right Honourable the Earl Savannah in 

of Hillsborough, one of His Majesty's Georgia the 

Principal Secretary's of State- Whitehall 12th August 1772 
sent pr Post 27th August for Mr Lambton 
to forward My Lord 

The 7th Instant, I had 
the Honor of receiving your Lordship's Letter No 44, by 
which I am informed, that your Lordship had given Direc- 
tions to lay out the £100, your Lordship had kindly procur- 
ed, in the Purchase of Reels and copper Basons to be dis- 

Hon. James Habersham. 201 

tributed amongst those, who apply themselves to the Culture 
of raw Silk, and as I have understood, that the Basons should 
be of a particular Size and Shape, I have made Enquiry of 
Mr Wertsch about them, and he says, those which answer 
best are 20 Inches long, 145^ Inches wide and not exceed- 
ing 6 Inches deep, and are of an oval Form, and weigh seven 
Pounds- He thinks the Reels can be best made by the Ger- 
mans at Ebenezer, who perfectly understand how to con- 
struct them, and as they are bulky, he supposes, they will 
come much cheaper, than they can be had from England, 
freight, and other Charges included. He says, a complete Reel 
will cost Thirty two Shillings, which I mention that if your 
Lordship should think proper to have the Reels made here, 
the Number of Basons to be sent from England, when the 
cost of one is known, may easily be ascertained, and Money 
reserved for Payment of the Reels made here, of which, there 
must be as many as there are Basons- I hope your Lord- 
ship will excuse my mentioning this Matter, as it proceeds 
from an earnest Desire to encourage this valuable Culture- 
Mr Wertsch shipt to London by the Georgia Packet Capt 
Anderson, who sailed the Middle of last Month 485 lbs of 
raw Silk, which he says is very much short of the Quantity 
he expected, occasioned by the very sudden Transition of 
the Weather from Heat to Cold, which chilled the Mulberry 
Leaf, and consequently occasioned great Numbers of the 
Worms to dye, a circumstance, I suppose, in favour of the 
back Country, where I understand the Climate is more equal- 
I am informed, that the People in England are so little ac- 
quainted with constructing these Reels, tho' very simple, 
that one has been sent there by Mr Wertsch as a Model, and 
carried to the East Indies by Mr Robinson, who formerly 
was employed by the late Trustees in conducting the Silk 
Culture in this Province 

I have lately received Advice 
from Mr Barnard of Augusta, that several idle People from 
the Northward, some of whom, he is told are great Villians, 
Horse Stealers &c, and were amongst the North Carolina 
Regulators have setled and built Hutts on the Lands pro- 
posed to be ceded by the Indians to His Majesty, and that 
more might be expected to join them, and if not drove ofif 
and they should be suffered to encrease, it might here after 
be attended with Difficulty to do it- I have therefore issued 
a Proclamation commanding those Straglers immediately 
to remove from those Lands, and requiring the Magistrates 
to cause the Laws to be put in Execution, and enforce due 

202 The Letters of 

Obedience to my Proclamation, of which I have had a num- 
ber of Copys printed to be dispersed amongst the back Set- 
lers, that no Transgressor may plead Ignorance, one of 
which with a Letter to the Magistrates of St Paul's Parish, 
I take the Liberty of enclosing with this to your Lordship- 
I find it is generally known in several of the northern Prov- 
inces, that the head Men of the Cherokees were personally 
present, and caused the marking the Lines of such Part of 
those Lands, which they claim as their Property, and pro- 
posed to give up, and upon a Supposition that they might be 
granted, several Persons of apparent Repute have been to 
view them, some of whom, I have seen, and satisfyed them, 
that no Grant could be made of any part of them, untill His 
Majesty should be pleased to adopt the Proposition made 
by the Indians, and accordingly they returned to their re- 
spective Places of Abode to wait the Event, but the present 
Intruders, I am informed, are Persons, who have no setled 
Habitations, and live by hunting and plundering the indus- 
trious Setlers, and are by no Means the sort of People, that 
should settle those Lands, and I hope the Step I have taken 
will be effectual to remove them, as idle and disorderly Vag- 

The Inhabitants of this Province as 
far as I can learn, meet with no Interruption from our In- 
dian Neighbors, who appear to behave circumspectly, and 
give no Cause of Complaint 

For near two Months 
past, we have had a great Quantity of Rain fall, which must 
hurt the Indigoe Planters, but if we have a favourable Har- 
vest, I think there will be great Crops of Rice, and notwith- 
standing wet Weather usually brings on severe and some- 
times fatal autumnal Fevers, we are at present remarkably 
healthy- I have the Honor to subscribe. My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most Obedient and verv humble Servt 

Hon. James Habersham. 203 

To His Excellency James Wright Esqr 
Governor of Georgia in Berner's Street 

London, sent pr Post the 27th to Savannah in Georgia 

Mr Lambton to forward the 20th August 1772 

Dear Sir 

The 1 6th of last Month I 
forwarded your Account Current with me by Mr Pryce, who 
took a Passage with Anderson, and I also enclosed a State 
of what you owe to Mr Freer and Inglis and Hall, and sev- 
eral other Papers to possess you clerly with your Affairs, 
that have passed through my Hands, which I hope will get 
safe to you, as making Copy's woud give some Trouble, and 
take up Time- For two Months past, we have had abund- 
ance of Rain, which must hurt the Indiese Planters but if 
we have a favourable Harvest for Rice, we must have great 
Crops, and if yours does not turn out so here, I shall be dis- 
couraged from undertaking for you in future 

You know that wet weather generally 
produces severe and too often fatal autumnal Fevers, but at 
present we are remarkably healthy, and if we get through 
the next Month and part of October, as well as we have 
hitherto done, we shall have great Cause of Thankfulness, 
and altho' i do not suffer a little from the Heat, I have better 
Health, than I had from last Xtmas almost to the End of 
May, and am at present tolerably well- Mr Hume has paid 
me for his Mandamus £29 : 6 : 6 : this Currency, which at 23 
for a Guinea you will find is equal to 265^ Guineas 

I enclose you a Copy of 
a Proclamation I have issued, and that you may know my 
reason for so doing, I will transcribe what I have written on 
that subject to Lord Hillsborough as follows- I have lately 
received Advice from Mr Barnard at Augusta, that several 
idle People from the Northward, some of whom, he is told 
are great Villians, Horse thieves &c, and were among the 
North Carolina regulators have setled and built Huts on 
the Lands proposed to be ceded by the Indians to His Ma- 
jesty, and that more might be expected to join them, and if 
not drove off, and they should be suffered to encrease, it 
might hereafter be attended with Difficulty to do it, I have 
therefore by the Advice of the Council issued a Proclama- 
tion commanding those Straglers immediately to remove 
from those Lands, and requiring the Magistrates to cause 

The occurrence of the term "Cracker" in this letter is of special interest, as it shows 
that the name was used before the Revolution. Much has been written upon the origin of 
this term, but it is still in doubt. It is applied Kenerally to the poorer class of whites. For 
several explanations of it see Evans' History of Georgia, p. 191. 

20^. The Letters of 

the Laws to be put in Execution, and enforce due obedience 
to my Proclamation, of which I have had a Number of Copys 
to be dispersed amongst the back Setlers, that no Trans- 
gressor may plead Ignorance, one of which, with a Copy 
of my Letter to the Magistrates of St Paul's Parish, I take 
the Liberty of enclosing with this to your Lordship- I find 
it is generally known in several of the northern Provinces, 
that the Head Men of the Cherokees were personally pres- 
ent and caused the making the Lines of such Part of those 
Lands, which they claimed as their Property, and proposed 
to give up, and upon a Supposition that they might be grant- 
ed, several Persons of apparent Repute have been to view 
them, some of whom, I have seen, and satisfyed them, that 
no Grant could be made of any Part of them, untill His Ma- 
jesty should be pleased to adopt the Proposition made by 
the Indians, and accordingly they returned to their respec- 
tive Places of Abode to wait the Event ; but the present In- 
truders, I am informed, are Persons, who have no setled 
habitation, and live by hunting and plundering the indus- 
trious Setlers, and are by no means the sort of People that 
should settle those Lands, and I hope the Step I have taken 
will be efifectual to remove them as idle and disorderly Vag- 
grants- You will easily distinguish, that the People I refer 
to are really what you and I understand by Crackers, and as 
the Cession of these Lands from the Cherokees is well known 
to the Northward, I think that Business should not be de- 
layed, as those People may encrease, and I suppose they do 
not distinguish the Difference between a bare Cession from 
the Indians, which they probably look upon as only neces- 
sary, and a Cession of them to His Majesty for particular 
Purposes- Enclosed you have a Copy of my Letter to Mr 
Barnard and the Magistrates of St Pauls Parish, and I think 
I can do no more at present to prevent Encroachments from 
these lawless People 

We are perfectly quiet from Indian Dis- 
turbances, and I must tell you (inter nos) and I have but 
come to the Knowledge of it, within a few Days past, that the 
Creeks only want asking to join in the Cession with the Cher- 
okees of those Lands- Some Management (of which I had 
not the least Intimation) has been made use of, which I learn 
from Mr Galphin's Letters, and did not clearly understand, 
untill a Friend (J. G.) dropt the key, and indeed his last I^et- 
ter is too plain to be misunderstood, and if his information 
may be depended upon, I believe neither you nor I have any 
reason to doubt it, The Matter is in such a Train with the 

Hon. James Habersham. 205 

Creeks, that no Difficulty will arise from them, Mr Golphin 
acquaints me, that he should give Miller £5 Sterl'g, who its 
said gave out my Talk to the Indians, which demanded Sat- 
isfaction for the Murder of Carey and that he had given 4 
Cags of Rum to the Fellows, I suppose Indians, that came 
with him, and also that he had given several little things 
to the Indians, who have been with him on public Business, 
since you left the Province, and thereby prevented their 
coming to me, and causing more Expence, besides which 
you left an Account with me of the like Nature, to be laid 
before the Assembly to provide for, and as I know not how 
and when, he can get paid by the Public here, and no Per- 
son deserves better, or ought to be more punctually reim- 
bursed, I have desired him to send me his whole Account, 
for which I will give him a Certificate on Mr Campbell, if 
the Council, as they doubtless will should so advise me- The 
whole of the contingent Expences paid by the Grant from 
Parliament to Midsummer last was only £152. 17. o of which 
£130 10. o was for stated Salaries, and if I had had Mr Gol- 
phin's Account, I suppose it wou'd have been included, but 
as those, who had Demands, wanted their Money, the Ac- 
count was made up without including A'lr Golphin's, and I 
shall be obliged to you to mention to Mr Campbell, that he 
may expect a Certificate for Mr Golphin's Demand- In the 
above Sum £152. 17.0, an Account of Moses Nunes for £7. 
6. 2, which you left with me, and was for entertaining In- 
dians in the year 1760, was included, as he told me, that if 
the Assembly wou'd not provide for it, you promised to do 
it out of the contingent Money, so that you see, I have been 
very parsimonious, as the whole Expence for Indians at 
Savannah, besides the Salarys and Nune's Account, has only 
been £15. for a year, and I think Mr Golphin's Ac- 
count should be paid out of the contingent Money, as there 
is sufficient to do it, otherwise I cannot see, how he can be 
desired to continue his material Services to the public in 
this Way 

I shall now particularly answer your En- 
quiry about the size of the Basons and Reels to be bought 
by the Parliamentary Grant, and to that End, I shall first 
transcribe, what I have written to Lord Hillsborough on that 
subject as follows- The 7th Inst I had the Honor of receiv- 
ing your Lordship's Letter No 44, by which I am informed, 
that your Lordship had given Directions to lay out the £100, 
your Lordship had kindly procured, in the Purchase of Reels 
and Copper Basons to be distributed amongst those, who 

2o6 The Letters of 

apply themselves to the Culture of raw Silk ; and as I have 
understood, that the Basons should be of a particular size 
and shape, I have made Inquiry of Mr Wertsch about them, 
and he says those which answer best are 20 Inches long, 143/^ 
Inches wide, and 6 Inches deep, and are of an oval form, and 
weigh Seven Pounds- The Reels, he thinks can be best made 
by the Germans at Ebenezer, who perfectly understand how 
to construct them, and as they are bulky, he supposes, they 
will come much cheaper, than they can be had from Eng- 
land, freight and other Charges included- He says a com- 
plete Reel will cost thirty two Shillings, which I mention, 
that if your Lordship should think proper to have the Reels 
made here, the Number of Basons to be sent from England 
when the cost of one is known, may easily be ascertained, 
and Money reserved for the Payment of the Reels made here, 
of which, there must be as many, as there are Basons- I 
hope your Lordship will excuse my mentioning this Matter, 
as it proceeds from an earnest Desire to encourage this valu- 
able Culture- Mr Wertsch shipt to London by the Georgia 
Packet Capt Anderson, who sailed the Middle of last Month, 
485 lbs of raw Silk, which he says is very much short of the 
Quantity he expected, occasioned by the very sudden Transi- 
tions of the Weather from Heat to Cold last Spring, which 
chilled the Mulberry Leaf, and consequently occasioned great 
Numbers of the Worms to dye, a circumstance I suppose 
in Favour of the back Country, where I understand the Cli- 
mate is more equal- I am informed that the People in Eng- 
land are so little acquainted with constructing these Reels 
tho' very simple, that one has been sent there by Mr Wertsch 
as a Model, and carried to the East Indies by Mr Robinson, 
who formerly, was employed by the late Trustees in conduct- 
ing the Silk Culture here, but is now in the Company's Ser- 
vice- My Reason for writing these particulars to His Lord- 
ship is, that if you should have left England, and my Letter 
to you should be returned. His Lordship might be enabled 
to get proper Basons made- Rainier waits for the first of the 
new Crop, and will not get away, I suppose, 'till about 
Xtmas, and as we have no Vessels going to England, prob- 
ably for 4 Months to come, I cannot send you a Reel from 
hence- You must know, that with the Frame and Reel, the 
whole is bulky, and the freight perhaps wou'd amount to 
one third of the first cost, and with the Iron Work and Ma- 
terials, and every thing complete, I suppose you could not 
get them made for less than 32 in London, if so cheap, and 
Mr Wertsch says, in order to get them so low, he provides 

Hon. Javies Habersham. 20'j 

all the Materials himself in the cheapest Manner, and pays 
the Workman only for making them- He further says, he 
paid the same Workman untill last year, when he fell into 
this Method of providing the Materials 5 0/ for a complete 
Reel, of which he had many made, so Mr Robinson's cost, 
and he wrote Mr Wertsch, it was the best, he ever saw, and 
Mr Tondee told me, that what were formerly made in this 
Town cost £5- I think I have answered all of your Letters, 
and am Dear Sir 

Your Excellency's, most Obedt 
humble Servant 
P. S. 

25th August 1772- We have had most extraordin- 
ary wett Weather, and I suppose it has detained Mr Alex 
Inglis going to Charlestown, who is to be the Bearer of this 
and my late Letters, and gives me an opportunity of inform- 
ing you that I am just returned from a Visit to the Farm 
and Laurel Grove, and at both Places, they have got out 
about 28 barrels Rice- yesterday they beat 3 Rounds each, 
as it was pretty cool, and the Cattle &c rested the preceed- 
ing day being Sunday, and by the End of this Week they 
will get out about 45 barrels- I think the Rice good, but I 
shall be hereafter afraid to give my opinion about the Qual- 
ity, altho' I see none, I like so well- The Farm Machine 
both Gay and the Overseer there say performs extremely 
well- I never saw your Rice Fields look more pleasing or 

To John Moultrie Esqr Lieutenant Savannah in 

Governor and Commander in Chief of Georgia the 

His Majestys Province of East Florida nth Sept 1772 

pr Post Sir 

The 26th Ultimo, I had the 
Pleasure of receiving your Letter of the 5th of said Month, 
and am very much obliged to you for your offer to cooperate 
with me in any thing that may promote the Kings Service, 
and the mutual Benefit of this Province and East Florida, in 
which you may depend on my hearty Concurrence 

I am sorry its not at present in my 
Power to inform you where a future Road in this Province 
will terminate, on St Mary's River, and neither do I know, 
whether any Road has been attempted to be made between 

Concerning the grants of laud by the Governor of South Carolina, referred to here, see 
note to letter dated April 6, 1763. 

2o8 The Letters of 

that River and the River Altamalia, where there are but 
very few Setlers- The large Grants of Lands made to Non 
Residents within those two Rivers by the Governor of So 
CaroHna lias greatly impeded their Settlement, and I sup- 
pose the few Inhabitants now within those Limits are not 
equal to such an Undertaking- Our Roads are made by the 
joint and equal Labour of the Inhabitants, within Boundaries 
ascertained by a Law, similar to that in So Carolina, and the 
Commissioners or Surveyers are therein named, with Power 
to fill up Vacancies in Case of the Death or Absence of any 
of those nominated, but our last Laws passed in the Year 
1766, contains a Clause respecting this Accession of Terri- 
tory, which is divided, into 4 Parishes, to the following Ef- 
fect, that as there are but few Inhabitants on Settlements in 
the said Parishes, it is impracticable to ascertain any Road 
Divisions within them, and therefore empowers the Governor 
or Commander in Chief with the Advice of the Council, upon 
Application of the Inhabitants of any of the said Parishes, 
or whereever the same may appear necessary and expedient 
to appoint Commissioners or Surveyers with the same. Pow- 
ers and Authorities as Commissioners by that Act named &c- 
I know of no Application, that has been made by the Inhabi- 
tants for Commissioners, and I suppose there are not more 
than two or three Settlements of any Consequence in all 
these Parishes, and without they w^oud join to work in Com- 
mon to make a Road from the Altamaha River to St Mary's, 
I cannot see how it can be Attempted, untill the Inhabitants 
encrease, which I hope may soon be, for as rice Lands be- 
come scarce and are daily rising in value- I have understood, 
that some Persons of Strength intend to move to the South- 
ward, when they doubtless will be obliged to make Roads 
for their own Convenience 

I clearly see the Necessity of 
having an easy and commodious Communication between 
this Province and East Florida, which must be mutually bene- 
ficial, and be assured, Sir, if it lays in my Power, I will spare 
no pains to effect it, but I have no fund for such Purposes, 
or even to defray the least public Service, and when we shall 
have an Assembly, that will be wise enough to understand 
their own Interest, I know not 

I am totally unacquainted with 
the back Part of these 4 New Parishes, and seldom see any 
Person from thence, on whose Information, I can put anv 
great Dependence, but I will make it my Business, when I 
have an Opportunity of getting the best Intelligence from 

Hon. James Habersham. 2op 

those, who know that Part of the Country, and if worthy 
your Notice, I will acquaint you therewith- Muckinfuss, the 
Bearer, who has often travelled it, tells me, that a Road woud 
be best made in this Province to terminate at a Ferry called 
Armstrongs on St Mary's River, and I the rather think so, 
as it woud head most of the Inland Swamps 

I have often heard 
Govr Wright mention you with Respect- I suppose you have 
heard that he has been dangerously ill in England, but by a 
Letter I have this day received from him, dated Furnbridge 
the 29th June last, I find his health is perfectly reinstated- 
He is not yet determined, whether to return to Georgia, 
which I sincerely wish him to do, as I grow old and infirm, 
and am truly tired of the honourable Cares of Government 

If I can render you or the Province you preside 
over any Service, I request you will command me- I am 
with great Respect- Sir 

Your most Obedt and very humble Servt 

Savannah in Georgia 
the 13th Septr 1772 
To Miss Isabella Wright, in London 
Enclosed Mr Knox Via Charles Town 
My dear Miss Bella 

I received your agree- 
able Favour of the 5th June last by Capt Rainier, who de- 
livered me a very fine Linnet- He says the other Linnet 
and Goldfinch dyed on the Passage, and being in one Cage, 
they were always fighting, and my little sweet Songster, who 
is my close Companion came ofif Conqueror- It is really a 
fine Bird, for which, and the others you sent me, I most 
heartily thank you 

Notwithstanding what you 
say of Miss Nancy and yourself returning to Georgia, I must 
own, I scarcelv expect to have the Pleasure of seeing you, 
but your Papa, I hope, will make us a Visit, if but a short 
one, as I think it may be of Service to the Province, and per- 
haps to his private Interest- I say a short Visit altho' I 
could wish his stay here during my Life, but as I know him 
to be one of the best and most tender of Parents, I cannot 
have a desire to deprive his Children of his immediate Care 
and Protection, because I have a real Friendship for them. 

See letter dated Feb. 27, 1772, asking Miss Wright to send the birds. 

2IO The Letters of 

and wou'd do everything in my Power to promote his and 
their Happiness 

I saw Peter to day, as I generally 
do every Sunday, who upon the whole is a good Fellow, and 
he desired me to give his Duty to his Master and his young 
Masters, and Mistresses, and Charlotte desired the same, 
and as far as 1 know they both behave very well- I do not 
let them want any little Trifles, they ask me for, and they 
are very modest in their requests- Peggy found the field 
Work at first a little hard, but she is now reconciled to it, 
and behaves well, as does Amey- I mention them, because 
I suppose it will give you Pleasure to hear, that your old 
House Servants are well and conduct themselves properly- 1 
intend to write to your Brother, my Names sake, by this Op- 
portunity- Pray assure Miss Nancy of my best respects, 
and tell Charles, that I wish him as happy as he can wish 
himself- Mrs Gay often mentions you all with regard- I 
am My dear Miss Bella 

Your affectionate Friend and Servant 
P. S. 

We are more healthy at this Season, than I have 
known for many years past 

To James Wright Junr Esqr Savannah in Georgia 

in London, Enclosed Mr the 13th Septr 1772 

Knox Via Charles Town 

Dear Sir 

I had the Pleasure of receiv- 
ing your Favour of the 24th April last the 7th Ultimo pr 
Capt Rainiere, and am very much obliged to you for the vari- 
ous Intelligence you give me, and I wish I could return you 
something of the kind from hence- The Chief Justice has 
involved himself in political Disputes, contrary to my wish 
and advice, which has ended, as I expected, in the most viru- 
lent, personal Invectives, with which our Gazette now week- 
ly groans, and must make us contemptable, and on this ac- 
count, it gives me real pain, altho' I am not the least con- 
cerned in it, and I thank God I have not an apparent Enemy 
in the Province, altho' I will not say, that I have not a few, 
I hope very few secret ones, who however do not shew them- 

I am sorry to find, that the 
Governor of So Carolina has called the Assembly to meet 
him at Beaufort, I understand, the 14th of next Month, be- 

Hon. James Habersham. 211 

cause if he has not Orders, for this Porceedure, which I do 
not suppose, I must think it a wrong Measure, and will lay 
the Foundations of perhaps a serious Breach between him 
and the People, which had better have been avoided, and in- 
deed I do not know how public Business can be conducted 
there, as reference must, I suppose, be had to the Treasurers, 
Secretarys and other public Offices during the sitting of the 
General Assembly, and if his Instructions are the same, as 
here, it is a Mystery to me how the Council could advise this 
Step, but you will say, I have no concern in it, and indeed 
I have not,- I think Lord Charles an easy, polite and Agree- 
able Gentleman, and from the little personal Acquaintance, 
I have with him, I am induced to wish his Conduct may be 
proper and wise, and nothing appear, that may be deemed 
capricious, which must give disgust, without answering any 
one good Purpose, altho' very bad ones mav ensue, and ex- 
tend further than So' Carolina 

I am extremely glad to find by my 
last Letters received a few days past, that the Governor was 
perfectly recovered from his late dangerous Illness- My 
Friendship for him obliges me to wish him every degree of 
Happiness, and to do all in my Power to promote it, but you 
must be more nearly interested, and therefore I most sin- 
cerely rejoice with you, that his Health is reinstated- Please 
to make my best respects acceptable to all friends, and believe 
me, Dear Sir 

Your Friend and very humble Servant 

Savannah in Georgia 
the 24th Septr 1772 
To His Excellency James Wright Esqr 
Governor of Georgia, in London 
to the Care of Mr Knox, sent to 
Mr Lambton to forward 

Dear Sir 

As I have had no opportunity 
of sending my Letter of the 19th Inst, and the Equinox be- 
ing now over, I shall add, a few Lines- Last Tuesday after- 
noon the 22d my Son John and I took a ride to Gays- He 
was not at home, but perhaps at some of the other Places- 
I walked down to the lower End of the 30 Acre field, which 
was all cut down as was also the t6 Acre Field under the 
Barn, the latter was all cocked, and about half the former, 
and the Negroes were trying to cock the remainder- They 

212 The Letters of 

had also cut down one row of Tasks in the 31 Acre Field 
below it, but on seeing- the Clouds to the Westward gather 
very black and dark, and threaten a Storm, We made all the 
haste we could back, after I had told Dorset to leave off ty- 
ing, and cock what Rice he had tyed- Before we got home, 
altho' we drove as hard as the Horse could go, we were a 
little wett, and immediately afterwards, it began to rain, I may 
say pour, in a Manner, I have scarcely ever seen, attended 
with extraordinary and continued Thunder and Lightning 
for 4 or 5 Hours- Doctor Johnson and some others have 
suffered considerable Damage by the Water in their Cellars, 
and two Houses were struck with the Lightning, (Ash's 
dwelling House and Mr Pryce's Kitchen) but no consider- 
able damage was done to either, only a Dog was killed in 
the latter- Gay called upon me yesterday Morning, told me, 
that Tatnall's Bridge was carried away, and his Fields were 
so full of Water, that it run over all the interiour Banks, not- 
withstanding He had cut the Dam next the Great Creek in 
several Places, and as the Weather appeared to clear up, he 
kept on cutting in the 31 Acre field- I told him to examine 
his Cocks as soon as the Water had run off the Field, which 
I supposed wou'd be this Evening at farthest, and let me 
know their Condition 

We have now very fine Weather, 
and from Appearances, it promoses to continue, and as Gay 
has got pretty well over his Fright, I sent for him this Even- 
ing, and shall give you his Account of your Crops here- I 
have before observed, that the 16 Acre field under the Barn 
at Laurel Grove was cut down and cocked, some of it from 
the springy Land under the Hill in the Barn Yard- The 
Possum or 30 Acre Field under his Garden is also cut down, 
and to Night most of it will be cocked, as the Water goes 
off very fast, and to- Morrow it will be all in Cocks, and 
some of the 31 Acre field, where they have cut down about 
17 Acres, the Storm laid all flat in that Field, except what 
was cut before it came on, and the 22 Acre Field is also laid 
flat, but the lower 16 Acre Field stands tolerably, that is, it 
is not all down, but very much tangled- These I think are 
all the Rice Fields, that are planted by the Laurel Grove 
People- at Cedar Hill all the Rice from the Branch, which 
I think is 27 Acres, is in the Barn Yard, and 18 Acres cut 
down in the Swamp and some in Cocks- The rest belonging 
to his Plantation is not much beat down by the Storm, but 
very much twisted and tangled- At the Farm, there is 50 
Acres cut down, and all the rest of the rice belonging to 

Hon. James Habersham. 2ij 

the Place is beat down flat, which I am sorry for, as the two 
River Fields, one I believe 22 Acres and the other 21^ were 
the last planted, and from the dry Weather in the Spring 
the Rice came up rather unequal, so that a good deal of those 
Fields were in Milk, and, I am afraid, some of the Rice in 
them will be light, otherwise I think there was scarcely a 
light Grain in any of them. The Ears, if I recollect, appear 
to me to be shorter, than usual, but the Grain is very large 
and full, and the * Straw in general the thickest I ever saw, 
and very trifling was lodged before the Storm and no rice 
birds, but since the storm Gay says, there is great plenty- 
The Water mostly affected his_ Fields, for when he had two 
Feet Water on them, there was not more than a Foot at the 
Farm and Cedar Hill, and he thinks the Cocks at both Places 
cannot have suffered- Before this Storm, I never saw your 
Rice stand so well- At my Plantations every Field is like 
a Sea- My Overseer Hughes is very sick, and my other two 
Overseers have been up Night and Day with the Negroes to 
secure my Dam, and prevent the Flood breaking in to my 
Fields below it, which must have effectually destroyed my 
Crop at Silk- Hope- I have this Moment received a Line 
from Hughes that the Water is at a Stand- The Road is at 
present overflowed, and prevents my going out- I have not 
yet heard from Ogeechee, but as there is no Fresh, and you 
are in the Tides way, you cannot suffer so much here or 
there, as Planters in the back Swamps, where the Water can- 
not be so easily vented, and notwithstanding what has hap- 
pened, I am not afraid (baring uncommon xAccidents) of your 
Crop turning out well, I have not heard from Carolina how 
it is there, but as we have now fine weather, I must think 
there will be good Crops of rice in General, 

I am, Dear Sir 

Your Excellencv's &c 

To George Galphin Esqr at Silver Bluff 
sent to Parkinson and Pooler to forward 

Savannah In 
Georgia the i6th 
October 1772 

My Father being confined 
to his Bed, and unable to move Head or Foot, desires me 
to acquaint you, that he has received your two favours, one 

♦Evidently some error here in transcribing. The manuscript is followed. 

21/f. The Letters of 

of the 28th Ulto and the other of the loth Instant, and in 
regard to what you mention in the former Letter of Mr Tate 
not sending Tali<s thro your hands, he has no doubt but he 
acts by Orders, and he will take Notice of it at a proper Time 
and Place, as he thinks it is very wrong, that he shoud be the 
last Person acquainted with what passes in the Indian Coun- 
try, and says, Mr Stuarts not acquainting him of Mr Tates 
going up to the Indian Country, and of his Business there, 
he thinks is neither consistent with good Manners, nor good 
Policy, for if one Peace is interrupted with the Indians, who 
is to be answerable for it, the Superintendent or my Father? 
who as far as he knows, gives himself no Concern about it- 
He has wrote very fully to Governor Wright respecting w-hat 
you desired him, about your Letters being improperly com- 
municated in England- He forgot the Circumstance of the 
half breed fellow being strongly suspected of killing the In- 
dian, which Mr Nunes told him of 3 Months agoe, but as 
the Murder was not certainly known, and the Indians sus- 
pected the half breed Fellow doing it, it slipt his Memory 
to take further Notice about it- From what you say of the 
Negro Fellow, he does not know how far he may be consid- 
ered more, than an Accessary in the Murder, however he 
thinks you act very properly in giving him up to Justice ; 
altho' it is a great Pity the half breed Fellow coud not be 
taken, and he supposes that if the Creeks knew of it that they 
woud lay wait for him, till they got him, as its plain he was 
the principal, and as I before observe, the Indians who came 
in serch of him told Mr Nunes they verily believed he was 
the Rascal that killed him, as he was a Madman when in 
Liquor- My Father desires me to acquaint you, that his 
Spirits wont allow him to dictate any more- He has lately 
had a Letter from Lord Hillsborough, in which was the fol- 
lowing Paragraph, which he desires me to Copy and send 

"The Punishment inflicted by the 
"Indians upon the Murderer of John Carey clearly demon- 
"strates their Friendly Disposition, and their Resolution to 
"live in Peace with us, and I shall be happy in any Oppor- 
"tunity of doing Justice to Mr Galphin's Merit in that Busi- 

You may depend the King reads all my Father's 
Letters- I am, with the greatest Respect 
Your most Obt, humble Servt 
Jno: Habersham 

Hon. James Habersham. 215 

P. S. 

If notwithstanding this Murder appears so plain, 
you think it necessary for my Father to write up to the In- 
dians he will do it 

Savannah in Georgia 
the 4th December 1772 
To His Excellency James Wright Esqr 
Governor of Georgia in Berners Street 
London, To the Care of John Clark in London, 
pr Mr Robert Powell to be 
forwarded from Charlestown 

Dear Sir 

I am sorry, that I have not 
been able to keep up so punctual a Correspondence, with 
you, as hitherto, occasioned by an old Complaint, of which 
I expect a regular Attack Spring and Fall, This last has held 
me from about the Beginning of October to this day, altho' 
I cannot say, it has been so very painfull, as hitherto, except 
for a few days, when I could do little, otherways, I have been 
able to sign my Name, and to keep public and private Busi- 
ness going on without Interruption, and I can assure you, 
that yours had not suffered from any Neglect on my Part, 
nor indeed from any other Person, that I know of- Last 
Tuesday w^as our Land day, and the day following was ap- 
pointed by public Notifications to hear Caveats, when every 
thing depending was finished, attho' I was seized with the 
Gout in my right hand, but I thank God, it is pretty well gone 
ofT, and I can now write you this short Line, and I hope to 
be free from this distressing disorder till about March next, 
at least so as to keep up my public and private Correspond- 
ence punctually, which of late I could not do- Next Wed- 
nesday, the 9th Instant, I meet the General Assembly, and I 
am very hopefull, I shall enter upon and do Business with 
them- If my Son John has Time, I will now send you a Copy 
of my intended Speech on opening the Session- Perhaps 
on considerate Revisal, I may alter a few immaterial Words, 
but not the Substance- You are all in England mistaken 
about the Assembly, I mean the Majority of them, giving 
up the Point of the Negative, and I wish they may be wise 
enough not to present a certain Person to me, and then this 
Matter will, I hope, be ever buryed in Oblivion in this Prov- 
ince- This Man's behavior to me is such , that I know not 
how to meet him, however to restore public Tranquility, I do 

2i6 The Letters of 

not know, but I may be induced to sacrifice my own feelings, 
should so disagreeable an event happen, which I hope will 
not, altho' I am persuaded an Attempt will be made- He 
cannot forgive the Part I took in representing the Conver- 
sation, you had with him, and he has still the same malevo- 
lent and dark Disposition both to you and me, but he is daily, 
if I am not mistaken, losing his Importance- I could say 
a great deal to you on this Subject, but I have not now Time- 
Perhaps my Friends G and the Doctor may. 

To Morrow Gay begins 
to cart about 60 barrels Rice to be put on Board the Rose 
May Capt Hind, and I daily expect a Schooner with 150 or 
160 barrels from Ogeechee- I suppose you have about 140 
or 150 barrels beat out here, but as both Cattle and Horses 
are wanting to clean out your Crop here, we chuse Saturday 
for carting in, as Sunday will be a day of rest for them, and 
I am afraid we shall be put to Difficulty to get your 600 bar- 
rels on Board in Time, however nothing will be wanting on 
our Parts to effect it- I think you have a greater Crop of 
Rice here, than ever has been made, and as we have sold 
six Negroes, and 6 or 7 have dyed, I know^ not how your 
Crop will be got out, and unless as Gays says, we can furn- 
ish him with more Cattle and Horses, which we must get 
him- I am in hopes the Crop will not reach much short of 
1200 real not nominal barrels- You will doubtless have In- 
surance made on your 600 barrels pr Hind- The Price in 
Charlestown, I am informed, is £3 pr Centum, and at that 
rate, I should estimate your Rice at 540 lb Net with the bar- 
rel at 47 S/6, and at that Calculation you ought to insure 
£1425 Sterling, however, of this you will be the best Judge.- 

My Lord has informed us 
from Charlestown by Express, that he has a fine Cargoe of 
Gambia Negroes arrived, which are to be sold next Wed- 
nesday, and as the Season for buying Negroes is not very 
favourable, and the Planters may not be very forward in 
purchasing, we are in hopes, they may go tolerably reason- 
able, and Mr Graham goes to-Morrow Morning to Charles- 
town to buy thirty for you, if the Choice can be had at £50 
round say 20 Men and 10 Women- Peter who is a good 
Fellow goes with him, and Mr Graham may probably buy 
some for himself- He proposes to have them brought round 
within Land in a warm decked Vessel, of which if he pur- 
chases, he will doubtless write you, and to this Purpose, I 
have wrote to Mr Lambton 2 or 3 days past, in case Mr Gra- 
ham should not go down, as you must have more Hands to 

Hon. James Habersham. 21 j 

carry on your present Business, and if they are got, they 
must be treated carefully at this Season of the Year, which 
we shall particularly direct- I have a thousand things to say 
to you, but you must put up with this Scrawle, being my 
first Essay to write to my English Friends for two Months 
past- I cannot write to Friend Knox, but his Affairs are 
not neglected 

I scarcely doubt, but I shall 
do Business with the Assembly, but I do not see, how I can 
require all the outstanding Certificates to be called in with- 
out issuing others, and their being in some Manner a tender 
to the Treasurer, otherwise they will be no better, than blank 
Paper- The Case is plain, if the Treasurer issues them to 
the People for a valuable consideration, he must be obliged 
to take them again, and that must appear on the Face of 
them, however I will do all I can to avoid Mr Jackson's Ob- 
jection The People in England do not truly understand our 
local Circumstances, but as I think I do, as well as most Peo- 
ple in the Province, I will do what I think right between the 
Crown and the People, without regarding Consequences as 
to myself, and shall as you observe, say little about it- 

you know I do not 
like a Paper Medium, if we had or could fall on Means to get 
Specie, but that Secret I cannot find out, unless we had more 
Produce, and consequently a more extensive Trade with the 
Specie Countrys, and I am very clear, it is always in the 
Power of the King's Representative to prevent any bad Con- 
sequences from too large a Circulation of Paper- It is easy 
for People in England to speculate and refine, but here we 
must act as Necessity requires , which is an infallible Rule- 
The Deficiency of near £4000 between the Receipts and 
Grants in the years 1768, 1769 and 1770, must be due to the 
Treasurer, if, as he says, he can produce Vouchers for the 
Payment of the Grants, which will appear on Examination- 
In a letter he wrote me, when he sent me the public Accounts, 
he offered to have them sent audited by Mr Elliott, if I should 
think proper, but I declined saying anything about it, think- 
ing that Business better done by the Assembly, and I knew 
of no Money to pay the Auditor his Commissions, who told 
me, he wou'd not do it without being paid them x x x x x x 
I think all of out Certificates are now out of date and must 
be sunk- Those for the light House were the last issued, 
and were out of date in May last x x x x x x x 
The New Light House is finished, except some interior 
Work, and I am told it is executed in a Masterly Manner, 

2i8 The Letters of 

and must do Credit to the undertaker- The old one is fallen 
down, and it appears that the Frame and weatherboards are 
entirely rotten- I am, Dr Sir 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient hble Servant 

To the Right Honourable the Lords Savannah, in 

Commissioners for Trade and Plantations Georgia the 
Whitehall- pr the Polly, Raniere 5th Deer 1772 

My Lords 

I have the Honor of receiving 
your Lordship's Letter of the 29th July last, enclosing a 
Draught of a Clause proposed to be inserted in the Com- 
missions for Governors of His Majesty's Plantations in 
America, respecting the Care and Custody of Ideots and 
Lunaticks, agreable to the Usage and Practice in England, 
which I referred to the Chief Justice and Attorney General, 
to enquire into the Laws and Usage of this Colony to see, 
whether there is anything, that will furnish any Objection 
against the Clause proposed, and report the same to me- 
Accordingly they have made their Report, a Copy of which 
is herewith enclosed, and I am humbly of Opinion with 
them, that it woud be highly expedient to insert the Clause 
in the Commission for the Governor of this Province- I 
have the Honour to be, my Lords 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient and 

very humble Servant 

To His Excellency's James Wright Esqr 

Governor of Georgia, in London 

pr the Mobille Packet Capt Mc Gillivary 

Savannah in Georgia 
the 15th Deer 1772 
Dear Sir 

I think I have in my last 
Letters answered all yours except those of the 2d and 8th 
September, to which I shall endeavour now to reply- Yes- 
terday the Assembly presented their Address to me, and as 
I expect Capt Mc Gillivry of the Mobille Packet will sail 
in less than a Week, I shall send you all the Gazettes, that 
are due to you, and in that of this day you will find my 
Speech, and the Addresses of both Houses- I expect Mr 

Hon. James Habersham. 2ig 

Graham every Moment from Charlestown, but from what I 
have heard, I scarcely expect be will succeed in getting you 
any Negroes xxxxxxxxx 

It will be impossible for us to get Hind loaded within the 
Time limitted, the 20th Instant, and as I found, that both you 
and Mr Graham wou'd be hard pushed to get your respective 
Quantities in Time, I put on Board 114 barrels of my own 
Rice, but I hope to ship you full Quota- By what I can 
learn Mr Graham will not be able to get, what he proposed, 
300 barrels, and if so, mine must go to make up his Defic- 
iency, and perhaps yours, if there should be any- The whole 
Cargoe will go to Mr Clark- Hind wants Hands and cannot 
load so fast, as we bring the Rice to him- I expect Gay will 
have 300 barrels beat out by the End of this Week at these 
three Places, and about this day, I think Weatherly will have 
as much- We have had 173 barrels from Ogeechee, and the 
Schooner which brought it could have carried 190 barrels, 
but there was no more ready- A Week agoe, I dispatched 
another Schooner for a 100 barrels, and the Schooner that 
brought the 173 barrels is returned for another, because if 
I do not mistake you we may expect another Ship- It was 
impossible to begin to beat except a trifle in the Morning, 
untill all the Crops were got in I am now come to your 
Letter of the 8th September, in which is the last date I have 
received from you- In regard to the Tables on the King's 
Birth day, I did not pay for them the last day, and if I recol- 
lect I did not for the year preceeding for you, but Mrs 

charged me one Shilling pr head more, than she did you for 
the Dinner and more for Wine &c, so that I had better have 
paid for the rough Boarded Tables, and probably have more 
Money, than the Expence of them- I demurred paying, the 
old Woman 2 or 3 Weeks, after the Bill was delivered, but 
as I supposed she wou'd make a Murmuring about docking 
her Account, I paid her for the whole of it- Both her Din- 
ner and Liquor were complained of, and what was provided 
in the Court Room and in the Field cost me about £55 Ster- 
ling, which was a great deal more than it deserved- In re- 
spect to the amount of Ducker's Bill, Allman and his People 
were at at the Plantations several Weeks- The Machine at 
the Farm was entirely made new, and now beats 6 barrels 
pr day with Ease, and the Cogs of the Horizontal and Spur 
Wheels at Cedar Hill were made new also, and Allman has 
this day brought me in his Bill for upwards of £30 for that 
Work, which I shall particularly enquire into, before I pay 
it, and besides the feeding of these People. I told Gay to let 

220 The Lettei's of 

the sick Negroes have a little offal Meat from Time to Time, 
and I am told his Wife takes all the sick Negroes from the 
three Plantations under her care and Eye, and sees that they 
have it properly dressed and Broth made for them, and if 
I am not mistaken, you are much obliged to her for her Care 
of them- I thought there was too much Rum and Meat 
bought, and several Times, I told Gay of it, who has prom- 
ised me to be as carefull as possible in their Expenditures- 
I have given the necessary directions about the account of 
Straw Weekly, and have told Gay to sell none but for Money, 
or to Persons he can always have his Money from when de- 
manded- In the Fall 1771 I wrote you, that we were dis- 
tressed to get Heading, and that as soon as I could get re- 
fuse Boards, I wou'd lay in a sufficient Quantity, as it wou'd 
not do to have them to seek for, when wanted, and to stop the 
Barn Work, untill they accidentally come in the Way, and 
if you will refer to my Account Current with you, you will 
find a Note under that Article, that I thought, I had laid in 
sufficient for the last and present Crop, and on a Survey of 
them about a Month agoe. Gay and I thought there was 
sufficient for 1200 barrels, however he says I told him to look 
out for 4 or 500 feet more, that there might be rather a Sur- 
plus, than a Want, which we got at 3S pr 100- I do not 
recollect my telling him so, which is immaterial, as a store 
can be no sore, and I am sure, they are taken care of, that 
no Waste is made- Last year Gay put a few round the Mill 
Room at Laurel Grove, which was before entirely open- you 
know, it will not do to have green Stuff for heading, and for 
want of attending to this Matter, I have seen a great deal 
of Rice totally destroyed- I do not believe it wou'd be pos- 
sible to buy rice barrels from the Coopers I mean so many 
as you want, and as they charge half barrels at 2s each, I 
suppose they wou'd expect more for whole barrels- As 
Hoops and heading grow scarce, i8d pr barrel is perhaps 
not enough for the Planter, but as it has been many years 
an established Price, I suppose there can be no Alteration- 
Neither Gay nor Weatherly buy anything for you without 
consulting Mr Graham or me, and Weatherly has never at- 
tempted to sell a Negro of yours- Gay says, you sent his 
X cut Saws to Ogeechee to make Shingles, when you left 
the Province, and that he was obliged to replace them, as 
he could not do without- At least half the Blacksmith's Ac- 
count was for Work, while you was here- Barnard has yet 
paid nothing, but promises to do it soon, and the Ballance 
due from Mr Graham for his Account with vou is due to me, 

Hon. James Habersham. 221 

as you will observe by a Note I made at the Foot of his Ac- 
count, a Copy of which I sent you- I gave you Credit for 
every farthing he purchased, and consequently he became my 
Debtor for the Ballance- After I had made out my Account 
with you, he told me, he had ordered ii6oo So' Ca' C'y to 
be paid to Mr Freer, but by protested Bills returned to Mr 
Rose, he had not been able to do it, tho' it was promised 
Mr Graham- If this had been done, I should have charged 
you with the intended Payment to Mr Freer, and reimbursed 
myself from your Efifects, and in that Case it was equal to me, 
whether you or Mr Graham became my Debtor- The Bank- 
ruptcies in London has been felt here, tho' not so much as 
with you- I believe I mentioned in one of my Letters to you 
Mr Graham's Intention of paying Mr Freer £1600 Currency- 

I am Dear Sir 

Your Excellency's &c 

To Charles Pryce Esqr at Lady Boyles Parson Green near 


Savannah in Georgia the i6th January 1773 

Dear Sir 

I have your acceptable favour of the 26 October 
last, now before me, and am at a loss to know, what you mean 
by being Obliged to me. If any mutual Civilities have pass- 
ed between my friend Charles and me, they were respectively 
due, because they were founded on the best principles. Truth 
and Sincerety. The goodness of your heart, which is the 
true ground of Friendship, demanded on miy Part, every De- 
gree of Respect, and I wish it had been in my Power, when 
in Georgia to have given you more evident proofs of the real 
regard, I have for you. You know me too well to believe 
me capable of unmeaning compliments. Since your Depart- 
ure, I miss my Evenings Rides, as I know not how to get a 
companion to whom I can unbend. I find but few, indeed very 
few to whom I can do it. I have called the General Assembly, 
who met the 9th Ultimo, and have entered on business with 

them, without meeting Mr J s as Speaker which I could 

not consistently do, He continues the same dark and Sus- 
picious man, and I have a right to say, I do not deserve such 
treatment from him. He was chosen Speaker, but I told 2 
or 3 of his Friends, that I could not do business with him and 
he very prudently declined the chair. So Far- all is Well. 

Charles Pryce was the Attorney General of the Province. During his absence James 
Uume acted in his place. 

222 The Letters of 

Before the late Holidays, I adjourned the Assembly to the 
i8th Instant, to meet for the Dispatch of Business, and you 
know they will fully employ me, however, I must say, that 
so far as I can at Present see and understand them, they 
meet me with a Disposition to go on properly. My dear 
Friend, I still persevere in my natural Tract of being open, 
plain, and simple in my conduct. I Hate what is generally 
understood by Politicks, but I think I have a proper Idea 
of what is called Prudence. Believe me there is not a mur- 
mur here against my administration, which I have no small 
Difficulty in prosecuting, I hope however my successor will 
do better, and if the Peace and Prosperity of this Country 
is Preserved I care not by whom it is done. 
Our Chancery business encreases too much, that is, I mean 
it's intention is perverted. I have just been talking to Charles 
about one of the most nefarious and wicked Bills, I have 
yet seen, and I have determined to shew a proper Contempt 
for the Promoter. This son of yours is a fine youth, of good 
Sentiments, and will do you Honor ; he has Spirits, and has 
sense to exercise it discreetly. I really regard him, and will 
do him every service in my Power. I expect my friend Gov- 
ernor Wright here, perhaps within a month, and the day of 
his Arrival will be a happy one to me, I shall surrender the 
Reins of Government, with much more pleasure than I re- 
ceived them. My present State of health, will not allow me 
to undertake so great a weight of Care and Business, and I 
really do not expect to be free from Complaints on this side 
the Grave but rather, that they will encrease. 
My Nephew Clay finds, that he cannot attend to settle his 
several late Copartnership's, and carry on his present Busi- 
ness, and therefore proposes taking in your Nephew and my 
Son Joe, not wishing that his Connections, which probably 
are the best in the Province, and which you know were form- 
erly principally mine, should go out of the Family ; accord- 
ingly Joe commenced with him on the ist Instant, James 
and I perfectly accorded in this new connection, to which 
Joe attends very closely, and he must do well. 
I have made your good wishes known to secretary John ; 
James and his pretty, I wou'd rather say good wife, and now 
I must make my most grateful Acknowledgements to you 
for the Spectacles, and spare glasses you sent me, which suit 
my Eyes, which I can percieve daily fail me, I also duly re- 
ceived the tea, that your and my good Sister sent to me, who 
she is pleased to call her good brother on the Direction on 
the Cannister, which I could see was the same handwriting 

Hon. James Habersham. 22j 

as her letter to her Nephew Joe. These tokens of your re- 
spective Friendship, I am at a loss to express my gratefuU 
sense of, and pray my good sir be free in Acquainting me if 
anything from this End of the Eearth, will be acceptable at 
Parsons Green, as it would be highly pleasing to me to have 
it in my Power, tho' in the smallest degree, to shew my re- 
gard to Mrs Pryce, and if I may not presume I must request 
you to present my most respectfull Compliments to good 
Lady Boyle, And be assured, that I subscribe, my dear Sir 
with Truth 

Your Friend and affectionate Servant 

P. S. Some Invidious Person from hence has endeavoured 
to prejudice me in the opinion of a Gentleman now or lately 
on your side the water, but believe me I despise such at- 
tempts, hoping my conduct will bear the test of the Strictest 
Enquiry from the most Malevolent and envious. These 
Stabs in the Dark can scarcely be guarded against. — 

To the right Honorable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 

(Extract) dated 5th April 1773- 


I have the honor of receiving your Ladyships letter of 
the 17th November by the Revd Mr Piercy, and another of 
the 23d Decbr last by the Revd Mr Eccles, and I hope 
I shall evince, that any persons recommended by your Lady- 
ship, especially such as bear the truly honorable character 
of Ambassadors of the great Redeemer, will meet with every 
degree of respect and countenance in my power- The at- 
tention I have lately been unavoidably obliged to give to in- 
ferior things was too much at my time of life, but as Govnr 
Wright has reassumed his Government, I hope I shall have 
more leisure to attend to more important concerns- 
Yesterday (Sunday) I was at Bethesda with 
the Governor, Council and Assembly, upon particular invi- 
tation from Mr Piercy, when he preached both Morning and 
Afternoon, and took an occasion to declare your Ladyships 
intentions in regard to the future plan of the College- and 
I have reason to believe, that both the Doctrine he advanced 

The Rev. Mr. Piercy, rector of St. Paul's Church, Charleston, was selected by Liady 
Huntingdon as President of Bethesda and General Agent of the Countess in the adminis- 
tration of its temporal atTairs. The Rev. Mr. Crosse, who had been in the service of White- 
fleld. was chosen as chaplain and master of the house. Mr. Piercy's management was 
marked by gross carelessness and down-right dishonesty, and his disgraceful conduct near- 
ly ruined the institution and caused the Countess great trouble. 

22^ The Letters of 

and maintained, and your Ladyships plan, in both which he 
was very expHcit, met with general acceptance, nothwith- 
standing there were, for the number present, several critical 
hearers- He was certainly assisted to speak clearly and plain- 
ly, and your Ladyship was not forgot in the Chappel, nor 
after a plentiful Dinner, which was politely served up- To- 
morrow he begins his Ministry in this Town, where we have 
three places of public worship, a Church of England, a Swiss 
and English dissenting Congregation over which Mr Zubly 
presides, and a Lutheran Church- The Minister of the Church 
of England has not yet taken the least notice of either Mr 
Piercy or Mr Eccles- This conduct in every point of view 
will probably be of no service to him- Mr Piercy does not 
chuse any connection with Mr Zubly, for which I do not 
blame him- His reasons appear to be well founded, a con- 
nexion with a people not entirely of his sentiments might 
straiten him in his prospects of usefulness- The Lutheran 
Church is occasionally served, perhaps about Six times a 
year, with two pious German Ministers, who I believe both 
love Jesus Christ, and I have this day got the use of the 
Church from the Managers or Trustees- It wants some fin- 
ishing, which I and my friends have promised to assist in 
doing- It will accommodate about 250 hearers, and several 
more, who have ears to hear, may stand under the covering 
without- This I hope will do, until a more commodious place 
can be provided- Mr Piercy has certainly great powers, and 
I hope he will be instrumental to revive many sleepy, and 
quicken many dead souls- God favors and grace are not 
bound, but as we have had in times past line upon line, per- 
haps we may be like the Smiths Dog, that sleeps under the 
Anvill- I have the honor to be, Madam, Your Ladyships, 
Most Obedt and verv humble Servt- 

J. H. 

To the right Honorable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 

Savannah in Georgia 5 April 1773. 


I have the honour of receiving Your Ladyships Let- 
ter of the 17th of November by the Revd Mr Piercy, and an- 
other of the 23d of December last by the Revd Mr Eccles, 
and I hope I shall evince that any Persons recommended by 
your Ladyship, especiallv such as bear the truly honorable 
Character of the Ambassadors of the Great Redeemer will 

Hon. James Habersham. 225 

meet with every degree of Respect and Countenance in my 
Power. The Attention I have lately been obliged to give to 
inferior things was too much at my time of Life, but as Gov- 
ernor Wright has reassumed his Government, I hope I shall 
have more time to attend to more important concerns. Last 
week I made a visit of three days to Bethesda College, when 
Mr Piercy, another gentleman, who is a considerable Plant- 
er, and myself viewed the plantation called Nazareth, which 
appeared to have been very badly managed, and I hope the 
directions v/e gave the Overseer will be duly attended to, and 
that a better Crop will be made this year, than hitherto, al- 
tho' it will by no means be equal to what might have been 
expected, but the season for planting is now too far advanced 
to make any considerable alteration- Another year I hope 
a good Crop may be made, especially as Mr Piercy proposes 
to purchase more Negroes, as soon as they can be got, for 
they are become rather scarce and very dear- The Land is 
undoubtedly extraordinary good and valuable for rice, and 
indeed I scarcely know a better, if so good a tract- 
Yesterday (Sunday) I was at Bethesda, with the Governor, 
Council, and Assembly, upon a particular Invitation from Mr 
Piercy, when he preached, both Morning and Afternoon, and 
took an occasion to declare your Ladyship's Intentions in 
regard to the future Plan of the College, and I have reason 
to believe, that both the Doctrine, he advanced and main- 
tained, and your Ladyships plan, in both which, he was very 
explicit, met with general Acceptance, notwithstanding there 
were, for the number Present, several critical Hearers. He 
was certainly assisted to speak clearly and plainly, and Your 
Ladyship was not forgot in the Chappel, nor after a plenti- 
full dinner, which was politely served up. Tomorrow he be- 
gins his ministry in this town, where we have three places 
of public Worship, a church of England, a Swiss and English 
dissenting Congregation, over which Mr Zubly presides, and 
a Lutheran Church- The minister of the Church of England, 
has not yet taken the least notice of either Mr Piercy or Mr 
Eccles. This conduct in every Point of view, will probably 
be of no service to him. Mr PiercA' does not chuse any con- 
nection with Mr Zubly for which I do not blame him. His 
reasons appear well founded, a connection with a people, 
not entirely of his Sentiments might straighten him in his 
Prospects of Usefullness 

The Lutheran Church is occasionally served, perhaps about 
six times a year, with two pious German Ministers, who I 
believe, both love Jesus Christ, and I have this day got the 

226 The Letters of 

use of the Church froui the managers or trustees. It wants 
some finishing which I and my friends have promised to as- 
sist in doing. It will accomodate about 250 hearers, and sev- 
eral more, (who have ears to hear, may stand under a cover- 
ing without . This I hope will do until a more commodious 
Place can be provided. Mr Piercy has certainly great Power, 
and I hope he may be instrumental to revive many sleepy, 
and quicken many dead souls. Gods favours and grace are 
not bound, but as we have had in times past line upon line, 
perhaps we may be like the Smiths dog that sleeps under 
the anvil. 

I received a letter from your Ladyship by Mr Cossen, who 
arrived here with Mrs Hughes, and Mr Cooke the 27th of 
December last by Capt Anderson. Your Lady-ship's Recom- 
mendation of them was a sufificient Inducement to me to re- 
ceive them with all Kindness, After they had dined with me, 
I ordered my carriage to take them to Bethesda, but Mr 
Cossen intimating, that he and Mrs Hughes were under an 
engagement of marriage, which was agreed upon, with your 
Lady-ship's approbation , before they left England, I spoke 
to them separately, and finding them in the same mind, I 
told them it had best be done before they left this Town, 
accordingly, I ordered the secretary to make out a license, 
and the Minister of the Church of England married them 
without any expense, and I had the pleasure of giving that 
simple hearted and good womans hand to Mr Cossen, who 
I think do and will live together as Heirs of the Grace of 
Life. ~ 

I find Mr Piercy- thinks my advice on this occasion was 
proper, and perfectly agreable to Your Ladyship's intention. 
As I now look upon Your Lady ship as greatly interested 
in the welfare of Georgia, especially your family in it, I hope 
your Lady ship will excuse this Chit-Chat or rather dry Nar- 

Your Lady-ship's Plan with regard to the College, and all 
that concerns it, must meet with the approbation of all, who 
wish prosperity to Jurusalem, and its usefulness, must be 
extensive to the present and future generations, especially 
if God should awaken young men, and give them a heart to 
dedicate themselves freely to promote the Kingdom of Christ 
upon Earth. I am also clearly of opinion that the Estate 
belonging to that Foundation, may be improved to perman- 
ent advantage, with proper management and Strength ; and 
as I have no doubt of Mr Piercy having engaged in this work 
with a single eye to promote its welfare, I shall endeavour to 

Hon. James Habersham. 22J 

give him every assistance in my Power, both when Present 
and when he is absent, for from the short acquaintance I 
have had with him, I feel my heart united to him, and conse- 
quently have unreserved freedom in co-operating with him 
towards bringing your Lady-ship's designs to maturity. 

With the highest respect I have the honor to 
be, Madam 

Your Lady-ships 

Most obedient and verv hble Servant. 

The Revd Mr at Bethesda College 

Savannah the 25th May 1773. 
Revd and dear Sir. 

Although I feel myself constrained from 
the real Love I bear you to write this line, yet God knows 
how reluctant I do it, because I would not willingly, do or 
say anything to give my good Friend the least Pain ; and 
from my Situation in Life, I feel a further difficulty, as it may 
not only be thought improper but presumptous in me to of- 
fer my opinion in Matters out of my Sphere, but as I be- 
lieve you, possess great goodness of heart, and an uncommon 
sweetness of temper, I am the less fearfull of offending you. 
You certainly chose a noble and most excellent subject to 
speak upon last Sunday Evening, and the general observa- 
tions you made were serious and solemn truths, but they were 
so disjointed, that I think your auditory were disappointed, 
and not much benefitted by your Manner of handling the 

A very dear Friend, one of Lady Huntingdons Attorneys for 
the Orphan House, who has been absent from Savannah since 
your Arrival, and who you therefore are not acquainted with, 
was present, and, when we came out of the House, observed, 
that he wished you would reduce your Thoughts into writ- 
ing, before you delivered them in public- I perfectly agreed 
with him, and also very heartily wish you would do it- It 
would be a means of fixing the subject matter, you treat 
upon, better on your Memory, and enable you to divide the 
word of Truth with greater Precission and Clearness, and 
permit me to say, that there are Many sensible Men. who 
cannot speak their Sentiments extempore with graccfull Ac- 
ceptance, who shine with great Lustre, when they deliver 
them in writing, or at least from short Notes well digested 

This letter was probably addressed either to Rev. Mr. Eccles, then living at Bethesda, 
or to Rev. Mr. Crosse 

228 The Letters of 

under proper Heads- This I know from my own Experience, 
and that when I have endeavoured to express myself, with- 
out previously reducing my Thoughts into writing at large, 
or the Substance in Notes, I have failed, and indeed have 
not been able to speak My Sentiments to my own or the 
Hearers Satisfaction, or even to be sometimes clearly Under- 
stood- My Late dear Friend Mr Whitefield has more than 
once told me, that altho' he thought I could express my 
Thoughts tolerably in writing, I did not verbally, and I am 
sure his observation was right, and I have often found it so, 
in a public capacity, which has made me frequently more than 

My dear Friend, if I can read your Heart, this is 
in some Measure your Case, and if you use yourself to write 
your Thoughts, it will so impress them on your Memory, 
that you will have little occasion for Notes, altho' I cannot 
see, that short Notes to unburthen the Mind should be de- 
spised by any one, even in the most advanced Stage of Piety 
and Experience in the divine Life- God bless you my dear 
Friend, and if you take this freedom kindly, it will, if possi- 
ble, endear you more, than you are to, Revd and dear Sir 

Yours &c 
P. S. 

I have reasons to believe, that I express the thoughts 
of more than myself and Friend, 

To the Countess of Huntingdon 

Honoured Madam Savannah in Georgia 

the 3rd June 1773 
It is impossible for me to express the 
distress, I have felt for two or three days Occasioned by an 
awful Providence of which I have been an eye witness- Last 
Sabbath day evening- being Whitsunday, Bethesda College, 
with the very neat chappie adjoining it, was totally burnt 
down, and very little of the furniture books and other effects 
in it saved. It happened between 7 and 8 Oclock, while Mr 
Piercy was in this Town, It is perhaps an unfortunate cir- 
cumstance that all of your family were absent except Mr 
Eccles and three or four negroes, of whom two were women- 
It is said there had been no fire in any of the chimneys for 

This loss to Bethesda was a severe one. from which it (lid not recover in many years. 
The dark days of the Revolution and the dishonest and perfidious conduct of Mr. Piercy in 
the management of the institution cast a gloom over the noble charity for a long time, but 
the spirit of its great founder moved again in the hearts of the people and through the 
vicissitudes of the years it stands to-day a monument to Whitefield and to the charity of 

Hon. James Habersham. 22 g 

two days past, as the fire appeared first on the outside of the 
roof of the house, it was supposed to be done by Hghtning, 
of which there had been a httle on that day, one of your 
Ladyships negroe men, got up to the top of the House, and 
well nigh put out the Flames, but in brushing ofif the Smoke 
and Flames from his face, he missed his hold, and fell to the 
ground, which was a Terrible Fall, as the House is the high- 
est in this Province) by which he was much hurt, and if I 
am not much mistaken dislocated his neck, Mr Eccles with 
much Presence of Mind, put his neck right and bled him, 
and I am told the poor fellow is in a fair way of doing well-- 
I have before informed your Ladyship that Mr Piercy was in 
this Town, He read the whole Service of the Church in the 
morning, and afterwards preached, and also in the afternoon, 
Mr Wright and Mr Cooke were with him, and the latter 
officiated as his Clerk- Mr Hill was supplying his congrega- 
tions at 50 miles distance and Mr Roberts and Mr Richards 
were supplying another, about 40 miles from the House- 
Mr Crane and Mr Piercys brother were also absent. A gen- 
tleman who lives about 2 miles from Bethesda came with 
his negroes, and was I am told extremely kind and active 
and probably prevented the wing which is nearly finished 
from being burnt. There were some other persons present, 
who must have been plunderers, as several articles were miss- 
ing, which Mr Eccles is sure were saved from the flames. 
What wretches mvist such people be, who take advanLage of 
such a time of desolation and distress to rob- The other 
wing is intended to be finished as soon as it can be done, so 
that your Ladyships present family, will be comfortably ac- 
commodated,-and I trust that notwithstanding this awful 
frown of Providence, that every thing will go on well and 
the house be restored more substantially, and with out any 
expense to your Ladyship- Mr Piercy told me this morning 
that two or three gentlemen had given, or would give on 
demand. Five hundred pounds Sterling, to purchase Negroes, 
to be immediately put about the making bricks, as it is 
thought advisable to build the House vv^ith brick which would 
be more secure from fire, than a wooden building as the 
former was, and to construct the roof so, that it may be 
easily come at in case of an accident of a like nature- It is 
not concluded whether to include the Chapel in the House, 
or to erect it at some distance 

If the latter, the foundation of the house, must be laid larger, 
and more spacious than the former, and I am very hopefull 
that the great Head of the Church, will appeal for this In- 

^jo The Letters of 

stitution, and that the many prayers and tears offered up in 
its behalf, will not be lost, and if I may be allowed the ex- 
pression, the second Temple will be restored with greater 
lustre than the first- I must confess that as often as I have 
seen the House, dreaded the disaster, and have frequently 
mentioned to Mr Wright that I did not like the construc- 
tion of the chimney as they could not be easily, if at all well 
cleansed, and neither the high pitch of the Roof, which was 
not to be come at without difficulty, however these incon- 
veniences may be remedied in Future, and I believe Mr 
Piercy will receive no assistance either from private Hands 
or the public, unless given to execute your Ladyships Plan, 
and to remain the sole property of your Ladyship and your 
successors- All the Books in the Library are gone, except 
a few odd Volumns, which is a great loss, especially to the 
Students- Mr Whitefields Effigy in Wax, and his bust taken 
from Life, and his Picture at length are burnt- A neat brass 
Branch in the Chappel, the gift of a gentleman here, is totally 
melted, and most (if not all the Chappel and Communion 
Furniture is burned, and indeed a great deal of the common 
House Furniture- It is almost impossible yet to say, what 
is burnt or stolen, untill things can be collected together- 
This Institution has met with many very many checks and 
disappointments, I may say to appearance sentences of Death, 
upon it, but this last is truly humiliating and a heavy stroke 
indeed, but surely my Lady, The Lord has yet a Blessing in 
store for it, and therefore has permitted this to happen, for 
the trial of his servants Faith, and to prepare them for great- 
er usefullness in his Church- I am far from enjoying a good 
state of Health, and I think my work is nearly finished on 

I am my good Lady 

your Ladyships 
P S. The Orphan House accounts Most &c 

and Vouchers cannot be found, and doubtless are all burned, 
except the Vouchers from the last credit which I had tied 
together, they were the next day, amongst the Goods, that 
were thrown out of the House- 

I look upon it as a Providential Circumstance, that but four 
davs before the fire, I had taken an Abstract of the whole 
Expenditure and Receipts from its first Foundation, which 
I did to send your Ladyship, and the London Executors, 
as I looked upon it that your Ladyships charge for the house 
began with the beginning of the present Year, I had almost 
forgotten to mention to vour Ladyship, that Mr Piercy went 

Hon. James Habersham. 2ji 

this morning to Charleston almost dead with Grief, with 
Mr Ambrose Wright, and another friend to purchase negroes, 
many having lately arrived there for sale- Upon further 
enquiry, I begin to doubt, whether the house was set on 
Fire by Lightning, but rather think it was occasioned by 
some latent sparks, in one of the Chimneys, which had com- 
municated with the Roof, especially, as Mr Eccles says he 
smelt Fire all the day, and more particlarly as the effect of 
Electrical Fire is, in every instance I have seen immediaie- 
But as the House is consumed, it is perhaps of no conse- 
quence to conjecture about the cause, only that God per- 
mitted it to be, and therefore it becomes our duty to humble 
ourselves under His misfhtv Hand- 

To William Knox Esqr London 

Savannah in Georgia the I2th August 1773 
My dear Sir 

The State of my Health is so exceedingly bad, 
that I have come to a final and positive Resolution to close 
the various Concerns, I have been engaged in, and never 
more to undertake any Business, except, as far as I can to 
assist my Children. This my Friend the Doctor, Mr Graham, 
and indeed all my Friends advise, and also that I would leave 
this Climate, which I would have done this Summer, but the 
unsettled State of my own affairs, and those of my Friends 
in my hands, made it impossible, altho' it has near cost me 
my Life ; and its the general Opinion of my Friends, that I 
cannot weather out another Summer. I am now therefore, 
as the Heat and Weather will permit, settling my Business, 
and as I hope the ensuing Winter will a little brace me up, 
I shall employ every moment to bring my affairs to an Is- 
sue, so that I may be able to leave this Country next Spring, 
and go to England or to the Northward, where I hope a 
change of Air will be of Service, at least to render my few 
remaining Days more comfortable to rub Through.- I men- 
tion this, because I must decline taking any further Concern 
in your affairs. Indeed I have not been able to render you 
but little, if any service ; for a considerable time past, and I 
have lately repeatedly told Mr Graham, that I cannot for 
the future act for you, and that I woud close your accounts, 
and deliver them over to him. He said he would not keep 
accounts for any Person, but woud readily visit your Plan- 
tation, and render you any service in his power there . Not- 
withstanding you say, you dont want, any accounts in Geor- 

232 The Letters of 

gia, where you have now a considerable planting Interest, 
I think it is impossible your Business, can be carried on with- 
out some Expenditures, of which an account must be kept. 
You must know, that a great many small incidental expenses 
must arise, which cannot be foreseen and provided for, and 
I woud recommend you to join Mr Natha,niel Hall in a letter 
of Attorney with Mr Graham. Mr Hall has purchased and 
setled a fine plantation within half a mile of your Land, on 
which he resides, and it will be very handy for him to cast an 
Eye upon yours. He is young, and active, understands ac- 
counts, and I am very much mistaken, if he will not as faith- 
fully, and chearfully, serve you, as I can with Truth say I 
have done, and I believe Mr Graham is of the same opinion ; 
I have either lost or mislaid your Power of Attorney, so that 
you must send out a new one. I have not yet settled with 
Mr Martin, owing to my being so unwell and unfit to do 
Bvtsiness, but I will have all your accounts setled as I am able, 
and send you a clear State of them, so that I may finish with 
you, as I mean to do with all before I go hence, and am no 
more seen. To be serious with you my Friend if I ever have 
been of use to the Public or my Friends, I verily believe my 
work is finished. There is a period to everything, and I am 
well satisfyed if my poor labours through my Pilgrimage 
meet with Acceptance from God, to whom we must all render 
an Account. I hope my Friend will not think my declining 
Business, especially for him, arises from any other cause 
than I have mentioned — 

Mr Graham has bought for you 32 Negroes, 17 of them about 
6 weeks agoe, which were paid for by bills on you, and of 
which you have been particularly advised, and now 15 more 
for which I have with Mr Graham signed Bills this day for 
£772.17.0 one sett payable at 3 months sight — 
for £386. 8. 6 Another sett paybl at 6 months for — 
386. 8. 6 

-£772.17. o of which Mr Graham will particularly advise 

you and of his reasons for so doing. 
I have just received your letter of the 3d of June pr Post, 
acknowledging the Receipt of mine of the 17th April preceed- 
ing, by which I learn, that what I advised you to have done 
met with your approbation. By the return of this Post to 
Charlestown this Evening, I shall send you Mr Smith's Pat- 
ent to go by the Packet. You may judge how incapable I 

Hon. James Habersham. 2jj 

am of Business, when I tell you that I have been for two 
days labouring to write this letter. I am my dear Sir 

Yours &c 
P. S. I have just put Mr Smiths Patent under cover to you. 
Mr Johnson knows the terms, on which he must hold the 

Mrs Mary Bagwith in Whitty Yorkshire 

Savannah in Georgia 7th January 1774 * 
My dear Sister 

As I enjoy but a poor State of Health, I 
Propose, and my Friends advise me, to take a sea voyage, 
and I think of seeing England in June next, accompanined 
with my neice your Daughter, and my youngest Son John, 
altho' my Friends in England and Here, think a voyage to 
the northward on this Continent, wou'd be better for me, 
than going to England, as the air of England is much moist- 
er, than in America, which I believe ; however I seem de- 
termined, to make a visit, to my native Country, where I 
hope to have the pleasure of seeing you, which is my great- 
est Inducement to go there, otherwise I think I would pre- 
fer an American Voyage ; I understand, you have been put 
to a considerable Expence in a Law Suit about a Pew in 
Whitty Church, which is decided in your favour, and as I 
wish to make your Situation as easy, as in my Power I have 
wrote to Messieurs Clark and Milligan to pay your Bill on 
them for Thirty Pounds Sterling, which you may draw for, 
and I am persuaded they will honour it. This Copartnership 
was formerly Graham and Clark, but Mr Graham has de- 
clined, and Mr Clark has taken his Brother in Law, Mr Milli- 
gan, into Trade with him. I am my dear Sister 

Your Affectionate Brother 

To Mrs Mary Bagwith in Whitty Yorkshire 

Savannah in Georgia 3d February 1774 
My Dear Sister 

The foregoing is Copy of my letter of the 7th of 
Last month, whereby you will see, I have empowered you 
to draw upon Messieurs Clark and Milligan in London for 

*The rapidly falling health of James Habersbam is clearly indicated in this and the fol- 
lowing letter to his sister. After an absence of nineteen months Governor Wright had re- 
turned and relieved him of the responsibilities of the Government in February. 177S. 
Although the visit here proposed was prevented by the events mentioned in the next letter, 
he did make the visit -'to the Northward'' the following year, and died at New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. Aug. 28. 177.5. 

He suffered much from gout in his later years. 

^j/ The Letters of 

Thirty Pounds, which I now confirm. By a very untoward 
Circumstance, that has lately happened, the People of this 
Province are thrown into the most distressed and embar- 
rassed Situation. The Creek Indians, a neighboring nation 
of Savages, who are very numerous, and at least have two 
effective men to our one, have killed and massacred i6 of 
our white Inhabitants and 2 negroes, without the least Cause 
or Provocation, that I can learn by which, a great number 
of our Settlements are broke up, and the Affrighted Posses- 
sors are fled ; whether this matter will stop where it is now, 
or whether it will end in a general war with these Savages, 
I cannot conjecture, in all events a war with these Savages, 
is the most Calamitous circumstance that can befall us by 
the hands of men, as we are by no means in a condition to 
resent their cruel and barberous Insults, and have not one 
of the Kings troops to assist us, and as I must doubt, indeed 
I have scarce the least Expectation of our getting any, our 
prospect of obtaining Redress, and future Security, from 
the cruel Ravages of the Savages is truly Alarming. In this 
Situation of affairs, I cannot think of leaving this Country 
where my all is at Stake, and therefore as far as I can yet see 
I must at present lay aside the thoughts of visiting my native 
Country, and probably I may never see you on this side of 
Eternity. If these Indians should generally break with us, 
which it's possible may be the case, my Three sons and my 
three different white overseers are liable to be called upon 
to protect the Country, when some of them may probably 
be no more, and in such a case there will be no one but my- 
self who am a decrepit, sickly. Infirm, old Man, to take care 
of my black family consisting, of one hundred and Ninty 
Eight Persons, Men, Women, and Children. This is Truly 
my present condition, by which you will see, we hold our 
property by a very precarious tenor. The Providence of 
God has placed me and my family here, and therefore I have 
a right, and will depend upon him for Protection, and what- 
ever may be the Issue I hope I shall with heart and lip say. 
His Avill' be done, and were it not for this consideration, I 
should be glad to move to some corner, where I might have 
a Prospect to dye in Peace. 
I am my dear Sister 

Your very affectionate Brother 

P. S. Was I to go to England in the present distracted pos- 
ture of Affairs any Pleasure I could propose to my-self would 
be imbittered with anxiety of what might happen in my Ab- 

Hon. James Habersham. 2^5 

sence, and probably deprive me of one Chearfull Hour; for 
a state of Suspense is of all others the most distressing 

To Abraham Hayne Esq- near Pon pon So. Carolina 

Savannah in Georgia the 7th April 1775. 
Dear Sir 

As I am debar'd shipping of rice to Messieurs Ed- 
wards, Fisher & Comp for the balance of Moons Estate in 
my hands, as I proposed, I now enclose you my order on 
them for Six hundred fifty seven Pounds, Ten Shillings your 
Currency, which with Fifty two Pounds, six shillings the 
nominal Exchange added of £8. p Cent, between this place 
and Charleston will make £709.16.0. equal at 7 for i to 
iioi.8.0. this Money, which you will please to dispose of, 
as you may think most beneficial for the Interest of Mr Moons 
daughter, who I do not wish may know from whence it comes. 
I want to have done with this and all other business, before 
I go hence and am no more seen, an Event I may soon ex- 
pect- As you are a Georgia Planter, I think you must know, 
that there is no geting Payments from hence in your Province 
at £8 p Ct discount, but I want to have done with this mat- 
ter, and to have it off my Mind, and therefore have sent you 
this order. 

I am dear Sir &c 

To Messieurs Clark and Milligan In London 

Savannah in Georgia the 7th April 1775 

Enclosed you have Invoice and Bill of lad- 
ing of 14s whole and 10 half barrels of Rice, shipped on 
Board the Brig Good Intent, Thomas Morrison, consigned 
to your Address amounting to £350. 3. 10, which you will 
dispose of for my Account. I desire you will ship me by the 
first coming Vessel direct to this Port the following Articles 
&c &c 

The fiery Patriots in Charleston have stopped all Dealings 
with us, and will not suffer any Goods to be landed there 
from Great Britain ; and I suppose the Northern Provinces 
will follow their Example ; and if so, I fear I shall have no 
opportunity of going there this ensueing Summer, as I pro- 

With the ebbing of James Habersham's life, which at this time is very apparent, the 
rising tide of the Revolution is soon to usher in a series of events of which this letter is all 
too prophetic. 

23^ The Letters of 

pose to do, if God spares my Life, and I can as I before ob- 
served, get conveyance by water, for my crazy Constitution 
will not bear the Fatigue of such a long Journey by Land. 
I feel myself daily declining in Health, and think it is abso- 
lutely necessary for me to change the Air during the hot 
Summer, If I should * of making a Tour, I mean to draw 
on you perhaps for £200, of which however you will be duly 
advised. The People on this Continent are generally almost in 
a State of Madness, and Desperation, and should conciliating 
Measures take Place on your Side, I know not what may be 
the Consequence, I fear, an open Rebellion against the parent 
State, and consequently amongst ourselves. Some of the 
inflamatory resolutions and Measures taken and published 
in the Northern Colonys I think too plainly portend this ; how- 
ever I must, and do upon every occasion declare, that I would 
not chuse to live here longer, than we are in a State of prop- 
er Subordination to, and under the protection of Great Bri- 
tain, altho' I cannot altogether approve of the steps she has 
lately taken, and do most cordially wish, that a permanent 
Line of Government was drawn, and persued, by the Mother 
and her Children, and may God give your Senators Wisdom 
to do it, and heal this Breach ; otherwise I cannot think of 
this event but with Horror and Grief. Father against Son, 
and Son against Father, and the nearest relations and Friends 
combatting with each other, I may Perhaps say with Truth, 
cutting each others throats, dreadfull to think of much less 
to experience ; but I will have done with this disagreable 
subject, and am 


Your most humble Servant 

P. S. I find that the American Merchants in London have 
begun to Stir in this matter, and I hope their application will 
meet with success, as no good can ensue to Great Britain 
and her Colonys, from this contest, but much hurt to both, 
I am for Peace on Constitutional Grounds. 

*Word omitted in the manuscript, think is probably the word. 

Hon. James Habersham. 2^y 

To John Edwards Esq. In Charlestown So. Carolina- 
Savannah in Georgia the 7th April 1775. 
Dear Sir. 

I now enclose you our Friend Mr Piercys or- 
der on you and Company payable to me 30 days after date 
for Three thousand and fifty two Pounds four Shillings and 
one penny your Currency, which at Maturity I desire may 
be carried to my credit in your Companys Books, and for 
which I shall draw on them as occasion may require- If 
nothing material happens to prevent and an opoprtunity of- 
fers, I think of going by water to the Northward sometime 
next month or at farthest in June, and if so, T must draw 
from thence to bear my Expences, hoping the Voyage may 
be of benefit to my health. 

My Son John must be with me, whereever I 
go, and as my eldest Son James appears to be in a declining 
State of Health, if his Business will permit, he may probably 
go with me also- My demand against the good Countess 
(every Shilling for cash advanced) was near, if not full double 
the sum Mr Piercy has drawn for, but as I was convinced 
the dear Lady has strained every Nerve, and perhaps done 
more, than she can with Convenience to her many Engage- 
ments for the sake of spreading the gospel, I took another 
way of Payment for the rest of my demand by an order on 
a Bank, that can never fail, and always pays at Sight. 

You may remember, that sometime last Fall, 
I informed you, that I would send you Rice to the amount 
of £101-8-0^ Georgia Currency, the Net Proceeds of which, 
I desired might be paid to Mr Abraham Hayne, and disposed 
of by him for the benefit of an orphan young Woman, who 
lives at Jacksonburg, or near it- but as I am now debar'd 
of an opporunity x x x x x x 

It would have been much more to my advantage to have 
shipped you rice, than to have taken this mode of remitting, 
but I want to have done with this Business, and to have it 
ofif my mind. There is a charge in your account with me of 
£7.7.0. paid Downes and- for repairing my Gold repeating 
watch, which my son John by my order, paid to them in 
Charlestown, as you will see by their Receipt enclosed, you 
v.'ill therefore be pleased to get them to refund the Money 
you paid, and carry it to my credit- I am dear Sir- 
Your Most obedient &c. 

The deep and abiding: interest of James Habersham in the Bethesda Orphan House is 
here manifested in a modest and s,ubstantial manner. The dishonest and perfidious con- 
duct of Mr. Piercy in the management of the affairs of Bethesda in the following years was 
not foreseen at this time. 

238 The Letters of 

To the Countess of Huntingdon, to the Care of Robt Kean 

Esqr. In London- 
Savannah in Georgia the 19 April 1775 

Dear Madam 

when I left Charlestown last April, I was 
seized with a most violent Fit of the Gout, on the Road, and 
with great Pain and Difficulty I returned here. I was after- 
wards confined for some months, unable to think of, or do 
any kind of Business, being obliged to be moved about my 
House by the Help of 2 or 3 Servants. Mr Piercy returned 
here the day before Christ-mass day last, and on New Years 
day following, I was seized with another Attack, while I was 
hearing him preach, which confined me to my Bed for a con- 
siderable time, and these repeated Attacks is the true Cause, 
why I have not answered your Ladyship's late Letters sooner. 
My Disorder lay principally in my Knees, Hands, Arms, 
and Shoulders, that I could not hold a pen in my Hand, and 
the Violence of the Pain made me too often wish for Death 
as a Release. I thank God, I am much freer from Distress- 
ing Pains, and can move about a little with the assistance 
of one Servant to rest upon. Mr Piercv left this place about 
8 days agoe, and is gone to Charlestown in order to proceed 
to the northward, but whether he will go by Land or by 
Water, I cannot say. I hope and believe the dear Redeemer, 
will be his Protector and Guide in this Time of Distraction 
and Confusion throughout this Vast Continent, for as I find 
Government are determined to push matters to the utmost 
Extremity to bring the Americans to a Sense of their Duty, 
I cannot think of the Consequence, but with Horror and 
Grief and indeed if conciliating Measures do not soon take 
Place, I expect no less than an open Breach amongst us, 
Father against Son, and Son against Father, and the dearest 
Connections broke through by the Violent Hands of Fac- 
tion and Party. It is impossible to give your Ladyship any 
idea of the distressing Scene, that presents itself to my View, 
if matters should be drove to Extremities- As I am appre- 
hensive, that I cannot subsist under the Heat of another 
Summer, I am determined if I have an opportunity of a Pas- 
sage, to meet Mr Piercy in Philadelphia, or New York in 
June, and as my eldest Son is in a very declining State of 
Health, he will probably accompany me if he can possibly 
leave his young Family and Business x x x x x 

Here iiKiiin in this letter we have an illustration of the steps taken to furnish moral 
and religious instructions to the negro slaves. See letter dated Nov. 20, 1770. 

This letter was written the day upon which the battle of Ijexington took place. 

Hon. Ja7)ies Habersham. 239 

The Benefit I propose to myself and him is from a short Sea 
Voyage and as Change of Climate and Air. 1 may in Some 
Measure experience a like Benefit, altho' I cannot expect as 
my Constitution grows weaker with advancing years, that 
I can so easily be braced up. Mr Piercy seems very anxious 
for my going, and I believe I shall not disapoint his expec- 
tations, altho' I know not of what Use I can be to him in 
Promoting the cause of the Gospel which I believe is his 
only View. I have settled all Accounts I had with your Lady- 
ship, with Mr Piercy, and given full discharges. 

In the whole they amounted 
to £1200, two thirds of which, was for your Ladyships sole 
Account, and as I have done this perfectly to my satisfac- 
tion, I hope my manner of doing it will not be displeasing 
to you. As it was a determined Point last Spring to make 
another Plantation, besides that on which the negroes left 
at Mr Whitefield's decease were employed, I ordered a be- 
ginning to be made last Summer in Mr Piercy's absence, but 
before I could do so, I found it absolutely necessary to pur- 
chase 237 acres of Land adjoining the Rice Field, without 
which there was not high, or rather dry Land sufficient to 
put the necessary buildings upon, besides there was a great 
want of proper Timber for building. Fencing, Coopers stuff, 
and other necessary uses, w^hich this Land will amply supply. 
It was sold at public auction, and as I was sick in Bed at the 
Time of the Sale, I got a Friend to buy it, and it was thought 
that I obtained it very reasonably, considering its useful- 
ness, and conveniency to forward your Ladyships Designs, 
which was very well known, it cost only los pr Acre, but 
with some unavoidable Expenses to procure proper and ef- 
fectual conveyances, it cost in the whole about £130. These 
Lands I have made over to your Ladyship, and the Deeds 
are all registered in the proper Offices, that the Lands is 
now your Lady ship's Property in Fee Simple, and all the 
buildings and improvements, that have been erected, and 
are now erecting will be on your own Land. Your Lady 
ships Negroes are now divided, I mean those left at Mr 
Whitfields Decease are on the place formerly settled, and 
your lately purchased are on the Land I bought for vou, 
and the Produce will be kept totally separate, they having 
each their respective Overseers. The two settlements are 
almost a mile distant from each other, and have not the least 
connection. Very little of the Land I bought is naturally 
fit for Cultivation, but it is pretty well stored with the most 

240 The Letters of 

useful Timber, without which it would be impossible to make 
a settlement. 

The Rice your Ladyships Negroes must plant is on the Or- 
phan House Land, but there can be no objection arise to 
that as your Negroes must clear and bring it into a state of 
Cutivation, with no small expense and Labour, and thereby 
render it more Valuable. Thus I hope all objections are 
removed, and the most captious, if they are not wilfully 
blind must see it. The two plantations will be near an equal 
distance from Bethesda, and if it please God to smile on 
them, I think they cannot fail to provide a fund, to promote 
your Ladyship's Designs with Effect. 

I have now given you the best information I can about the 
present state of your Ladyship's plantations, which I hope 
will satisfy every possible scruple your Ladyship can have, 
or that may be made by any Person, who may wish to find 
Fault, altho' I cannot see, by the spirit of Mr Whitfields 
will, that any Person has a right to dispute your Disposition 
of that Estate, in what manner you please, so that the de- 
ceased's general Design to promote the Gospel, may be 
answered. Surely not, and had he been alive and had he 
thought proper to make any necessary alterations, he might 
thmk or be advised wou'd be for the general good, who had 
any right to say it should not be done- However I think 
your Ladyship is perfectly right to remove any objection, 
that may or can be made, which is now most certainly done, 
and, if after this, any turbulent spirit should arise, which I 
scarcely expect I hope your Ladyship and Friends wou'd 
take no Notice of it, as there is no end of disputing with un- 
reasonable People, who want to reduce your generous Views 
within the narrow Compass of their own Formality. I was 
very happy in seeing Mrs Cossen return here, and as far as 
I can judge, I think her Husband will be a faithfull Help- 
mate, and as I do not wish to have your Ladyship burthened 
with more Expense, I think your Family should not be much 
enlarged, until your two Plantations will clearly defray every 
Expense. This, in my Opinion will be the most easy way 
of proceeding, and in the End will prove the most comfort- 
able to your Ladyship's Heart, and lay a solid Foundation for 
future usefulness : however I may perhaps give my Opinion 
too hastily, which I most humbly submit. Mr Peircy's last 
Visit here, I hope has left some People under serious Im- 
pressions, whether abiding or not, Time must discover. The 
Church he preached in belongs to a Lutheran Congregation, 
which is but small and is so crowded, when he preaches, that 

Hon. James Habersham. 24.1 

scarce one half of the People who wish to hear, can get into 
the House. It has been more than hinted to me, that many 
People would subscribe to build a larger and more conven- 
ient Church 

Mr Knox under Secretary of State to Lord Darmouth has 
sent over two Moravian Brethren, both Germans, to instruct 
his Black People. One of them has had a college education, 
and is a man of considerable Erudition, and at Mr Piercy's 
request who much regards him, he has preached two or three to your Ladyships Negroes, and I believe means to 
continue his visits to them. He has also made two or three 
Visits to my Plantations, and spoke to my People. The 
other is a Taylor, and a Man in years, I suppose about 45, 
but cannot speak English well enough to be understood, 
altho' he reads it Tolerably. He is now settled at my. Plan- 
tation, and I have given orders that he may be properly pro- 
vided for, and have free access to all my People at Conven- 
ient Times, and I have great Expectations, that the Lord 
will bless his Labours, as he appears to be a most simple- 
hearted, devoted Soul, but in other Respects, he seems to 
be an improbable Instrument of doing good, from his pres- 
eni Incapacity of speaking to the Negroes, hiv/ever I care 
not for that, as I do not depend on him but the Grace of God 
speaking in him to be of use. He has already begun a 
School with about 30 children and young People, and as I 
go out there (now my Health is a little restored) one or two 
days in a week, I cannot but admire his Patience and Tender- 
ness in instructing his young Flock, and as he takes unre- 
mitting Pains to learn to speak English I hope he will soon 
be able to speak it to the Grown People. This will be a great 
Comfort to me, as the souls of my poor benighted Blacks 
have long lain heavy on my Heart. I have a few Servants, 
who wait in my House, here and in the Country, who I have 
taught as I had opportunity, to read a little, but I cannot ob- 
serve that any saving Impressions have reached any of their 
Hearts. I hope that your Blackman David may be blessed, 
as he seems to be very anxious to be instrumental of good 
to your Ladyships Negroes ; and as far as I can learn, con- 
ducts himself very well, and I am only afraid, that the kind 
notice, he has met with in England will make him think too 
highly of himself. I have hinted this to Mr Peircy, and I 
hope he has cautioned him to avoid splitting on this Rock, 
This Work of instructing Negroes, should have the desired 
effect, as, I am persuaded it will meet with all the opposi- 
tion and reproach that men and Devils can invent 

24-2 The Letters of 

They have Six Thousand Converted Souls in the Danish 
Islands of St Croise, St Thomas &c and a considerable num- 
ber in the EngHsh Islands of Jamaica, Antigua, Barbadoes 
&c, from which one would hope for the like success here, 
as our Negroes are not so much depressed as I suppose they 
are in the west Indies, and I can truly say, that I wou'd not 
keep one of them, that wou'd prefer any Persons service to 
mine. Last November I sent a fine young Fellow a Cooper 
to your Ladyship's Plantation to make Rice Barrels and 
teach two of your People in that Business, and I had trouble 
enough to make him go there, for I do not chuse to make 
use of force and violence, and I have now one of my men 
there, to instruct and direct your Negroes how to plant, for 
whom I have been offered 200 Guineas, and to use his own 
Expression, when I told him, he wou'd oblige me to go 
there, that I wanted to sell him softly , that is without his 
Consent and knowledge, I Perfectly, understood his meaning, 
and assured him that I had no Intention to part with him. 
I mention these trifling Anecdotes to evince to your Lady- 
ship that we do not treat our Negroes as some people im- 
agine. Mr Law has turned out a trifling man, and has been 
(to speak in the softest terms) very unfaithfuU in your Lady- 
ship's Affairs. I had no acquaintance with him until I saw 
him at Bethesda. He is very plausible, and I think he does 
not want a Knowledge of the Planting Business, but he 
wants some-thing better, and more substantial. About the 
latter End of last September, when Mr Richard Piercy re- 
turned from the northward, I made a visit to your Plantation 
under great bodily Pain, and the moment I was carried into 
the Barn Yard for I could not Walk, I immediately saw, 
that all was Bad management, and could scarcely refrain from 
being outrageous. I wish it was in my Power, as formerly, 
for I believe there have been far more active men in this 
Province, to inspect your Ladyship's Affairs, better, than 
I can at Present, or ever expect to do ; for my good Lady. 
I have not been able to go into one of my Fields, for three 
or four years past, and am now lingering under a bad state 
of Health, and from my Present Feelings, I am waiting for 
my dissolution, which I may every day expect. A kind 
Friend has undertaken to superintend your Ladyships Plan- 
tation Affairs, and as I know he does not want Knowledge 
and Judgement, I will allow him to go on as he has begun. 
It will require a great deal of Labour and Improvement to 
bring it into a proper State of cultivation, and therefore I have 
before mentioned, that your Negroes will make it more \alu- 

Hon. James Habersham. 2^j 

able, which will make it more valuable, which I believe is 
naturally very good, and very fit for the Cultivation of Rice, 
and must in the End be profitable; and to this Purpose all 
the advice I can give from my experience in the Planting 
Business shall not be wanting. It is now more than 14 days 
since I began this letter, but my Nerves are so relaxed, and 
I have such sickness at my Stomach, that every day I have 
perhaps laid down my Pen ten times or more, and taken 
it up as often, and sometimes, I could not write at all ; and 
if it was not for my youngest Son, who is my Amanuensis, 
and understands my Scratches, I could very seldom corres- 
pond with any one. Thus my god Lady I am almost become 
a poor, helpless, Useless Man, and all the assistance I ex- 
pect is from the Tour, I mean if I have an opportunity, to 
take it. I hope for the reasons I have mentioned that your 
Ladyship will excuse my too long Silence, and with all De- 
ference, I have the Honor to Subscribe, Madam, Your Lady- 

FaithfuU and Most Obedient Servant 

To Mr Robert Keen. In London. 

Savannah in Georgia the nth of May 1775 
Dear Sir 

This day I received a Letter from Mr Piercy in 
Charlestown, dated the 8th Instnat, and another two or three 
days agoe, dated the 3d. In the latter, he desired I wou'd 
enquire into some misconduct of black David's in her Lady- 
ship's Family, and if after smart reproof, He remained in- 
ccrrigable, and did not amend, immediately to dismiss him, 
her Ladyship's Service, without putting her to one farthing 
more Expense. David had shown some impudent Airs, since 
Mr Piercy left Bethesda, of which he had been informed, but 
before I had an opportunity of making such Enquiry. I re- 
ceived the above mentioned Letter of the 8th wherein is the 

"In my last, I advised you to have nothing to do with pay- 
"ing, David's Passage to England ; but I now find it abso- 
"lutely necessary in order to save his Life. The Gentlemen 
"of this Town are so possessed with an opinion that his De- 
"signs are bad, that they are determined to pursue, and hang 
"him, if they can lay hold of him. I have only therefore to 
"beg of you to send him off privately, in the first vessel, that 
"sails for home. I wou'd indeed be very sorry that the poor 
"fellow should lose his Life." You may not perhaps have 

24-4 The Letters of 

been acquainted with the ground of the Disgust he gave the 
People of Charlestown, I will inform you of what I have 
heard. The Person who received and lodged Mr Cossen in 
Charlestown entertained David likewise, and desired him to 
preach to several white People and Negroes, who had col- 
lected together to hear him. David in the Course of his ex- 
hortation, dropped some unguarded Expressions, such as, 
that he did not doubt; but "God would send Deliverance to 
the Negroes, from the power of their Masters, as He freed 
the Children of Israel from Egyptian Bondage." 
Some thing similar to this was construed, as tho' he meant 
to raise rebellion amongst the negroes. It was undoubtedly 
wrong, and he thereby shewed his Ignorance and Folly. In 
consequence of this and other things. Information was given 
to the Grand Jury who presented the Person who kindly 
entertained him, for sufifering him to preach Doctrine in his 
house contrary to the Peace of Society, and accordingly he 
is prosecuted and must stand his Tryal and abide by the con- 
sequence. Our Laws are very severe and pointed in this re- 
spect. Upon the whole, I am rather glad David is going, as 
I think he wou'd have done more harm than good to her 
Ladyships Negroes, having by no means the spirit of a true 
missionery amongst the Heathen. His Business was to 
preach a Spiritual Deliverance to these People, not a tem- 
poral one, but he is, if I am not mistaken, very proud, and 
very superficial, and conceited, and I must say it's a pity, 
that any of these People should ever put their Feet in Eng- 
land, where they get totally spoiled and ruined, both in Body 
and Soul, through a mistaken kind of compassion because 
they are black, while many of our own colour and Fellow 
Subjects, are starving through want and Neglect. We know 
these People better than you do. I am told nothing could 
please him at Bethesda, although he was provided for as 
well as any Person there. I have agreed with Capt Inglis of 
the Ship Georgia Planter, to take him as a Steerage Pas- 
senger, for which he asks eight Guineas, which I think a great 
deal of money, however I think it is best to get him away 
at any rate, which you will please pay him. 
You may depend that David is a fugitive Slave, and his Story 
about being stole from the Coast of Africa is not Truth, but 
I have done with him, I have done all I can for him, and am 
Dear Sir 

Your Affectionate Friend and Servant 

Hon. Jaifies Habersham. 2^5 

To John Edwards Esq- In Charlestown. 

Savannah in Georgia the 25th May 1775. 
Dear Sir. 

I wrote to you the nth Instant, and was in 
hopes to have heard from you before now, as I know not 
how long, or how short a time I may be here, as I still in- 
tend, if I have an oportunity to go off- 

I am greatly distressed about the bloody 
News we hear from the Northward, and I am afraid there 
is now an End to all Reconciliation, unless the blessed God 
by some extraordinary Interposition should bring it about, 
which I most humbly pray he may do- I think from this 
Event may be dated the almost ruin of Great Britain and 
this very flourishing Continent- Pray let me hear from you- 
I am, Dear Sir 

Your sincere Friend and Servant 

The "Bloody News" here referred to was that of the battle of Lexington fought on April 
19th. The news reached Savannah on the evening of May 10th, and created the profound- 
est excitement. 


Adams, Thomas 109 

Agent, for colony 59, 73, 80, 166 

Alatamaha, lands on 10, 18 

Ambrose, Mr 123 

Amelia Island 13 

Anderson, Capt -. 46, 75 

Arburkle, Capt 46, 49 

Assembly dissolved 64, 150 

N. W. Jones, Speaker 175, 197, 215, 221 

Attolenghe 9, 29, 33, 35, 41, 174 

Augusta 173, 201 

Austen, Lieut. Richard 198 

Bagwith, Mary 162, 233 

Baker, Sir William, claim of 33, 79, 83 

Ball, Capt 55, 56, 57 

Barnard, Mr 63, 201 

Beckman, Mr 43, 44 

Bethesda 55, 103, 129, 134, 137, 180, 223, 227 

Negroes for 107 

Board and Tuition 118 

Chapel 124 

Building burned 228 

Birds, pets 167, 209 

Bogart 23 

Bolton, Robert 23, 52, 74, 184 

Boone 14 

Boundary, Southern 18 

Bourquin, Benedict 9 

Bowen, Mr 91 

Box, Philip 78 

Broughton, Rev. Thomas 36, 99 

Bruce, Mr 64 

Brunswick 159 

Bryan, Jonathan 91, 155, 184 

Bulloch, Archibald 73, 184 

Bush, Mr 43 

Bj'vanck 23 

Campbell, Mr 59 

Carey, John 189 

II Index. 

Cherokee Indians taught to read and write 149 

Cession of lands 199 

Chicasaw Indians 200 

Church, Alteration in Service 187, 190 

Clark & Milligan 235 

Clark, John 66, 75, 88, 112, 140, 154, 233 

Clay, Joseph 43, 105 

Clay, Ralph 26 

Climate of Savannah 

46, 51. 52, 65, 82, 90, 92, 159, 184, 192, 195, 203 

Clothing, directions for 61, 75, 137 

College at Bethesda 106, 109, 119, 223, 226, 227 

Burned 228 

Combes, Capt 26 

Commerce 162, 167, 173 

Committee of Correspondence 74, 78, 79, 86 

Commons House 75, 81 

Countess of Huntingdon 

102, 109, 117, 126, 144, 180, 223, 224, 228, 238 

Cox, Mr 43 

Crane, Mr 123, 229 

" Crackers " 204 

Crook, Richard Cunym 79 

Cumberland Island 13 

Cunningham, Mr 192 

Cuthbert, Dr. James 91 

Dean, Capt 79 

Davies, Howell 109 

Deberdt and Barkit 20 

Dey, Miss Nancy 23 

Dixon, Mr 43 

Dogs to be killed 164 

Doone, Capt 65 

Duche, Rev. Jacob 143 

Duties, on shipping 30 

Earl of Dartmouth 112, 134 

Earl of Hillsborough 171, 174, 187, 189, 200 

Ebenezer 146, 188, 200 

Eccles, Mr 224, 229 

Edwards, John 237, 245 

Edwin, Mr 30 

Election held 168 

Ellington, Rev. Edgar 63, no, 117, 119, 125, 136 

Elliott, Grey 38 

Elliott, Mrs 22 

Index. Ill 

Elliott, M. G 38 

Ellis, Governor 26, 47, 66, 92, [58, 161, 194 

Ellis, John 91 

Ewen, William 29, 33, 35, 73, 78 

Finley, Rev. Samuel 53 

Fitter, James 49 

Forbes, Wm. John 93 

Forman, Mr 54 

Fothergill, Dr 149 

Franklin, Benjamin, letter to 23 

Agent 64, 71, 74, 78, 83, 86 

Frederica 13 

Ft. George 178 

Gallache, Mr 27 

Galphin, George 170, 199, 204, 213 

Gardens 91 

Garth, Charles 24, 59 

Germans at Ebeuezer 201 

Gervais, Mr 29 

Graham, Clark & Co 120, 142, 162 

Graham, John 38, 117, 121, 142, 146, 

154, 161, 164, 165, 183, 190, 219, 233 

Groover 15 

Habersham, James, Jr. 

26, 38, 51, 64, 65, 67, 105, 120, 140, 152, 222, 238 
Habersham, Joseph 51, 54, 63, 65, 67 

Advisory letter 

68, 75, 76, 88, 89, 102, 151, 152, 154, 155, 222 

Habersham, John 64, 67, 162, 163, 211, 215, 222, 233, 237 

Hall, Mr 60, 62, 91, 98, 147, 183 

Hammerer, John Daniel 149 

Hardy, Mr iii 

Harris, Col. Francis 15, 56, 105 

Death of 147 

Harris & Habersham 15 

Harris, Tom 68 

Hart, Samuel 198 

Hayne, Abraham 235 

Hibben, Andrew 43 

Houston, Sir Patrick 9, 29, 33, 41 

Hume 10, II 

Hutson, Mr 51, 54 

Indians, behavior of 27 

Indian Conference : 185 

Indian disturbances 170, 172, 189, 213, 234 

IV Index. 

Indian lauds 185, 199, 201, 204 

Indigo 202 

Jackson, Isaac 198 

Jackson, James 91, 198 

Johnson, Dr 146, 164 

Johnson and Graham 97 

Johnson, Lewis 29,41, 73, 115 

Joiner, Capt 158 

Jones, N 29, 30, 33, 35, 41, 73, 78 

Jones, W 29, 33, 184 

Jones, N. W 35, 41, 73, 78, 150 

Speaker 175, 221 

Justice, Mr 43 

Keen, Robert 103, iii, 123, 125, 137, 243 

Keifer, Theobald 9 

Knox, William, letters to ...10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 

33, 38, 40, 44, 46, 49- 56, 60, 62, 64, 65, 87, 95, 97, 122, 
150, 152, 157, 161, 163, 186, 187, 192, 193, 196 

Why removed as Agent 59 

Son Joseph placed in his charge 65 

Knoxborough 87, 187, 193, 194, 195 

Langworthy, Mr 117 

Laurel Grove 168, 207, 220 

Laurens, Henry 29, 63, 75, 76, 132, 144 

Leconte, Mr 184 

Lexington, battle of 245 

Light-House 217 

Lloyd, Samuel 58, 66, 119, 149 

Lowteu, Mr 181, 187 

Lords Commissioners 218 

Lunatics and Idiots 218 

Mackay, James 159 

Mackintosh, Lachlan 30 

Mackintosh, George 30 

Maddock, Mr 188, 198 

Man, Capt 198 

Martyn, Benjamin 9, 15, 20, 58 

Martin, Clement 30, 33, 40 

Martin, Mr 87, 97 

Massey, Capt 12 

Milledge, John 29, 33, 35, 73, 78 

MilHgan, Mr. and Mrs 154, 233 

Minis, Mrs 184 

Montague, Lord and Lady Charles 171 

Moravian Brethren 241 

hidex. V 

Mortier, Abraham 5^ 

Moultrie John 207 

Mourning ring 125, 126 

Mulberry trees 9 

Mullryne, John 78, 91 

McFarland, Capt. James 198 

McGillivary 16, 20 

Negroes, clothing 15. 20, 22 

Death of 22 

Purchase of 38, 42, 219, 231, 232 

Runaways 7^ 

lyaw regarding 79 

Instruction of 95, 99, 106, 109, 135, 241 

Loss of 163, 193 

David 243 

Netherclift, Thomas 91 

New Jersey College 20, 23, 65 

Nutt, John 99, 121, 141, 152, 164, 195 

Odeingsell, Charles 78 

Orphan House, see Bethesda. 

Patriots 235 

Pearson, Edward, Esq 20 

Phillips, lyieut. Zecariah 198 

Pictures 163, 197 

Piercy, Rev. Mr 223, 224, 237, 238, 243 

Plants, to promote cultivation of 91 

Political Situation 160, 166, 168 

Negatives Speaker 175 

Disputes 210, 235, 238 

Politicians 89, 94, 222 

Portraits 163, 197 

Port Royal i59 

Powell, James Edwd 29, 30, 35, 40, 41, 78 

Powell, Capt 178 

Presbyterian Colony from North Carolina 184 

Prjxe, Charles 76, 192, 221 

Queensborough 188, 189 

Quince, Capt 15 

Rains, Capt 25 

Read, James 79 

Read and Mossman 57 

Religion 94, 130 

Road to Florida 208 

Roberson, Mr 60 

Rossel, Mr. 

VI Index. 

Roubadeau, Daniel 57 

Russell 26 

Russell, William 26 

Scott, Capt 26 

Shipley, William 9 

Silk, premium for 9 

Shipment 47. 146 

Premium withdrawn 161 

In back country 173, 188, 200, 205 

Silk Hope 39 

Simpson, John 74 

Slaves, see Negroes. 

Small Pox 17, 25, 27, 182, 188 

Smith, John 105 

Smith, Richard 113, 131 

South Carolina, grants 10, 11, 13, 18, 28, 208 

St. Andrews Society 154 

St. Simons i59 

Stamp Act 41, 46, 48, 50, 54. 56. 57> 5^. 59 

Stirk, Benjamin, death of 125 

Stirk, Mr 109 

Stockton, Richard 52 

Sunberry, Capt 10, 11 

Symonds, Wm 51 

Tattnall. Josiah 91 

Taylor, Willet 22 

Theus, Jeremiah i97 

Thomas, Capt 198 

Thompson, Capt 44 

Thunderbolt lands 47 

Tondee, Mr 207 

Trade laws discussed 44 

Trespassers on public lands 201 

Tuckwell, Joseph 36 

Voters, requirements 82 

Watch, gift from Whitefield i37. ^39 

Watson, Capt. Thos 198 

Wells, Robert 93 

Wertsch, Mr 146, 188, 201, 206 

Wesley, Rev. John i49 

West, Mr 104 

Whitefield, Rev. George 20, 27, 41, 54, 57, 66, 88 

Death and will 102, 103, 104, 109, 113, 119, 

128, 139, 144, 150, i8c 

Index. VII 

Wine and Spirits, duties on 40 

To Whitefield 44, 55 

Winter, Cornelius 95, 99, 102, 106, 109, 135 

Wood, Betty 126 

Wrij^ht, Ambrose 103, 138, 231 

Wright, Governor 92, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 155, 158, 

165, 16S, 171, 180, 183, 184, 190, 196, 200. 203, 209, 

210, 211, 215, 218 

Wright, James, Jr 165 

Wrightsborough 188, 198 

Wright, Miss Isabella. 167, 209 

Wright, Mrs 20, 21, 27 

Wright, Miss Sarah 21 

Wylly, Alex 30, 33, 35 

Wylly, Richard 120, 192 

Yonge, Mr 159 

Young, Wm 79 

Zouberbuliler 20, 95, 99 

Zubly, Mr 185, 224